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BX 8080 .S3 A6 1896 
Anstadt, Peter, 1819-1903. 
Life and times of Rev. S. S 
Schmucker . . 


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OCT -: 51926 

Rev. S. S. Schmucker, D. D., 

First Professor of Theology in the Lutheran Theological Seminary, 
at Gettysburg, Pa, 


Editor of Teachers' Journal, author of Communion Addresses, Luth- 
er's Smaller Catechism, Illustrated, Luther's Smaller 
Catechism, Pictorial Edition, Helps to Family 
Worship, Recognition of Friends 
in Heaven, Etc., Etc. 

"H bave ^ve^, an5 am O^lng, in tbe faftb of Jesus." 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1896, by 

In the office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 


to the 

Surviving Relatives, Friends 




Rev. S. S. Schmucker, D. D., 


The Author. 


" Who will be his biographer ? To recount his life will 
be to give the history of the Lutheran Church in America ! ' ' 

With this exclamation Dr. J. G. Morris concluded his 
address at the funeral of Dr. S. S. Schmucker. Little did 
the speaker think, that the writer of these lines would be 
that biographer; nor had the writer the remotest idea at 
that time of having that task conferred upon himself. 

I will not presume to say that I have given a complete 
history of the General Synod in my book. An unbiased 
history of the General Synod has not yet been written. But 
a brilliant light will be thrown upon the subject by the Life 
and Times of Dr. S. S. Schmucker. 

This work was not of ray own seeking; I had no 
thought of undertaking it, until it was urged upon me by 
some of the prominent friends and admirers of Dr. 

The immediate occasion which called forth the desire 
for the publication of this biography was an address, deliv- 
ered at the laying of the corner stone of the new building for 
the Theological Seminary at Gettysburg, in which some 
derogatory remarks were uttered on the doctrinal teachings 
of Dr. Schmucker, while professor iu the Seminary. I pub- 
lished an article in the L2ithcra7i Observer in his defense, 
and subsequently republished a highly eulogistic sketch of 
Dr. Schmucker, written by Dr. Morris sixteen years ago. 
After this I received from esteemed friends in different parts 
of the church, urgent requests to write and publish the Life 
and Times of Dr. Schmucker. After consulting with the 
surviving relatives and members of the family, I resolved, 
by the help of God, to begin the work. The following are 
some of the encouraging words I received through the 

Dr. Samuel Sprecher, a brother-in-law and intimate 
personal friend of Dr. Schmucker, writes as follows: 

"San Diego, California, Dec. 6, i8g^. 

' ' I am very glad that 3'ou have undertaken to publish 
a biography of Dr. Schmucker. If I could help you to any 
facts in his life, not publicly known, I would gladly comply 
with your request. 


" He was one of the best and most earnest men I ever 
knew. But intimate as was my relation to him, I know lit- 
tle that was not known in his public life. His mind was so 
constantly engaged with the interests of religion and the 
church, that he had little to say in his conversation about 
himself. I never knew an}^ man, who was so constantly 
absorbed by his work, or one who seemed so perfectly to 
understand what he was called to do, and who so constantly 
had it in view, and so perseveringly labored to accomplish 
it. This was the only thing that impressed me in my most 
confidential conversations with him. 

' ' Only once or twice did he speak to me of his personal 
experience in the difficult work of establishing the Theolog- 
ical vSeminary ; how he was strengthened, when greatly 
cast down by the discouragement and opposition, by the 
simple words of faith of an old Moravian minister, with 
whom he happened to spend a night ; and how he was 
amused by the report, that a man in Pennsylvania, who 
mistook the word ' text ' for the word ' tax, ' in the arti- 
cles of the Constitution of the Seminary, requiring ' text- 
books ' to be provided. The man accordingly called a 
public meeting in his neighborhood to show that these sem- 
inary people were going to bring in a king to rule over 
them; for here they could see, that they were already pro- 
viding the ' tax-books ! ' " 

Mr. John G. Schmucker writes from Eldorado, Kans., un- 
der date of Dec. 12, 1894: "lam truly glad that there are some 
persons who hold him in kind remembrance, and that you 
appreciate the work he did, and do him the tardy justice of 
making known his works and worth to our church in her 
early struggles. I am sure Dr. Schmucker and Dr. Kurtz 
did more than any other two ministers to build up the 
Lutheran Church in America, and to establish its institu- 
tions at Gettysburg. ' I have lived and I die in the faith of 
Jesus Christ.' That faith was the source of his strength, 
and gave tone to his beautiful life." 

Rev. J. A. Brown, of Wytheville, Va., writes: " I am 
very glad to learn that we have the prospect of a biography 
of Dr. Schmucker, which should have been published long 
ago; and here we are allowing years to pass without any 
special efforts to give. to posterity the life and labors of 
the greatest man of our church in his day. 


" Dr. Schmucker has been the acknowledged leader in 
the Lutheran Church for many years, and I am one of those 
who believe that his intentions were always right, and that 
he did more to promote personal piety in the Lutheran 
Church than any man of his day, and the history of his 
labors should be given to posperity." 

Dr. B. Sadtler: " I think it due, that the work should 
be undertaken, and will give it my cordial assistance." 

Dr. M. Valentine: " I am sure the Church ought to 
have a biography of Dr. S. S. Schmucker, and a judiciously 
written one would do good." 

Rev. D. Summers: " I have long felt like writing to 
you for vindicating Dr. Schmucker against the attacks of 
men not worthy to unloose his shoe latchet. 

"Taken all in all, Dr. Schmucker had few, if any 
equals in the Lutheran or any other church. I am glad that 
you propose to write and publish his biography. I want a 
copy for myself and will sell as many as I can. Every 
Lutheran family in the General Synod ought to have a copy 
of it." 

Rev. M. Sheeleigh, D. D.: "As indicating the Chris- 
tian temper of Dr. Schmucker, it will not be out of place to 
observe, that probably no man remembers ever having 
heard him utter hasty or ill-tempered words in ecclesiastical 
debate. He has ever been regarded as a model of Christian 
gentleness and self-possession." 

A young Lutheran minister in Pennsylvania writes: 
" The ' Outline of Dr. Schmucker' s Life and Times ' meets 
my best anticipations, and I wish every minister in the 
church could see it. The book must prove interesting, and 
will present the history of General Synod Lutheranism in a 
very attractive form. It is just what is needed by the 
young preachers, especially, to furnish them with a knowl- 
edge of which many are lacking. This book will do good 
service for the General Synod. It ought to take with the 
laity, too." 

Testimonials of this kind could be multiplied indefi- 
nitely; but this will suffice to show the deep interest felt in 
many parts of the church, in the Life and Times of Dr. 

I had the privilege of being one of his pupils in the 
Theological Seminary, and for about eleven years of my 


subsequent residence in Gettysburg, and while I was pastor 
of St. James Church, I enjoyed the pleasure of almost daily 
intercourse with him. I learned to love him as a friend, to 
admire his Christian character, his ardent love for the 
church, in whose service he had labored so long, endured so 
many hardships, and encountered so much opposition. 

His youngest son, Samuel D. Schmucker, Esq., of Bal- 
timore, rendered valuable assistance by affording me the use 
of his father's diary during the early period of his ministry, 
and also the names of his father's ancestors and the family 
record, which he had copied from the church book at Michael- 
stadt during a visit to Germany. 

Rev. Benjamin Sadtler, D. D., of Baltimore, Dr. 
Schmucker' s son-in-law, also gave me his cordial assistance, 
in the form of important documents, and valuable sugges- 
tions. He had in his possession most of the private papers 
and correspondence of his revered father-in law, from which 
I have derived many very important facts and incidents, 
especially of the early life of Dr. Schmucker. 

I am also under obligations to Dr. J. D. Hauer, for the 
use of a file of the early minutes of the Synod of North Car- 
olina; to Mr. Arthur King for a printed copy of George 
Fry's will, in which he bequeathed his estate to Emmaus 
Orphan House; and finally to Professor J. W. Richard, for 
the free use of the Historical Library of the Seminary, from 
which I was enabled to gather valuable information in con- 
nection with this work. 

And now, thanking the many friends of Dr. Schmucker 
for their encouraging words, and liberal advance subscrip- 
tions for the book, I send it forth with the hope and prayer, 
that it may aid the cause of truth, be a blessing to the 
Church, and promote the glory of God. 

P. Anstadt. 
York, Pa., July, 1896. 


OF — 



1746— 1854. 





Pascal, who took a profound view of human nature, 
has well said, " There are three very different orbits, in 
which great men move and shine ; and each sphere of 
greatness has its respective admirers : 

1. There are those who, as military heroes, fill the 
world with their exploits ; they are greeted by the acclama- 
tions of the multitudes ; they are ennobled while living, and 
their names descend with lustre to posterity. 

2. Others there are, who, by the brilliancy of their 
imagination, or the vigor of their intellect, attain to honor 
of a purer and a higher kind ; the fame of these is confined 
to a more select number of admirers ; for all have not a 
discriminating sense of their merit. 

3. A third description remains, distinct from both of 
the former, and far more exalted than either ; whose excel- 



lence consists in a renunciation of themselves, and a com- 
passionate love for mankind. 

In this order the Savior of the world was pleased to 
appear ; and those persons attain the highest rank in it, 
who, by his grace, are enabled most closely to imitate his 

To this third description the subject of this memoir 
belongs. He did not live for worldly fame, or literary 
honors, though richly entitled to these ; but he early dedi- 
cated himself to the service of God, and spent his life for 
the good of souls, and the building up of the Church of 

Samuel Simon Schmucker was born February 28th, 
1799, at Hagerstown, Md., where his father was pastor of 
the Lutheran Church during fifteen years. He was the son 
of Rev. Dr. John George Schmucker, and Catharine his 
wile, daughter of Samuel and Elizabeth Gross. 

His grandfather, Nicolas Schmujokfr, emigrated in 178 1, 
from Michaelstadt, in the county of Erbach, Grand Dutchy 
of Hessen Darmstadt. This town lies in the Muemling 
Thai, and is the capital of the Odenwald, which was once 
a famous forest, but is now a beautiful and well kept farm- 
ing region. The parish church in Michaelstadt is a very 
ancient one, having, it is said, been founded by Euckhard, 
in 827. It has, of course, at different times been repaired, 
and has practically been rebuilt, but is now in good condi- 
tion, and is currently used for public worship. After tar- 
rying a year at Balliet's Furnace, now in Lehigh County, 
and a year in Manheim, Lancaster County, Pa., he settled 
on a farm near Woodstock, in Shenandoah County, Va. 

Samuel D. Schmucker, Esq., youngest son of the sub- 
ject of this biography, has kindly furnished the following 
family record : 

" On my visit to Germany, I found in the records of the 


Michaelstadt Church, the record of the Schmucker family, 
from the beginning of the last century, prior to which time, 
I have been informed from different sources, the family 
emigrated from Switzerland to Germany." 

" My ancester, who emigrated to America, was John 
Christoph Schmucker, and was born in Michaelstadt, May 
17, 1740. The church records contain entries of the birth 
of two children to him, before he came to America. These 
children were Ferdinand Frederick, born December 19, 
1769, and John George, my grandfather, born August 18, 
1 77 1. He, my great grandfather, John Christoph 
Schmucker, had in all six children ; namely, Ferdinand 
Frederick, John George, John Jacob, John Nicholas, 
Peter and a daughter Mary." * 

" Three of his sons ; namely, George, Nicholas and 
Peter, became Lutheran ministers." 

John Christoph Schmucker, when he first came to 
America, located for a 'short time in Lehigh County, Pa., 
near Saegersville, at Balliet's Furnace, tarrying there only 
one year. He then moved to Manheim, in Lancaster 
County, Pa., and one year later, moved to the Valley of 
Virginia, where he settled on a farm near Woodstock, in 
Shenandoah County, Va. 

Rev. John George Schmucker, D. D., the father of 
Prof. S. S. Schmucker, was born in Michaelstadt, Germany, 
on the 1 8th of August 1771, he emigrated with his father's 
family to this country in 1785, and remained in the pater- 
nal home, near Woodstock, Va.,till he was 19 years of age. 
He evinced an earnest regard for religion from his early 
childhood up, but it was not till he had reached his eight- 
eenth year, that he believed he had experienced a radical 
change of heart and life. About this time there were a 
number of Baptist ministers in that region, who exhibited 
great zeal in their labors, and whose preaching young 


Schmucker attended with much interest and profit. But it 
was to the influence of a lay member of the Baptist Church, 
that he considered himself chiefly, indebted, under God, for 
the great change which he had now experienced. This 
person frequently conversed with him, explaining the plan 
of salvation, and urging him to an unreserved consecration 
of himself to God ; and the result was that he obtained the 
peace that passeth understanding. Immediately after this 
he formed a purpose to devote himself to the ministry of 
the gospel. 

About a year afterwards he entered on a course of study 
under the direction of Rev. Paul Henkel, who was at that 
time pastor of the Lutheran Church at Woodstock, and 
whom he frequently accompanied on his tours of mission- 
ary labor. These excursions through the destitute por- 
tions of the country were of great use to Mr. Schmucker, 
as they served to awaken his sympathies, to quicken his 
zeal, and to prepare him for the sacred office. 

In 1790, he went to Philadelphia to avail himself of 
the instructions of the Rev. Dr. Helmuth, and the Rev. Dr. 
Schmidt, who were at that time instructing young men for 
the ministry. Here he remained two years, vigorously 
pursuing his classical studies in the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, and his theological studies under the instructions of 
Drs. Helmuth and Schmidt. Among his fellow students 
were Revs. George Lochman, Sr., and Christian Enders, 
who afterwards became eminent ministers in the Lutheran 
Church, and with whom he lived many years on terms of 
great intimacy. In 1792, having finished his course of 
study in Philadelphia, he was admitted as a member of the 
Synod of Pennsylvania, then in session at Reading, 

Rev. John G. Schmucker's first charge consisted of 
several congregations in York County, Pa., the call to 
which he accepted on the recommendations of his particu- 


lar friends, Dr. Helmuth and Rev. J. Goering. Here he 
exerted a highly important influence ; the churches under 
his care were revived, and large numbers were added to 
their membership. During his residence here he continued 
the study of the Hebrew language and of theology under 
the guidance of Rev. Goering, who was then settled as the 
pastor of Christ Lutheran Church in the Borough of York, 
and was regarded as one of the most learned ministers of 
his time. Rev. Schmucker served this charge only about 
two years. 

In 1794, he accepted a unanimous call from the 
Lutheran Church in Hagerstown, Md., a charge which had 
been for some time vacant, and embraced no less than 
eight congregations. He was now only twenty two years 
old; in his person he was small, pale, and emaciated, and 
in his manners extremely diffident and youthful. Many 
doubted his competence to occupy so important a field ; 
and he was even sportively designated as the boy preacher; 
but he quickly acquired an influence, both in and out of 
the pulpit, which falls to the lot of comparatively few minis- 
ters. An extensive revival of religion soon took place 
under his ministry, which he conducted with great zeal, 
discretion and success. 

After the death of Dr. Kunze in 1807, he received an 
invitation to succeed him in the city of New York, but he 
thought it his duty to decline the call. In 1809 he was 
invited to become the successor of Rev. J. Goering in 
York ; and though reluctant to leave the people who then 
constituted his pastoral charge, he felt constrained, in view 
of all the circumstances of the case, to accept the call. He 
accordingly commenced his labors in this new field, and 
prosecuted them with unremitting assiduity and great suc- 
cess, during a period of twenty-six years, and when in 
consequence of declining health he was obliged to resign 


his charge, he still continued to serve one of the congrega- 
tions in the country, to which he had ministered on his 
first introduction to the sacred office. 

At length he found it necessary, on account of his 
increasing infirmities, to withdraw from the active duties of 
the ministry altogether; and accordingly, in 1852 he 
removed to Williamsburg, Pa., where several of his chil- 
dren resided. Here he continued during the remainder of 
his life, tranquil and happy. 

He died October 7, 1854, in the eighty-fourth year of 
his life. A funeral discourse was delivered by Rev. Dr. B. 
Kurtz, of Baltimore, from the words, " Them that honor me 
I will honor." His remains were taken to York, the scene 
of his former labors, and buried in front of Christ Church, 
with every expression of deep regard and reverencial sor- 
row. A marble monument, erected to his memory, stands 
yet over his grave, bearing the following inscription : 





Exemplary in all his social relations, he laboured in the 
vineyard of the Lord more than half a cen- 
tury, universally esteemed as an humble 
Christian, a faithful pastor and 
an erriinent preacher of 
the cross. 

Dan. xii. 5. The}^ that win many to righteousness shall shine as 
the stars for ever and ever. 

Dr. J. G. Schmucker occupied many important places, 
and rendered much valuable service in connection with the 
public interests of the church. He was one of the founders 
and most zealous advocates of the General Synod. He 


was president of the Foreign Mission Society, from its for- 
mation to a short time before his death, when he declined 
a re-election. He was also the early and active supporter 
of the Theological Seminary at Gettysburg, and for many 
years served as President of the Board of Directors. He 
had an important agency in the establishment of Pennsyl- 
vania College, and for more than twenty years, acted as a 
trustee of that institution. At the time of his death he was 
the senior vice-president of the American Tract Society, 
having been appointed to that office in 1826. Various other 
benevolent institutions also found in him an efficient 

In 1825, he received the degree of Doctor of Divinity 
from his Alma Mater, the University of Pennsylvavia. 

The following is a list of Rev. Dr. J. G. Schmucker's 
publications: Vornehmste Weissagungen der Heiligen 
Schrift ; Reformations Geschichte zur Jubelfeier der 
Reformation ; Prophetic History of the Christian Religion, 
or Explanation of the Revelation of St. John ; Schwarm- 
geist unserer Tage, entlarft zur Warnung erweckter Seelen ; 
Lieder-Anhang zum Evang. Gesangbuch der General 
Synode ; Waechterstimme an Zion's Kinder ; and Er- 
klaerung der Offenbarung Johannes. 

I have also in my possession an unpublished Com- 
mentary on the Epistle to the Hebrews, written by Dr. J. G. 
Schmucker. It is a bound book, of iioi closely written 
pages in his remarkably beautiful hand writing ; but unfor- 
tunately, the title and a few of the introductory pages are 
wanting. The character of the work is both critical and 
practical, containing many quotations from Hebrew, Greek 
and Latin writers. 

Dr. J. G. Schmucker was married twice. In the early 
part of his ministry he was married to Miss Eh'zabeth, 
daughter of Samuel and Elizabeth Gross, of York County, 

1 6 LETTER. 

Pa. In this marriage there were born to them twelve 
children, five sons and seven daughters. His first wife 
died in 1819. 

In July 1 82 1, he was married to Ann Maria Hoffman, 
by whom he had seven children. Four of his daughters 
were married to Lutheran clergymen. One of his sons by 
the first wife was the Rev. S. S. Schmucker, Professor in 
the Theological Seminary at Gettysburg. 


I have in my possession an original letter from Rev, 
J. G. Schmucker, written in his beautiful German chirog- 
raphy, in regard to his removal from Hagerstown to York, 
which I will give the reader in an English translation. It 
will give us a graphic idea of the manner in which our 
forefathers moved before railroads were built. 

Hagerstown, tlie jth 0/ July, i8og. 
Beloved and Dear Brother ! 

Since I came home, I have written two letters to the 
Church Council, and have received no reply yet. I fear, 
therefore, that you have not received, especially the last 

I wrote therein, that I would preach my farewell ser- 
mon on the last Sunday in July, here in Hagerstown — that 
in July I would need three wagons and one stage for the 
family — that I expect the wagons on the 31st of July, to 
load the furniture, and that Mrs. Lichtenstein would show 
us the greatest love, if she would come in the stage to help 
my wife — and that I would preach my introductory sermon 
at York on the first Sunday in August, and in the afternoon 
at Ouickels — and on the second Sunday in August at 
Jochele and at Kreutzkrick. 

Write to me therefore a reply in all haste, and make all 
the appointments correctly. I would be pleased if one or 
more men would come with the wagons, upon whose care- 
fulness we could depend, because I myself cannot remain 
with them. I remain your humble servant, 

J. George Schmucker. 


The letter was not enclosed in an envelope, as is cus- 
tomary now, but the sheet was simply folded, closed with 
sealing wax, and addressed to Mr. Adam Graber ; postage 
ten cents. 


An anonymous writer in Dr. Morris' " Fifty Years in 
the Lutheran Ministry " relates the following incident : " I 
used to like to listen to old Dr. Schmucker, as he told of 
his early experience in the West, when he was traveling in 
Ohio and Kentucky as a candidate. You know the Synod 
used to send the licentiates as a sort of circuit riders, or 
rather as exploring missionaries, to hunt up the scattered 
settlers, baptize their children, hold communion services 
with them, and, when possible, organize them into congre- 
gations. Once Rev. J. G. Schmucker came suddenly upon 
a smouldering camp-fire, that had just been deserted by a 
bivouacking party of hostile Indians, He was discovered 
by them just as he turned to flee in the direction from which 
he had come, and they gave chase. I do not remember 
how many miles he led them, but it was a long and break- 
neck race, his faithful steed bringing him back into the set- 
tlement just as his pursuers were about closing upon him." 

Dr. J. A. Brown, late Professor of Theology at Gettys- 
burg, was pastor of Zion English Lutheran Church in 
York for about two years, while Dr. J. G. Schmucker was 
Pastor Emeritus of Christ Lutheran Church. He writes of 
him as follows : 

" No one who ever saw him could forget his personal 
appearance. Of about medium stature and singularly 
erect in old age, with a fine countenance, and full supply of 
hair, in perfect order, he presented an appearance of dignity 
that was truly commanding; while his manner, combining 


gravity and softness, was attractive and pleasing. In his 
intercourse he exemplified the precept — " Be 'courteous," 
and was a model of Christian politeness. Nature and grace 
had both contributed to the formation of his character, and 
the result was one of much beauty and excellence." 

" His manner towards young preachers was very kind 
and encouraging. Usually at the close of the service he 
had some kind word to cheer. After my first sermon in 
his presence he said, as I came from the pulpit, ' I think 
the Lord was with you to-day.' There were no flippant 
criticisms, no eulogies to gender or nourish pride, but 
judicious words of counsel and encouragement. On another 
occasion, after I had preached on Matt, xxviii. 19, 20, he 
expressed gratification, but said, ' There was too much in 
the text for a single discourse.' It was very evident that 
he had made preaching a study, and knew how to divide 
the Word of truth. His criticisms of some men, though 
never harsh, were discerning, and showed that he had 
detected the weak points. He loved to speak of the great 
preachers in our own and other churches, and especially to 
tell of their spiritual power." 

I will conclude this sketch of the elder Schmucker by 

the following very interesting communication from his son. 

Dr. S. S. Schmucker, written from Gettysburg, December, 


Theological Seminary, Gettysburg, December 2/1., iS^y. 

In person, my father was of about the medium stature, 
rather thick set, though not corpulent ; his eyes were deep 
seated, and, like his hair, jet black. His complexion was 
dark ; his constitution vigorous ; and, even in old age, his 
person was very erect, and his bodily movements, whilst 
they were deliberate and dignified, were also prompt and 
firm. His countenance was expressive of great amiability, 
benevolence and dignity, whilst his keen black eye and 
well developed head indicated the excellence of his intellec- 

son's TKSTlMONIAt,. 19 

tual powers. His character was unusually symmetrical and 
well balanced, and his temper so uniformly placid that I 
have scarcely ever seen it ruffled by the most trying annoy- 
ances of life. He had a quick sensibility for the sufferings 
of humanity. Nor did his sympathy evaporate in mere 
mental emotion — he was also a generous and active friend 
of the poor, the afflicted and the oppressed, in our own and 
foreign lands. Of the expansiveness of his benevolence I 
will state a single example. When the Orphan House at 
Halle, in Germany, was almost destroyed during the Bona- 
partean Wars, so strong was his sympathy for that suffering 
institution, whose alumni were the chief founders of our 
Church in this country, that his response to the appeal of 
its Directors to our churches in this Western world for 
pecuniary aid was the most liberal of all our ministers. He 
was possessed of strong common sense, great discernment 
of character and singular soundness of judgment. Though 
modest and unassuming, he was distinguished for conscien- 
tiousness and moral courage, was unwavering in his defence 
of truth and righteousness, and an unfaltering friend of the 
great moral reforms of the day. Of this his noble defence 
of the Temperance cause in its infancy, when not only the 
populace generally, but the majority of professing Christians, 
and even some of the neighboring ministers of the Gospel, 
were ytt opposed to it, affords a striking example. So vio- 
lent was this opposition amongst the German community at 
large (they regarding it as an attempt' to infringe upon their 
civil rights), that some even menaced personal violence ; 
and so extensive was the opposition amongst his own 
church members that their contributions to his salary fell 
off one-half during that year. He, however, faltered not; 
gradually the truth gained the victory, and, in a few years, 
he, who had previously enjoyed the public confidence in an 
unusual degree, found it again reposed in himself in a 
higher measure than before. 

He was warmly attached to the great National Socie- 
ties of our land, in which different Christian denominations 
co-operate, such as the American Bible and Tract Societies. 
He was especially interested in the operations of the Amer- 
ican Tract Society, and regarded that mass of truth taught 

50 son's TKSTIMONIAI,. 

in its publications, and held by the Evangelical denomina- 
tions in common, as the grand instrumentality for the con- 
version of the world. Yet, he was warmly attached to the 
Evangelical Lutheran Church, as organized under the Bib- 
lical constitution of our General Syaod. He was an atten- 
tive student of the Prophetic Scriptures, as well as a careful 
observer of the signs of the times, and wrote with acknowl- 
edged ability on both topics. 

As a preacher he was eloquent, instructive and impres- 
sive, generally fixing the attention of the audience to his 
subject and holding it there to the close of his discourse. 
He was especially a good textuary. He enriched his dis- 
courses with copious citations of Scripture proof and illus- 
tration, not unfrequently naming the chapter and verse. 
Few men employed the power of the pulpit more faithfully 
in reproving current vices. Soon after his removal to York, 
he learned that some ten or more of the most respectable 
and influential citizens of the town, who were also pro- 
fessedly members of his church, were in the habit of meet- 
ing frequently for the purpose of playing cards as an 
innocent diversion. This he deemed highly criminal, not 
only as a waste of time, which Christians should apply to 
better use, but as an example calculated to sanction and 
encourage the gambling habits of the young and profligate. 
After repeated but fruitless private admonitions, he deter- 
mined on another and more hazardous measure to break up 
the practice, which was generally known to the community. 
On the ensuing Sabbath he introduced the subject into the 
pulpit, and exposed the evils of the practice in so fearless a 
manner, and with such distinct allusion to the parties con- 
cerned, that I well remember seeing members turning 
round in the church and looking at the offenders, whilst a 
sensation of surprise and concern filled many minds, all 
expecting disturbance in the church, and offence to the fam- 
ilies concerned, as the result of the discourse. The effect, 
however, was favorable. The practice was abandoned; and, 
although the parties felt individually aggrieved at the 
exposure, they made no public demonstration against the 
preacher, and eventually admitted the justice and propriety 
of his course. 


Sacred music and poetry found a deep response in his 
heart. He also occasionally committed some hymns and 
other poetical effusions to the press, which, if they do not 
prove him a special favorite of the Muses, are distinguished 
for ease and smoothness of versification, as well as the deep- 
toned piety v/hich they breathe. 

As a Pastor, he was most laborious and faithful. Such 
was his punctuality in attending the Judicatories of the 
Church that his presence was calculated on by all as a mat- 
ter of course ; and such were his administrative talents that 
he was repeatedly elected to the highest offices of the 
Church. He was an ardent friend of the General Synod, 
was one of its original founders, and ever after among its 
ablest defenders. For about thirty years he was one of the 
leading minds in our American Lutheran Church, was 
actively engaged in all her important measures, and was 
ever known as the firm champion of piety and revivals of 
religion, as well as of all such enterprises as tend to advance 
the spiritual triumphs of the Redeemer's church universal. 
His own ministry was blessed not only by numerous con- 
versions occurring every year, but by five or six special out- 
pourings of the Holy Spirit, each resulting in the conversion 
ol multitudes of souls. In one of these revivals the number 
of converts was so large that they divided themselves into 
three classes, and each conducted a separate weekly prayer- 
meeting in a different part of the congregation. 

A striking trait of my father's character was the depth 
of his religious experience, and his unusually advanced 
progress in the divine life. The following remarks, which 
I find written by his own hand in his pocket Greek Testa- 
ment, will throw some light on his internal religious his- 
tory : 

" I. From the time of my conversion, in my eighteenth 
year, my life was, though in different degrees, a continued 
prayer, a longing and sighing after God. 

2. It was a continual repentance, on account of my 
sins and the depravity of my heart. 

3. It was a continual longing after the holiness and 
grace to live according to the will of God. 


4. A continual longing for union and communion 
with God. 

5. Through life I had a continual desire for the con- 
version of souls, which influenced every sermon I preached, 
though it was often defiled by the intermixture of selfish 

6. I had a constant desire for the society of the pious. 

7. At the same time I had many infirmities and sins, 
and all m.y virtues were defective. 

In 1840, I enjoyed a special manifestation of the divine 
love shed abroad in my heart, which was exceedingly 
refreshing to me. And soon after I had also a special view 
of the divine majesty and goodness. In 1841 I had an 
extraordinary view of Christ, and beheld his image, as it 
were, in the chamber of my soul." 

For several months before his death he was much 
abstracted from the world, and engaged in almost constant 
communion with God. During this time he, on one occa- 
sion, was lying in his bed in the night watches, and called 
to my mother, who was at his side : " Oh, if you could see 
what I have seen beyond the Jordan of death, how happy 
you would be ! " Such was the holy frame of mind in 
which he awaited the call of the Redeemer, and such the 
fortaste vouchsafed to hini of his future inheritance, until 
he calmly yielded his life into the Redeemer's hands. 


The following letter addressed to him a short time 
before his death, will be edifying and consoling to many of 
our readers: 

Gettysburg, June 2gth, 18^^. 
Dear Father: 

Although your sight may not enable you to. read, I 
feel inclined to write to you, and no doubt you will be 
pleased to hear mother read my letter. Although I am far 
removed from you, you are daily the subject of my thought 
and often of conversation in my family. The Lord has 
given you a long time to rest from the duties of your pro- 
fession and spend your days in religious reading and medi- 
tation. Now he calls you away to himself in a very gradual 

i,e;tter from his son. 23 

manner, giving you ample time to make all necessary- 
arrangements. This ought to be a subject of gratitude to 
you, and should comfort you, if you sometimes feel weary 
amid your long infirmities. Now the prayer of the Psalmist 
has double force to you : " Now also, when I am old and 
grayheaded, O God, forsake me not ! " You will also find 
great consolcition in the declaration of the same Psalmist : 
" The Lord is my Shepherd, etc. Yea, though I walk 
through the valley of the shadow of death, I will fear no 
evil. Thy rod and thy staff, they comfort me." With the 
Apostle Paul, also, I trust you can say, " I know in whom 
I have believed, and am persuaded, that He is able to keep 
that which I have entrusted to Him, until that day." 

The Lord does, indeed, try your faith and patience by 
suffering you to linger long upon a bed of sickness. Yet 
" He doeth all things well," As you do not suffer any 
sharp pain, you have great cause for gratitude. 

That the Lord may sustain and comfort you, and put 
His everlasting arms around you, is the daily prayer of 
Your affectionate son, 

Samuel Schmucker. 



1799 — 1818. 








Samuel D. Schmucker, Esq., writes as follows in 
regard to his father's family record : 

My father, Samuel S. Schmucker, was the son of the 
above named, John George Schmucker, and was born at 
Hagerstown, Pa., February 28, 1799. 

My father had nine children, who grew up to age ; 
namely Rev. Mosheim G. Schmucker, dead ; Caroline E., 
wife of Dr. P. B. Sadtler ; Rev. Dr. Beale M. Schmucker, 
dead; EUenora G., wife ot Rev. A. T. Geisenhainer ; M. 
Josephine, widow of Rev. B. C. Sueserott ; Rev. George 
M. Schmucker; Catherine M., widow of Wm. A. Duncan, 
Esq., Alice, widow of J. Cassatt Nealy, Esq.; Samuel D. 
Schmucker, Esq. 

It is somewhat singular that every one of my father's 
children, who grew to manhood, or womanhood, became a 
clergyman, or a lawyer, or the wife of a clergyman or 
lawyer. Three or four of my father's sisters married 
clergymen and one married a lawyer. 

He was married three times. His first wife was Miss 
Elenora Geiger, of Hagerstown, Md. The marriage took. 


place February 28, 1821. She was the mother of his eld- 
est son Mosheim G., but died soon after her child was 
born; namely, July 3, 1823, after an illness of 6 months. 
An extract of the touching and tender account of her sick- 
ness and death, by the bereaved young widower, will 
appear on a subsequent page of this volume. 

His second wife was Miss Mary Catharine Steenbergen 
of Virginia. She was the mother of the other children 
whose names are given above. 

The Steenbergens and the Beales were prominent fam- 
ilies in the Shenandoah Valley, and owned large tracts of 
beautiful lands, lying contiguous to each other. 

His third wife was Miss Esther M.Wagner, of German- 
town, Pa. 


The following Record was written by the Doctor's 
own hand, and copied by the writer from his Family Bible. 

Rev. J. G. Schmucker, D. D., was born August 18, 1771, 
in Michaelstadt in Grafschaft Erbach in Oberdeutsch- 
land. He ascended to a better world on October 7, 
1854, at Williamsburg, Blair County, Pa., and was bur- 
ied at York, Pa., on the 12th., aged 83 years, i month 
and 20 days. 

S. S. Schmucker, son of John George Schmucker, was 
born at Hagerstown, Md., on the 28th of February in 
the year of our Lord 1799. 

S. S. Schmucker and Elenora Geiger, daughter of John 
Geiger of Hagerstown, Md., entered into the holy 
state of matrimony, February 28th, 1821. The cere- 
mony was performed by Rev. Benjamin Kurtz. 

Samuel Mosheim Schmucker was born at New Market, 
Shenandoah County, Va., January 12th, 1823, was 


baptized by Rev, Mr. Foote, Mrs. Mary Williams act- 
ing as sponsor. Died in Philadelphia, and was buried 
• at Laurel Hill Cemetery in 1863. 

His mother, Mrs. E. Schmucker, died July 3rd, 1823, after 
an illness of 6 months, which was specially blessed to 
her own sanctification. 

S. S. Schmucker and Mary Catherine Steenbergen, of 
Shenandoah County, Va., daughter of Wm. Steen- 
bergen, of Shenandoah County, Va., were married 
October 12th, 1825. 

Their daughter, Caroline Elizabeth, was born August 20th, 

1826, at 10 o'clock, p, M., at Mt. Airy, Shenandoah 
County, Va., and was baptized by Rev. J. G. 
Schmucker, on the 6th day of December, 1826, at 
Gettysburg, Pa, 

Their son, Beale M. Schmucker, was born August 26th, 

1827, at 5 o'clock, p. M., in Gettysburg, Adams County, 
Pa., and was baptized by Rev. J. G. Schmucker, Sep- 
tember 26th, at the same place, 

Mary Catherine was born July 4th, 1829, at 2 o'clock, a. 
M., baptized by Rev. J. G. Schmucker, August 14th, 
1830, aged 13 months and 10 days. Both her birth 
and death occurred in Gettysburg, Pa. 

Elenora Susan, was born February loth, 1831, at 9 o'clock, 
A. M., at Gettysburg, and baptized by Rev. J. G. 

Virginia King, was born on the 5 th of December, in the 
year 1832, and baptized by Rev, J. G. Schmucker, 

Mariah Josephine, was born on the 22d of October, in the 

year 1833, baptized by Rev, F. Ruthrauff. 
George William Spener, was born Ju'y i6th, 1836 at Get- 


tysburg, and was dedicated to God by baptism on the 
24th of August of the same year by Rev. J, G. 

Mary Steenbergen, was born November 14th, 1838, at Get- 
tysburg, was baptized by Rev. Benjamin Keller, and 
departed this life March 13th, 1839 at 11 o'clock, p. m. 

Catherine Williamson, was born December 26, 1839 at 
Gettysburg, and was baptized by Rev. H. I. Smith, 
(Professor of Seminary.) 

Alice, was born March 3r(I, 1842, at Gettysburg, and was 
baptized by Rev. Professor Baugher. 

Samuel Davis, was born February 26th, 1844, and was 
baptized by Rev. Samuel Sprecher, April 19th. 

Charles Gustavus Adolphus, was born February 9th, 1846, 
at Gettysburg, and was baptized by Rev. Prof 
Baugher. Died of Pneumonia, March 28th, 1862. 

February nth, 1848, departed this life, in the full triumph 
of Christian hope, Mrs. Mary Catherine Schmucker, the 
mother of the above twelve children. During her 
brief illness of two weeks, she was specially favored 
with manifestations of the divine presence, and as 
death approached, appeared to be wrapped up in 
bright anticipations of heaven. 

S. S. Schmucker and Esther M. Wagner, of Germantown, 
Pa., were married, April 28th, 1849, by Rev. Wm. 


Dr. Schmucker believed in Baptismal Grace, but never 
believed in what is commonly called Baptismal Regenera- 
tion. But if any one ever could lay claim to such an effect 


of this Sacrament in his own person, Dr. Schmucker 
might justly have done so. From his very childhood he 
manifested an extraordinary degree of piety and faith in 
God, as is evident from his daily habit of secret prayer. A 
very remarkable instance of this early devotional frame of 
mind is given by himself in his diary as follows : 

" I recollect that while I yet lived in Hagerstown, 
and when I could not have been more than nine years of 
age, that the Lord had his work progressing in my heart. 
I was with some of my companions, playing in a hay 
stable. In the course of our play I took out my pocket 
knife and comb, and fearing that I might lose them, laid 
them on the joist. When we left the hay loft I put the 
knife and comb into my pocket, and we transferred the 
scene of our youthful gambols to a neighboring field. After 
spending some time at this place, we prepared to return to 
our homes. I was extremely distressed, when I discovered 
that I had lost my knife, and all my companions having 
gone home, I remained on the spot, seeking for what I 
had lost. At length, finding all search in vain, I recurred 
to my usual expedient, prayer, and had not prayed long 
before it came into my mind, that I could find it on the 
joist of the stable, where we had firstplayed. Notwithstand- 
ing I was confident of having taken it from that place, I 
returned and to my astonishment and surprise, found them 
in precisely the same place, where I had first laid them. 
This phenomenon, as I then believed it to be, can be 
easily accounted for by the laws of Mental Philosophy, but 
is still a pleasing evidence of the intimacy then existing 
between me and my God." 

A similar characteristic is also related of his father, 
told me by one of the daughters, as follows : 

" Dr. Schmucker when a young man traveled on foot 
from his home in Virginia to Philadelphia, to pursue his 


studies with Dr. Helmuth. He stopped at a tavern to get 
a drink of water, and left his vaHse (which contained his 
all) outside on a bench. Coming out he found it was gone ; 
after looking around, not knowing what to do, in his dis- 
tress he thought he would have to go back to his home in 
Virginia ao-ain. But before he commenced his return 
journey, he retired into a grove near by and prayed to God 
for guidance, and while he was on his knees praying, it 
appeared to him that he saw the very spot where his valise 
had been hidden. Immediately he returned to the tavern, 
asked the landlord to go with him, saying he knew where 
his valise was, the landlord accompanied him to the barn, 
raised a board in the fl^or, and there was the valise just as 
he had seen it during his prayer." 

A similar anecdote is related by Dr. A. H. Lochman, 
about his father. Dr. George Lochman, which we will also 
copy : 

" When George was a boy his father determined that 
he should learn his business and thus help to support the 
family. By the depreciation of the continental currency he 
had lost the little means he had possessed. The importun- 
ities of the son, however, made an impression upon him, 
and he consented to allow him to acquire a knowledge of 
the languages. On a certain occasion a new book was to 
be purchased. The previous week he had bought a dic- 
tionary and other books which he required. He was afraid 
to mention it to his father, lest he might refuse to furnish 
him with the money. In this difficulty he resorted to 
prayer. As he was returning from school he simply stated 
his case to his Heavenly Father, and asked his assistance. 
* After I had prayed,' he said, ' my mind became easy, and 
taking a feather which was lying in my path, I blew it in 
the air and ran after it. As it was descending I blew it up 
again, when a slight breeze caught it and bore it away 


before me. I followed it. It fell down into the street and 
lighted upon a silver dollar, the price of the book I wanted 
to buy. I took it up, praising God, brought it home, told 
my father all the circumstances.' The old man was much 
affected, and as he brushed away the tears from his eyes 
he said, ' George, this dollar may not be ours, but take it. 
God has sent it. We will make inquiry, and if the owner 
is found I will give him another.'" 

Dr. Schmucker was in his eleventh year when he came 
to York, and no doubt received his early elementary train- 
ing in the common schools then existing in Hagerstown 
and in York. But his principal training was in the York 
Academy, then under the management of Mr. Beatie, and 
which is still existing in a very flourishing condition. 

His desire to study for the ministry was awakened at a 
very early age, and amid conflicting impulses and doubts, 
grew constantly stronger. In a most kindly letter written 
in Latin to him, when but thirteen years old, Dr. Helmuth 
urged him to come to the University of Pennsylvania. In 
1 8 14 he entered the Freshman class at the University and 
remained there to the close of the Sophomore year. 

" It was not an unusual thing in those days at some of 
the leading institutions of the country for college students to 
take some theological studies along with the regular college 
curriculum. So young Samuel Schmucker spent some of 
his time, while at the University, in the study of theology, 
under the tuition of Dr. Helmuth, at that time the most 
prominent theological instructor of our church in this 
country. He then spent one year, under the direction of 
his father in theological study, before entering the Semi- 
nary at Princeton. He had also employed much of his 
time during the vacations, while a student at the University, 
in theological reading." — D. 

After he had returned to York, July 16, 18 16, he took 


charge, August 5, of the Classical Department of the York 
Academy. He had in the first session seventeen boys, and 
afterwards twenty-eight under his care. The school had 
very much deteriorated, in so much that there were only 
four students left 'in the Classical Department. 

York County Academy has been in existence over a 
hundred years. In 1787 the building was erected, and with 
few slight changes, is still standing and in use. The state 
appropriated ^2,000.00. The Lutherans of York have been 
its patrons from the beginning, and most of the young men, 
who entered the ministry out of Lutheran churches in York, 
received their preparation for college in this institution. 
In consequence it has been a great feeder for the college at 

We notice the following names of Lutherans in its 
Board of Trustees : Rev. George Schmucker, D. D., Chas. 
Barnitz, C. A. Morris, Dr. John Morris, George S. Morris* 
Philip Smyser, Jacob Emmet, Charles Weiser, Rev. Solo- 
mon Oswald, Jacob Hay, Rev. A. H. Lochman, D. D., 
Edward G. Smyser, Rev. Jonathan Oswald, D. D., M. B. 
Spahr, Lewis Carl, Rev. W. Baum, D. D., Rev. A. W. 
Lilly, D. D., Jerre Carl, Rev. A. H. Fastnacht. 

Prof Geo. W. Gross, Ph. D., a member of the Lutheran 
Church, and a graduate of Pennsylvania College, is the 
Principal of the York County Academy at this time, with 
an enrollment of sixty male students. 

Dr. Schmucker's diary, dated August 5, 18 16, has 
this entry in Latin : 

" The following youths were received into the York 
Academy to be taught Latin and Greek : 

1. Geo. August Barnitz, 

2. Samuel Spangler, 

3. John G. Moritz, 

4. William Kurtz, 











Henry Ness, 

James Kelly, 

Ferdinand Spangler, 

William Roberts, 

Alexander Boner {Transfuga), 

Alexander Small, 

Alexander Barnitz, 

Geo. Spangler, 

Thomas Cathcart, 

William Wilson, 

Jacob Florence, 

William Florence, 

Geo. Pentz." 

November 6 he writes in his diary : 

" On the 26th ult. an examination of the York Acad- 
emy was held. I had exerted myself considerably during 
the whole of the quarter, to bring this disorganized school 
into proper order, and am convinced, that in this institution 
no set of boys have ever made greater progress in the short 
space of three months. After the examination had been 
conducted in the most pleasing arrangement, regularity and 
decorum, and the scholars had acquitted themselves with 
honor, the President, after a consultation with the other 
trustees, arose and expressed their unbounded pleasure at 
the manner in which the exercises had been performed. 
After enlarging a little on the importance of some of the 
individual studies, he said that he had never seen a more 
excellent examination in this Academy, and hoped, that 
the Tutor, as well as the scholars, might continue in this 
present truly laudable state of industry. 

The premiums were awarded as follows : To Geo. A. 
Barnitz a Tacitus, and to William Wilson a book of Bible 
Stories, the former costing $i.i2}4 and the latter 50 cents. 


A holiday was given until Monday following, and the 
school was dismissed. Laus Deo. 

Last night I slept with Mr. David Geiger, my former 
fellow student at the University. 

Mr. Geiger intends to return to Hagerstown, and as 
soon as he can sell his inheritance, left him by his father, 
intends to go to the state of Kentucky, to settle in Louis- 
ville, where, if the Lord spare my life and -health, I hope to 
see him before two years, in the capacity of a Missionary 

Mr. Schuh has left Philadelphia in perfect harmony 
with every body, except the silly M. He intends to go 
to the western parts of Ohio, and is furnished with recom- 
mendations from Dr. Helmuth and Dr. Schaeffer. By my 
interposition father likewise gave him a recommendation to 
all the clergy in the state of Ohio. Mr. Schuh is an indus- 
trious, honest, moral and well informed young man, about 
twenty-two years of age, though only 4 ft. 6 in. high. May 
the blessing of our Lord Jesus Christ rest upon him." 

At this point he has inserted a number of prayers in 
his diary, which we will copy, as showing the state of his 
spiritual condition at this time: 

Nov. 6. O Lord God, I am a sinner, and the iniquity of 
my ways will bring me to eternal ruin, if thy saving hand be 
not exerted in my favor. Though I am guilty of no crime 
against the world, or to my knowledge any individual, my 
heart is yet prone to evil and my ways are far from God. 
There was a time, O Lord, when I was much nearer to 
thee, than at present I am. Thou hast promised that 
" Whatsoever we ask of thee in the name of thy Son Jesus 
Christ shall be granted, that the Father may be glorified." 
Now Lord, I beseech thee to change my heart, and give 
me a new and purified spirit ! O Lord, numbers are rush- 
ing with me the road to perdition. Stretch forth thine 

34 praye;rs. 

all powerful hand, and arrest us in our mad carreer. We 
are seated in the chariot of iniquity, and are driving head- 
long to the gulf of destruction. Many times hast thou 
called us, but we heeded not thine admonitions ; nothing 
but thy divine interposition, O Lord, will save us ! 

Nov. ig. O Lord, blessed be thy holy name, that thou 
hast preserved us to this day; that thou has prolonged the 
duration of our existence until the present moment. How 
many have during the last night been transposed from time 
to eternity ! For how many was the race run and the thread 
of life cut off! We, Lord, are yet spared; and to thine 
unmerited kindness and forbearance are we indebted for it ! 
We have erred and gone astray ; we have sinned against 
thee; ".there is not one that doeth good, no not one." 
We are going the way of the iniquitous, and the path of the 
Lord we know not. Soon will the earthly race be run, and 
we go to another world, to receive the reward of our labor. 
O God, our works have been of the flesh, and from the 
flesh we would inherit eternal damnation. But thou hast 
promised, that thou wilt hear the penitent, and the death of 
the sinner thou wilt not. In thy promise alone do we re- 
pose the hope of our salvation, — in the promise of HIM, 
who died for man, that he might never die ! O that we 
might see the folly of our ways and fly to thee for assistance ! 
But our nature is corrupted and we are prone to sin. But 
do thou. Lord, pardon our manifold transgressions ; and as 
men will not obey thy commands, but are full of sin, do 
thou rule us with a rod of iron, and put a bit into our 
mouths, which will certainly bring us to reason. Yet, O 
Lord, thy punishments are severe, I feel the hand of the 
.Lord upon me ; I am sorely afflicted and ready to bend 
down under the load of affliction. " My soul is exceedingly 
sorrowful, even unto death." " O Lord, wilt thou not 
deliver me ? " 


Nov. 20. On the morning of this day, O merciful Crea- 
tor, how should I glorify thy name, that thou hast spared me 
until this day. My life has been an uninterrupted scene of 
ungodliness, and my heart knows not God. With guilt upon 
my head, contrition in my heart, Oh how could I have met 
and stood before my judge, had I died during the last 
night. Thou, O Lord, hast spared my life, and on the 
morning of this day hast condescended to assuage in some 
degree, the misery of my condition, and given another day 
for the salvation of my soul. O Lord, blessed be thy name, 
for the unmerited blessings which thou hast been pleased 
to bestow upon me. Grant that it may not arise in evi- 
dence against me on the great and awful day of Judgment, 
That I may apply it to the working out of the salvation of 
my soul, and the abstraction of my mind from the idleness 
of this world. Lord, I desire to be saved ; my soul longs 
to be wrested from the flames in which it is now consuming. 
But I am weak and miserable, for the grace of God is not 
upon me. Within these five years, to the best of my recol- 
lection, thou Lord knowest, I have made about lOO attempts 
and commencements at conversion, but the work was 
always prevented by my own evil doings. I did not permit 
God to direct me, but was always determined to go accord- 
ing to my own head. Lord, now I am convinced of my 
own inability, and come entirely to thee. Do thou direct 
me ; be thou my leader, and form my heart, such as thou 
wilt have it should be. Thy blessed word teaches us, that 
salvation of souls is not the work of man ; nay, if all the 
angels in heaven united their strength, it would not be 
sufficient for the salvation of one soul ! Man is mortal ; 
angels approach the divine nature to an amazing degree, 
and are therefore far greater than man ; but angels are 
incompetent to the salvation of a soul ; how can man, who 
is so far inferior to angels, do anything towards the accom- 

36 DIARY. 

plishment of this divine purpose! O Lord, therefore I will 
submit solely to thy direction, and trust in thy promise, 
that thou wilt convert me, and conduct all things in such a 
manner, as finally to end in my salvation. Amen. 

These prayers were not intended by the author for 
publication. They were, no doubt, portions of his daily 
private devotions during a considerable period of time, and 
were written by his own hand in his diary to fix their im- 
pression on his heart and mind. They not only show his 
spiritual condition while under conviction of sin, but they 
give us the key-note to hisvvhole subsequent spiritual life 
and conduct. 

Nov. i6. When I undertook the care of the Classical 
Department of York Academy, I determined to conduct 
everything on that principle of independence, which I have 
ever endeavored to maintain. Accordingly, instead of 
inserting into the public prints a long and circumstantial 
advertisement, as many of my friends advised me to do, I 
sent but these few lines for publication : 

" The public are respectfully informed, that the Classi- 
cal Department of the York Academy is again opened, 
where scholars may apply for admission." 

I might, perhaps, have received a few more scholars by 
a pompous advertisement; but this I deemed too much like 
begging parents to send their children. In this manner I 
have continued to conduct the school, and though there 
were but four Latin and Greek scholars when Mr. Beatie 
left the Academy, there are now seventeen pupils. 

Dec. g. Miss Betsey arrived at York about the 6th 
ult. She has remained at our house and at Mr. Barnitz's 
ever since. In all my intercouse with her, which has neces- 
sarily been considerable, I have found her to be of an amia- 
ble disposition. In her first acquaintance she is very 
prudently reserved, but with her friends and acquaintances 

DIARY. 37 

she is communicative, though by no means disagreeably 
loquacious. There was a day when she was charmingly 
beautiful. But alas, time and disease have been making 
very visible ravages on her frame. She is no longer that 
charming, beautiful female, which she formerly was; like a 
poppy, whose top has been overcharged with rain, she 
bends under the weight of her afflictions. As when a 
flower in the valley has been rooted up by the share of the 
unconscious rustic, falls on the plain and there withers and 
dies, thus Miss H. affords another striking, and at the same 
time afflicting evidence of the frailty and weakness of our 
frame, and of the transitory nature of this life. By these 
reflections we are forcibly reminded of a beautiful and 
appropriate verse in that admired production of Gray, 
" Elegy written in a country church yard." 

" Full many a gem of purest ray serene, 

The dark, unfathomed depths of ocean bear, 
Full many a flower is born to bloom unseen, 
And waste its fragrance on the desert air." 

Dec. 12. On the day, which my own books will show, 
and which is about six weeks since, I happened to have a 
conversation with Mr. Seibert about the education of his son. 
He told me that the cause of his having discontinued the 
study of Latin, was his pecuniary embarrassment, mention- 
ing at the same time, that he was sincerely sorry for not 
having been able to pay Mr. Saml. Murill an amount which 
was due to him for some time. As " to do good " is an 
object which I always had in view, it grieved me to see his 
boy lose a good education on account of the indigence of 
his father, and I immediately offered to teach him gratis. 
His father sent him the next day. At first I was really 
astonished to hear that he had been in Virgil ; for far from 
being able to give any of the necessary rules for the gen- 
der, declension and conjugation, etc., of Latin words, he 

38 DIARY. 

could not decline stella ! Yet this boy had been at 
Latin half a year, and quit only a few weeks ! He now 
recites tolerably well. I have no doubt of his being a 
smart boy. 

Dec. i6. To-day I paid Mrs. Davidson a visit, and 
had a conference with her relative to the admission of her 
son into the first division. She seems to be a woman of 
extensive information, and likewise of very affable disposi- 
tion. She said that she had intended to send him after the 
last examination, but had been prevented by an intended 
journey to Baltimore ; that she had no objection, but on the 
contrary, felt an anxiety to have him under my care ; that 
Rev. Cathcart had expressed a very favorable opinion of 
my administration, etc. At my departure she thanked me 
for the trouble of calling, and said, she would be very 
happy to see me at any time at her house. I thanked her 
and departed. 

Dec. I J. The gentlemen formerly constituting the 
musical club existing in this place were, Dec, Anno Domini 
1800, John Barnitz, Geo. Barnitz, Jacob Doll, Jacob Cremer, 
David Doll, John Moritz, Sr., John Stroman, John Hay^ 
Henry Mundorff, John Herr, Gep. Mundorff, Henry Pickil, 
Chas. A. Barnitz, Harry Hay, Wm. Lenhart. 

A book of music belonging to them is now in my pos- 

Dec. ig. This day I bought a second-hand flute from 
Mr. White for ^2.00. I shall probably commence the study 
of music, though not with any intention of spending much 
time at it. 

Yesterday Mr. White left York for Columbia, with an 
intention of commencing the practice of the law in that 
place. He is a man whose actions flow from the purest 
principles, although unacquainted with the world. May 
he continue to walk in the path of virtue, and may success 

certificate;. 39 

attend his endeavors. May the blessing of the Lord God 
be and rest upon him. 

The following certificate was given Mr. Schmucker on 
his resignation of the York Academy : 

York, 12th Aug., 1818. 
It is hereby certified, that Mr. Samuel S. Schmucker 
has taught in the York Academy for some time past, with 
great acceptance. He has conducted himself not only 
with propriety and decorum, but in an highly exemplary 
manner, and being now about to leave this place, he is 
recommended to the friendship and attention of the inhab- 
itants in whatever place he may reside. 

By order of the Board of Trustees. 
, W. Barber, Sec. Robert Cathcart, Pres. • 




1818— 1820. 








We have copied somewhat extended extracts from his 
diary, while he was a teacher in York Academy, in the 
first place to give the readers an insight into his state of 
mind during his early youth, and secondly to disprove the 
assertions of Dr. Morris, in his book " Fifty years in the 
Ministry," that he was " unsocial and ascetic " in his man- 
ners, that he was " unpopular," and that " nobody was inti- 
mate enough with him to regard him as a friend." It will 
be observed, that during a part of this time he seemed to 
have been under deep conviction of sin. He appears to have 
been tossed with doubts and fears, hopes and despondency, 
trying to convert himself by his own strength, until at last 
he gave himself entirely into the hands of God, who by his 
Holy Spirit wrought the gracious change, and gave him 
peace. The charge that he was unsociable and a recluse is 
sufficiently contradicted by his own account of conversa- 


tions he had with different persons, whose society he 

Dr. Diehl's article in the Quarterly Review of January, 
1874, contains a quotation from Dr. Morris' book, "Fifty 
Years in the Ministry," in which Dr. Schmucker's character 
is somewhat misrepresented, and to which Dr. Diehl 
appends some very appropriate criticisms : 

" Dr. J. G. Morris, in reminiscences of Dr. Schmucker, 
pubhshed in the LiitJieran Observer, gives a graphic account 
of him at the time of his teaching at York, the writer of 
the reminiscences being himself a pupil in the Academy at 
the time: ' He took temporary charge of the York Acad- 
emy, and there it was that I received from him my final 
preparation for the Sophomore class at Princeton College. 
He was at that time a young man of twenty-one, of fair 
complexion, meagre visage, of vigorous health and of 
exceedingly staid deportment. Some people would have 
called his bearing dignified ; but young as I was, I set it 
down as ascetic, unsocial and recluse. He was a laborious 
student, and had no intimate companions. He did not 
frequent the society of young ladies, nor indeed of any 
other class of people ; and hence was not a popular young 
man. Everybody regarded him as a model of perfection, 
so far as purity of morals was concerned. But nobody was 
intimate enough with him to regard him as a friend. He 
was considerably ahead of most, if not all the young candi- 
dates for our ministry in theological and classical training.' 

The qualification in the last remark was needless. 
Who of all the young candidates for the Lutheran ministry, 
in 1 818 — 1820, was at all comparable in classic and theo- 
logic training to Samuel S. Schmucker ? He was im- 
mensely ahead of those who were licensed cotempora- 
neously with him. 

The extract from the reminiscences gives a mistaken 


estimate of Mr. Schmucker's social disposition. He was 
not constitutionally unsocial or ascetic. He could not have 
been unpopular. Absenting himself from social enjoy- 
ments for the purpose of deep devotion to study and religi- 
ous meditation would elevate him in the esti- 
mation of all right-thinking people. The young man 
who in the opinion of everybody was a model of per- 
fection in moral purity ; the young candidate for holy 
orders, who was conscientiously devoting every hour of his 
precious time to a preparation for his great lifework, hav- 
ing no leisure for ladies' society or social pleasures, would 
be considered a most exemplary candidate for the ministry. 
This very tribute of Dr. Morris implies a popularity far 
more desirable for a theological student, or a young licen- 
tiate, than any friendship he might have won by spending 
his evenings in society, or employing his rich intellectual 
stores in entertaining, hour by hour, half a dozen boon 
companions. The genial disposition of Dr. Schmucker in 
his later years, is sufficient evidence that constitutionally 
he was fitted, when all the glow of youth was upon him, for 
refined social enjoyments, had not a noble and all absorb- 
ing work demanded his undivided time." 

Let us look into this delineation of Schmucker's char- 
acter a little closer. Morris says : 

" Dr. Schmucker was the severest moralist I ever 
knew, and carried his principles, I think, to an extreme 
length. (?) He objected to some amusements which a wiser 
age now sanctions, and opposed some recreations which the 
church now approves. He did not know one card from 
another. I do not suppose he ever had a dice-box in his 
hand, even for amusement. He knew nothing of checkers, 
or back-gammon or chess. He never was in a theatre or 
circus, never heard an opera. He even doubted the pro- 
priety of Christians going to hear famous vocalists in a 


concert hall, especially if they had appeared on the oper- 
atic stage. He never used tobacco in any form. He never 
drank a drop of strong liquor as a beverage. He never 
conformed to any modern fashion in dress for fashion's 
sake, however neat and appropriate it might be." 

This is certainly very high praise and the highest 
compliment that could have been paid to a Christian gentle- 
man and Theological Professor. Dr. Morris may not have 
so intended it, but rather as a reflection on his sound judg- 
ment in objecting to some amusements which a " wiser age 
now sanctions and the church now approves." Pray what 
are those amusements, which this "wiser age" sanctions and 
the church approves ? 

Is it dancing ? I have heard of some church mem- 
bers in this wiser (?) age who go to balls and send their 
children to dancing schools, perhaps at the same time that 
they attend the catechetical instruction of their pastor. Dr, 
Schmucker certainly and wisely did not approve of this 
kind of amusement. 

Is it card playing ? I have heard it said that there are 
some fashionable church members, who indulge in card 
playing in their parlors, and perhaps also in their club- 
rooms. But Dr. Schmucker, to his praise be it said, was 
opposed to all sorts of gambling. " He did not know one 
card from another." We confess ourselves equally igno- 
rant of the gambler's art, and we hope most, if not all, of 
our ministerial brethren can also say this of themselves. 

" He never was in a theatre or circus." This is cer- 
tainly to his credit. A Christian, who has consecrated his 
life to the service and glory of God, should be ashamed to 
be seen in such places. 

" He never used tobacco in any form." Would that 
all of his students had followed his example in this respect ! 
Perhaps a future, even " wiser " age than this, will see the 


evils of the use of tobacco and all narcotics in every form. 

" He never drank a drop of strong liquor as a bever- 
age." On the temperance question Dr. Schmucker was 
far in advance of the time in which he lived. He had seen 
the sad effects of intoxicants in some of his ministerial 
brethren of that day, and we commend his example to all 
Christian people in this " wiser age," 

" He never conformed to any modern fashion in dress 
for fashion's sake." No, he never indulged in or approved 
of some of the follies of modern fashions in dress. But in 
his unaffected piety, in the genuine politeness of his deport- 
ment, and in the neatness and propriety of his dress, he 
may be designated as, in the highest sense of the term, a 
Christian gentleman. 

We do not think Dr. Schmucker " carried his prin- 
ciples of morality to an extreme length," especially for a 
man occupying his position. What would probably have 
been the character of the five hundred men whom he 
trained for the ministry, if he had encouraged them in card- 
playing and theatre-going, and if he had not warned them 
by his example and precept against the use of tobacco and 
strong drink ? 

We thank God that he called into his service a man of 
such exemplary piety and unimpeachable moral character 
to be the instructor and guide of the rising ministry in our 
General Synod ; to write the constitutions of our general 
and district synods ; to prepare the text-books for our 
early theological students ; to compile the hymn book for 
our churches, and translate Luther's Catechism into Eng- 
lish for our people. 

Dr. Schmucker was not a recluse, averse to all sdcial 
enjoyment and friendly intercourse ; nor did he regard all 
games and plays as sinful, especially when they afforded 
needed exercise and were conducive to health. But he 


maintained that, as Ciiristian ministers, we should deny 
ourselves even of sorne innocent recreations, if there was 
danger of giving offense to weaker brethren, just as Paul 
declared that he would eat no meat, if it would cause his 
weak brother to stumble. We remember how on one 
occasion the theological students were playing a game of 
ball in the rear of the Seminary building, and became very 
noisy. The Doctor admonished them, either to give up 
ball playing near the Seminary, or be less boisterous ; for 
people going along the road and hearing the noise might 
think the theological students were indulging in an unbe- 
coming carousal. 

So also in regard to dress. He did not teach us to 
dress in a manner that might be called unfashionable, or 
unbecoming to a Christian gentleman ; but he advised us 
never to attract attention by any singularity in our apparel, 
but rather to dress very much like the people among whom 
we lived, as Christ and his apostles doubtless also dressed 
like the people of their time and country. 

Dr. Morris gives a similar characteristic of the elder 
Dr. Baugher, father of the present H. L. Baugher, D. D. 
He writes : 

" Dr. Baugher was a severe and exemplary moralist. 
He never sanctioned among clergymen and Christian peo- 
ple, what many regard as innocent amusements, such as chess 
or checkers, and I doubt whether he would now sanction 
Croquet, which has since become a popular clerical amuse- 

" He was a puritanic observer of what he called the 
Sabbath, and severely temperate in all things." 

" His Presbyterian training influenced the character of 
his theology, although he was in no proper sense a Cal- 
vinist." — Fifty years in the Ministry, pages ig2, igj. 

On August 5th, Mr. Schmucker took charge of the Clas- 


sical department of the York Academy. He had during the 
first session seventeen boys under his instruction, but in the 
following sessions the number increased to twenty-eight. 

He remained in charge of the Academy until Novem- 
ber, 1817, when he resigned his position and accompanied 
his brother George on a tour westward along the Juniata 
River, over the Allegheny Mountains to Pittsburg, and 
down the Ohio River as far as Louisville, Ky. His diary 
at this time shows much mental conflict about his plans for 
the future, but the result was, that he finally decided to 
devote himself to the work of the gospel ministry. He 
began his direct preparation under the supervision of his 
father, with such diligence, that when he decided to go to 
Princeton, and enter the Theological Seminary, he was able 
to stand a very satisfactory examination in all the studies 
of the first year, and to enter the class at the opening of the 
second year of their course of study. He arrived at Prince- 
ton, August 17, 18 18, was matriculated August 22, and 
remained there until March 30, 1820. Among his fellow 
students were Bishops Mclllvain and Johns, and Dr. Robert 
Baird was his room mate. The great lights of Princeton 
Seminary and of the Presbyterian Church at that time were 
Drs. Alexander and Miller. Under these distinguished 
professors he received as finished a theological education, 
as could be gained in any institution then existing in this 

The fact of his having gone to Princeton to complete 
his course of theological studies has been much deplored 
by some writers in the Lutheran Church. Dr. J. G. Morris 
publishes an article in his " Fifty Years in the Ministry," 
from the pen of R. W., (Reuben Weiser,) one paragraph of 
which we will transcribe and append for the perusal of our 
readers : 

" He was a man of most exemplary piety and sincerity. 


His views on theology were clear and scriptural, and 
although he was devotedly attached to the Lutheran 
Church, it was doubted by many of his warmest friends, 
after 1845, whether he was true to the confessional stand- 
point of historical Lutheranism." 

" His father, Dr. J. G. Schmucker, was a Pietistic Luth- 
eran of the Spenerian school, and hence sent him to study 
theology at a Puritanical Seminary ; this was, perhaps, a 
misfortune for one who was to have the training of not less 
than five hundred ministers in his hands." 

" He had his enemies in the Lutheran Church all along, 
and leading men in the Pennsylvania Synod, and in the New 
York Ministerium, and in Ohio, and North Carolina 
opposed his Puritanism, but he bravely maintained his posi- 
tion till about 1846. About that time his Lutheran ortho- 
doxy began to be suspected by some of his own students, 
and especially those who had charge of Pennsylvania Col- 

In reply to these utterances we remark : 

I. Dr. Schmucker never concealed his theological 
views. He declared them openly in his oral teachings, and 
in his writings. And further, there was no material change 
in his theological views, from the time he subscribed his 
inaugural oath, until his resignation, a period of about forty 
years, as he himself declares in his letter of resignation to the 
Board. The following declaration was written by his own 
hand at the time of his resignation, and read before the 
Board of Directors : 

" I record the declaration, that I this day cordially 
believe every doctrine taught in the entire volume (Popular 
Theology). These facts I state in justice to the institution 
and myself, and in view of the future history of the institu- 
tion and the church." 

Hence there could be no doubt or suspicion, after the 


year 1845, by " his warmest friends," of his confessional 
standpoint ; both his friends and enemies knew his stand- 
point very well. Some leading men in the Tennessee 
Synod, and in the Pennsylvania Synod, and in the Ohio 
Synod, and in the Missouri Synod knew the doctrinal 
standpoint of Dr. Schmucker and the General Synod, long 
before the year 1846. The German Professor, Dr. Schaeffer, 
and some of the German students under his training, 
opposed (not suspected) his confessional standpoint ; but 
some of the professors in Pennsylvania College opposed 
him on other grounds. Their confessional standpoint did 
not differ very much from his at that time, as will be shown 
in a subsequent part of this Biography. 

2. The sneer at Pietism comes with a bad grace from 
an American Lutheran minister, especially one belonging 
to the General Synod. Who were the Pietists ? and what 
were the teachings and practices on which their Pietism was 
based? They were such men as Spener, Francke, Arndt» 
Knapp, Storr, Flatt, Freylinghausen, holy, active, pious 
Lutheran Christians, who showed their faith by their works. 
As to their teachings and practices we will let the Lutheran 
historian, Dr. Mosheim, whose authority and orthodoxy 
none will dispute, give the reply. He says, " Pietism owed 
its origin to the pious and learned Spener, who formed pri- 
vate devotional societies at Frankfort, in order to cultivate 
vital and practical religion ; and published a book, entitled, 
* Pious Desires,' which greatly promoted this object. His 
followers laid it down as an essential maxim, that none 
should be admitted into the ministry, but those, who not 
only had received a proper education, but were also distin- 
guished by their wisdom and sanctity of manners, and had 
hearts filled with divine love. Hence, they proposed an 
alteration in the schools of divinity, in Germany, which 
embraced the following points : 

The pietists — THEIR 49 

a. " That the scholastic theology, which reigned in the 
academies, and was composed of intricate and disputable 
doctrines, and obscure and unusual forms of expression, 
should be totally abolished." 

d. " That polemical divinity, which comprehended the 
controversies subsisting between Christians of different com- 
munions, should be less eagerly studied, and less frequently 
treated, though not entirely neglected." 

c. " That all mixture of philosophy and human science 
with divine wisdom, was to be most carefully avoided, i. e., 
that pagan philosophy and classical learning should be kept 
distinct from, and by no means supercede Biblical Theol- 
ogy." But 

d. " That, on the contrary, all those students who were 
designed for the ministry, should be accustomed from their 
early youth to the perusal and study of the Holy Scriptures, 
and be taught a plain system of theology, drawn from these 
unerring sources of truth." 

e. " That the whole course of their education was to be 
so directed as to render them useful in life, by the practical 
power of their doctrine, and tlie commanding influence of 
their example." 

"This work began about 1670. In 1691 Spener removed 
from Dresden to Berlin, where he propagated the same 
principles, which widely spread, and were well supported in 
many parts of Germany by the excellent professors, Francke 
and others. This raised much controversy, in which the 
Pietists were charged with many errors. Of these the chief 
was, that " divine influence is necessary to the right under- 
standing of the Scriptures." They taught, that without 
such help, no man can enter into the spirit of them ; no 
man can relish or enjoy those parts which relate to the 
divine life, and the experience of the Christian ; for so saith 
St. Paul : " The natural man receiveth not the things of the 

50 Their principi,es. 

Spirit of God, for they are foolishness unto him, neither can 
he know them, because they are spiritually discerned." 

"Another thing which gave great offence was, that they 
renounced the vain amusements of the world. Thus, danc- 
ing, pantomimes, public sports, theatrical diversions, the 
reading of humorous and comical books, with several other 
kinds of pleasure and entertainments, were prohibited by 
the Pietists as unlawful and unseemly ; and therefore, by 
no means of an indifferent nature." 

" But the most offensive of all their errors, real or sup- 
posed, was, that ' No persoj^ who was not himself a model 
of piety, and divine love, was qualified to be a public teacher 
of piety, or a guide to others in the way of salvation.' This 
was so offensive to the carnal clergy of Germany, who, it 
seems, at that time were not a few, that they raised the cry 
of heresy, and charged them (strange as it may seem) with 
making void the efficacy of the divine word ! " * 

This is exactly the position and practice of our General 
Synod to-day; we foster prayermeetings among our people, 
and we make it a rule that our ministers shall not only be 
educated men, but they shall also lead consistent Christian 
lives, and have their hearts filled with divine love. 

It will be seen by every one who studied theology 
under Dr. S. S. Schmucker, that those are substantially the 
same principles and practices which were inculcated and 
insisted on by him in the Seminary at Gettysburg ; and 
these are the doctrines and practices that prevail in our 
General Synod to-day, and were held and practiced by the 
fathers of our American Lutheran Church. Yes, Prof 
Schmucker was a Pietist, and his father was a Pietist, and 
the founders of our General Synod, yea, the fathers of our 
American Lutheran Church, who came from Pietistic Halle, 

* Mosheiin's History, Vol. V., 312-324. 


the Muhlenbergs, Kunzes, Helmuths, Schmidts, Schaeffers, 
and the ministers trained by them, Schmucker Senior, the 
Lochmans, Kurtzes, Schaeffers, were all Pietists of the 
Spenerian school. They are our spiritual fathers. Would 
to God, that all their sons had inherited more of their Piet- 
ism ! Was it really " a misfortune," that the man who 
under God had the training of the first five hundred men in 
our General Synod, was " a Pietist of the Spenerian school ? " 
Would it have been less a misfortune if he had been trained 
in the dead scholastic orthodoxy and the formalism which 
prevailed in the sixteenth and seventeenth century, the 
champions of which persecuted the Pietists ? Or would it 
have been less a misfortune, if he had been trained in the 
rationalistic schools that predominated at the close of the 
eighteenth and the beginning of the nineteenth centuries ? 
No, we thank God, that he was a Pietist of the Spenerian 

We are the children of the Pietists ; they are our spirit- 
ual fathers. Most of those in the General Synod who now 
sneer at Pietism, are themselves Pietists. They know not 
what they do. Father, forgive them ! 

Rev. W. H. Dunbar, D. D., gave expression to the 
truth here presented, in an article in the Lutheran Observer, 
and copied with approval in other church papers, in the 
following extract : 

" And this is and has been from the first the historic 
position of the General Synod. It was the Lutheranism, res- 
cued from the dead confessionalism, restored in the original 
spirit of its founder through the influences of Arndt, Spener, 
Francke and others, that was transplanted to this country. 
Thus restored, a reaction took place, and in the early part of 
this century in this country it seemed almost to lose its dis- 
tinctive identity as a Lutheran Church. Even the great 
confession was ignored in its church life. It remained for 


the General Synod to restore the Confession to its proper 
place.* Nobly did her founders and their successors 
accomplish this work. Loyal to the Confession, insisting 
on sound doctrine, her genuine Lutheranism could not be 
questioned. The matter of externals, liturgies, etc., has not 
been ignored." 

3. " His father sent him to a Puritanical Seminary," 
says the writer in the " Fifty Years in the Ministry." To 
what other seminary could he have sent him, but the Pres- 
byterian Seminary at Princeton, if he was to have a thor- 
ough theological training ? There was, indeed, no Lutheran 
Theological Seminary in this country, until Dr. Schmucker 
himself founded the one at Gettysburg.f There were other 
Lutheran ministers who also studied theology at Princeton ; 
for example, Drs. J. G. Morris, and Henry L. Baugher, Sr., 
and we never heard that they suffered any misfortune from 
studying in that " Puritanical Seminary." 

4. And who were the Puritans of America ? Let 
Mosheim, the great Lutheran historian, furnish the reply. 
It is given in Herzog's Encyclopedia, a German work of 
high standing : " A part of the congregation of John Rob- 
inson led the way of the Pilgrim Fathers. With fasting 
and prayer they prepared themselves for the journey to the 
distant land. After a heart-affecting farewell and Psalm 
singing, they boarded the two small ships, that were to 
bring them to New England. In September, 1620, they 
departed from England forever, and became the pioneers 
for their persecuted Puritan brethren, 20,000 of whom fol- 
lowed them in the next fifteen years, regardless of the dan- 


* It was mainly through Dr. Schmucker 's instriimentality that the 
Augsburg Confession was "restored to its proper place" after the 
organization of the General Syno'^. Ed. 

t Hartwick St minary was chartered in 1816, but had not, I think, 
risen to the dignity of a Theological Seminary until a number of 
years later. 

the; puritans. 53 

gets and privations, which befell the first colony of New 
England ; as there alone it was possible for them to escape 
the oppression of the Hierarchy, and to found a church 
according to the principles of the ApostoHc Church ... To 
the earnest determination, the invincible courage, and the 
unalterable will of these Pilgrim Fathers, the New England 
Colony is indebted for its prosperity, and the present North 
American states for their greatness." 

Milton, the renowned author of " Paradise Lost,'' 
speaks of them as " Faithful and freeborn Englishmen, and 
good Christians, constrained to forsake their dearest home, 
their friends and kindred, whom nothing but the wide 
ocean and the savage deserts could hide and shelter from 
the fury of the bishops." Among them was "John Elliott, 
famous as the apostle to the Indians, and the first Protestant 
missionary to the heathen." 

Puritanism : — "It has been a common term of reproach, 
applied to the friends of pure religion and undefiled." 

" The persecutions carried on against the Puritans dur- 
ing the reign of Elizabeth and the Stuarts, served to lay the 
foundation of a new empire, and eventually a vast republic 
in the western world. Hither, as into a wilderness, they 
fled from the face of their persecutors ; and being protected 
in the free exercise of their religion, continued to increase, 
until at length they became an independent nation." * 

Now, if the above eulogies are deserved, and who 
doubts it ? then the Puritans, who landed on Plymouth 
Rock, merit the respect and admiration of the whole Chris- 
tian world. 

At the same time it affords us great satisfaction to re- 
cord, that the German immigrants who came from the Fath- 
erland for conscience sake and founded the Lutheran church 

* Encyclopedia of Religious Kno-w ledge. 


in Pennsylvania and in Georgia, will not suffer in comparison 
with the Puritans. Their history presents a most beautiful 
example of patient endurance and untiring zeal in the ser- 
vice of God. Their indefatigable self denial, industry, 
their earnest and faithful life, illustrating the doctrines of 
the church which they loved and for whose advancement 
they were toiling, made a deep impression on their contem- 
poraries, and secured the confidence and sympathy of all 
with whom they were brought in contact. 

Let us inquire, in how far the life and character of Dr. 
Schmucker was influenced by the Puritanism in the Prince- 
ton Seminary, and in how far this was "a misfortune to the 
General Synod "? 

1. The Puritans were a devotedly pious and intensely 
conscientious people. The same may be said of Dr. 
Schmucker. But he did not imbibe his piety from the Pur- 
itans, he imbibed it in the Lutheran Church and in the 
" Spenerian school," under the guidance of his " Pietistic 
father," and his Pietistic teachers, Helmuth and Schmidt. 
The Holy Ghost had wrought that great work of grace in 
his heart long before he studied Theology at Princeton. 

2. The Puritans were Calvinists in doctrine. But Dr. 
Schmucker never endorsed their Calvinism. Every one of 
his students must know that he opposed the Calvinistic 
doctrines of unconditional Predestination and Reprobation ; 
he did this frequently in his lectures to the students, as well 
as in his writings. Hence, the General Synod suffered no 
" misfortune " as regards the Calvinism of the Puritans. 

3. The Puritans were intensely opposed to the Epis- 
copal hierarchy of the church of England, with its pre- 
tension to Apostolical Succession, and its imposing liturgical 
service. Dr. Schmucker did not share their intense aver- 
sion to the English hierarchy, but he also denied their claim 
to Apostolical Succession, their denial of our ministerial ordi- 


nation, and their assumption of being the only true church 
on earth. Most of his students must remember something 
of his lectures on this subject. Among the books he 
recommended was Mason on Episcopacy, which exposes 
the absurdity of the Apostolical Succession. About the 
time the writer studied in the seminary, there was a heated 
controversy carried on between the Episcopalians and the 
Presbyterians, One of the phrases, on which the changes 
were rung at that time, ran in this way : " A country 
without a king, and a church without a bishop." It must 
be confessed that Dr. Schmucker sided with the Puritans on 
this question. But this did the General Synod no injury. We 
Lutherans don't differ much from the Puritans in our views 
on the church of England's claim to Apostolical Succession. 

4. The Puritans were very rigorous in the observance 
of the Sabbath. Indeed, most people now think they car- 
ried their views and practices to an unwarranted extreme. 
They seemed to regard it as obligatory on Christians to 
observe the ceremonial regulations of the Mosaic law, 
almost with the same minuteness as the Pharisees did in 
the time of the Savior. But Dr. Schmucker never enter- 
tained or taught such extreme views as are attributed to the 
Puritans on the observance of the Sabbath. Yet he did 
believe and teach the divine obligation of the observation 
of the Christian Sabbath, as can be seen in his " Appeal on 
behalf of the Christian Sabbath," published by the Ameri- 
can Tract Society. 

It is true, that the ultra confessional Lutherans, such 
as the Missourians' deny the divine obligation to observe 
the Christian Sabbath, but we of the General Synod do 
maintain this divine obligation, and thus endorse his views 
on this pomt. Verily, we have suffered no " misfortune " 
from Puritanism on the Sabbath question. Would to God, 
there were more Puritanism infused into the minds of our 


church members in these times of Sabbath desecration, and 
the efforts of the enemies of the Church to introduce the 
continental Sunday into this country, and indeed, to abro- 
gate all Sunday laws from our statute books. 

5. The Puritans are frequently held up to scorn and ridi- 
cule by certain writers, as believing in witchcraft and the 
burning of witches. Notably has this been done in a lecture 
delivered in different places by a Lutheran minister on 
" Plymouth Rock and other Rocks." I do not think these 
views of the early Puritans on witchcraft were taught in the 
Princeton Seminary ; certainly not carried into practice, 
and it is still more certain that Dr. Schmucker did not 
teach or approve them ; and hence the church suffered no 
" misfortune " on this subject from his studying theology 
in a Puritan Seminary. But it should also be remembered, 
that at the time the Puritans landed on Plymouth Rock the 
belief in witchcraft and the burning of suspected witches 
was general in the whole Christian Church on earth. 
While the Puritans were burning witches in New England, 
the Englishmen in Great Britain and the Germans in Ger- 
many were doing the same thing. Even our own great 
Luther had not outgrown this absurd superstition. 
Listen to the following from Luther's Table Talk : August 
25, 1538, the conversation fell upon witches, who spoil 
milk, eggs, and butter in farm yards. Dr. Luther said : " I 
should have no compassion on these witches ; I would 
burn all of them .... Does not witchcraft merit death, 
which is a revolt of the creature against the Creator, a 
denial to God of the authority it accords to the demon." 

" Luther discoursed at length concerning witchcraft. 
He said, that his mother had had to undergo infinite annoy- 
ance from one of her neighbors, who was a witch .... 
This witch could throw a charm upon children, which 
made them cry themselves to death. A pastor having 


punished her for some knavery, she cast a spell upon him, 
by means of some earth upon which he had walked, and 
which she bewitched. The poor man hereupon fell sick 
of a malady, which no remedy could remove, and shortly 
after died." * More of the same sort might be quoted, but 
this we have transcribed, to show the absurdity of charging 
the Puritans alone with the horrible superstitions and prac- 
tices of which our own forefathers were equally guilty. 

6. Finally the Puritans are frequently charged with 
intolerance, notably because Roger Williams was driven 
out from the Colony, on account of his religious principles.t 
We certainly can not commend them for their religious 
intolerance, and least of all can Dr. Schmucker be charged 
with Puritanism as one who favored religious intolerance. 
On the contrary he has been frequently charged with being 
too liberal towards Christians of other denominations. His 
views are best learned from his writings on the subject of 
Christian Union and the part he took in the formation of 
the Evangelical Alliance. 

Surely our General Synod has suffered nothing in this 
respect from his studying theology at a Puritanical Semi- 

The fact, however, should not be forgotten, or over 
looked, by those who so frequently denounce the Puritans 

* See Luther's Table Talk, published by the Lutheran Board of 
Publication. Philadelphia, 1868, pages 312, 313. 

t Roger Williams was a Puritan, and a fugitive from English 
persecution; but his wrongs had not clouded his accurate understand- 
ing. He had revolved the nature of intolerance, and arrived at the 
great principle which is its sole effectual remedy; namely " The civil 
magistrate should restrain crime, but never control opinion; 
should punish guilt, but never violate the freedom of the 
somV— Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, 


on account of their intolerance, that in those times persecu- 
tion for conscience sake was not confined to the New Eng- 
land Puritans, the Church of England, or the Roman 
Catholic Church. It is a singular, yea, a sad fact, that 
those who had themselves been persecuted and driven from 
their homes, in turn also persecuted those who did not 
coincide with them in their doctrinal views, or mode of 
worship. The truth is. Christians of all denominations in 
those times had not yet learned to see the necessity of the 
separation of church and state, and therefore they regarded 
dissent from the doctrines and usages of the church, as a 
crime against the government, and the persecution was 
exercised by the civil power, against non-conformists. 
Even so wise and good a man as our own great Luther 
had not yet grasped the precious Protestant principle of 
religious toleration or freedom of conscience, at the time he 
composed his Small Catechism. In the Preface of that 
admirable little book he writes, after giving directions how 
to teach the Catechism : 

" But if any refuse to receive your instructions, tell 
them plainly that they deny Christ and are not Christians ; 
such persons shall not be admitted to the Lord's Table, nor 
present a child for Baptism, nor enjoy any of our Christian 
privileges, but are to be sent back to the pope and his 
agents, and, indeed, to Satan himself Their parents and 
employers should, besides, refuse to furnish them with food 
and drink, and notify them that the government was dis- 
posed to banish from the country all persons of such a rude 
and intractable character." 

We copy this from the General Council's edition of 
Luther's Small Catechism, Published by the Lutheran 
Bookstore, Philadelphia, in the year 1874. 

The same paragraph is also published in Loehe's edi- 
tion of Luther's Catechism, translated by Rev. Edward T. 


Horn, D. D., for the use of the General Synod South. It 
must be a matter of surprise that such teachings should be 
put into the hands of our children and youth at the close 
of the nineteenth century, and in this land of civil and 
religious liberty. 

If any one of our readers wishes to inform himself in 
regard to persecutions in Germany for conscience sake, he 
will find abundant information in Hagenbach's History of 
Protestantism during the sixteenth century ; for instance, in 
the martyrdom of Chancellor Crell. 



1818— 1820. 





He arrived at Princeton, August 17, 18 18, was 
matriculated August 22, and remained there until March, 

The professors, under whom he studied, were the very 
learned and eminently pious Archibald Alexander, D. D., 
and Saml. Miller, D. D. He enjoyed in a high degree the 
confidence and respect of these eminent professors, whose 
advice he also sought and obtained in regard to the pur- 
suit of his studies. 

During his last session at Princeton he took advan- 
tage of a two weeks' vacation, to make a visit to New 
York City, or town, as it was then called. 

The following letter, written from Princeton to his 
father, we regard as of great historical value. It shows the 
deplorable state of the church at that time. The great need 
of ministers of the gospel to supply the scattered members 
of the church with the means of grace; the lack of disci- 
phne among ministers and people; the confessionless state 
of the church ; the Rationalism of many of the leading 
ministers, and want of co-operation between the synods 


then existing are clearly portrayed. Also his ardent love 
for the Lutheran Church, and the remedies he proposed to 
restore pure and undefiled religion challenge our admira- 
tion. The letter was written in the German language, and 
we give it here in a free translation : 


Princeton, February 77, 1820. 
Dear Father: 

After a silence of many days, God permits me again to 
write to you. Since the receipt of your dear letter of the 
17th of January, I have continued to devote my time to 
study, up to the time of our vacation. The God of my 
fathers, to whose service I have dedicated myself, draws me 
constantly nearer to himself Often he refreshes my soul 
by visions of his glory and paternal goodness ; daily he 
gives me the evidence, that, although he dwells on high, 
and in the Holy of Holies, yet he condescends graciously 
to be my God. Truly his condition is the most happy, and 
desirable, who consecrates himself entirely to the service of 
his Heavenly Father, and who (Joes not regard the praise 
of men, but of Christ, as his chief good. 

" Ja, seine Liebe zu ermessen, 

Sei ewig meine hoechste Pflicht, 
Der Herr hat meiner me vergessen, 
Vergiss, mein Herz, auch seiner nicht! " 

In accordance with your repeated advice in your let- 
ters, not to extend my continuance in this institution longer 
than spring, I have carefully considered the subject, and 
also called on Dr. Alexander, and had a conversation with 
him on the subject. After I had informed him of my 
desire to continue my theological studies in the German 
language, he entered into a paternal conversation with me, 
and said, as I intended to continue my studies here only 
till spring, and would often have to preach in the German 
language, it would perhaps, be better, that I should not 
stay longer than spring, yet he would not give any posi- 
tive advice. When I told him, that my regret to lose his 
lectures on Pastoral Theology was the only reason that 


could induce me to remain longer, he told me in confidence 
that he would very likely go to the Virginia Springs dur- 
ing the course of next Summer, on account of hie health, 
and consequently there would be no lectures on Pastoral 
Theology. This removed all doubt from my mind, and 
since then I have been fully determined not to return to 

After having formed this resolution, I also determined 
to visit New York during our vacation of two weeks ; for 
by this means I could gain much information in regard to 
the condition of our Lutheran Zion in the New York 
Synod ; and because this would be my last opportunity, 
I accordingly went to New York. I spent twelve days 
there and lodged with one of my good friends. I took let- 
ters of recommendation to distinguished and learned men 
there, and became acquainted with Dr. Hosack ; and Dr. 
Mitchell, Dr. Van Arsdale, etc., and among the theologians 
with Drs. Mason, Romyn, and Rev. Knox, etc. I heard 
Drs. Herron, Mason, Romyn, Bishop Hobart, Revs. Knox, 
Burke, Beatie, and our Lutheran Pastor, Rev. Schaeffer. 
I purchased a number of books while in New York ; 
namely, nineteen octavo and fourteen quarto volumes ot the 
best works, have learned much of ihe world, and not a lit- 
tle of that which will help me to be useful in the Kingdom 
of Jesus. 

As I have narrated my visit here in a general way, I 
have yet to relate that which to me is the most interesting 
and by far the most important. My principal object in un- 
dertaking this journey was, to ascertain the true condition 
of our church in the state of New York. I began my 
journey with prayer, and God manifested himself graciously 
to me. Our good brother, Schaeffer, received me with the 
warmest friendship. I spent a great part of my time in his 
house. He is a pious, faithful shepherd of his congrega- 
tion, a well-informed man, a man of good taste, and a dis- 
tinguished and unswerving Lutheran, an orthodox theolo- 
gian, and a man, who does much, and is willing ta do still 
more for the true interest of Christ's kingdom and the 
Lutheran Church. Daily I entered into lengthy conversa- 
tions with him in regard to the condition of our church. 


The deplorable state of our church causes him heartfelt 
pain, and he is willing to adopt any kind of measures which 
can promote her upbuilding. With the New York Synod 
it has already gone too far. The daily approaching crisis 
in our (Pennsylvania) Synod is here (in New York) already 
past, and the only hope for the congregations of the New 
York Synod depends upon the synods of other states. The 
majority of the preachers are rank Socinians (Rationalists). 
He (Schaeffer) has very little intercourse with them, and 
wishes to continue in connection with our (Pennsylvania) 
Synod. He believes with me, that it is absolutely necessary 
to enact a rule in the Synod, that every applicant must be 
examined in the presence of the whole Synod in regard to his 
personal Christianity. We deplored the ignorance of many 
of our brethren in the ministry, as also of ourselves. He 
said, he was ready to send to Germany for books, and 
would ask nothing for his trouble. But I can not write the 
hundredth part. I will only say, that we promised each 
other, that in reliance on God, we would do everything 
possible to promote the following objects : In general to 
labor for the welfare of our church, that a rule may be 
established, according to which every applicant must be 
examined in regard to his personal Christianity, that the 
Augsburg Confession should again be brought up out of 
the dust, and every one must subscribe to the twenty-one 
articles, and declare before God, by his subscription, that it 
corresponds with the Bible, not quantum, but quia ; and we 
promised to do everything possible to promote learning 
among us. 

We believed further, that by the blessing of God, much 
good would result, if at our Synod this year, at Lancaster, 
a committee would be appointed, consisting of seven mem- 
bers, including the President, to write a Pastoral Letter. 
In this letter the lifeless condition and conduct of the many 
church members should be deplored, the worthy members 
of our Lutheran church most earnestly instructed, that it is 
the sacred duty of all communicants to hold morning and 
evening family worship, to encourage them in the support 
of Sunday-schools, and urge upon them the frequent read- 
ing of the Holy Scriptures, etc. The committee could be 


appointed on the first day, and should be composed of the 
seven oldest ministers ; each one of these could write some- 
thing at his lodging, so that the letter could be finished in 
one day, read before the Synod, printed immediately after- 
wards, given to each one of the ministers, who could read 
it afterwards in their congregations. Such a proposition 
will be made. As the committee is to consist of the seven 
oldest members, it will be known who the members of the 
committee shall be, and they will have an opportunity to 
prepare themselves. I cannot doubt, that this will meet 
your approbation, and the approval of all the friends of Jesus. 
I promised to write to you, and Bro. Schaeffer will write to 
his father and brothers. The Pastoral Letter should not be 
overlooked. As the committee, according to the proposi- 
tion, shall consist of the seven oldest members of the Synod, 
I do not see any reason why the resolution should not pass 
unanimously. You, dear father, will kindly prepare some- 
thing of this kind, and Bro. Schaeffer promised to ask his 
father, that he should also write somethmg. And may God, 
our God, bless your efforts, and build up his church. 
Could you not compose your synodical sermon in such a 
way, that nearly the whole sermon would appear like a 
charge to ministers, and treat of their great responsibility ? 
What a blessed influence this might produce upon thous- 
ands of souls ! For all this you will surely provide. May 
the Lord bless all your transactions. 

Bro. Schaeffer was very much pleased with my " Jour- 
ney through American Lutheranism." Please write me your 
opinion of it. Next Sunday Bro. Schaeffer will preach 
tjventy-three miles from New York, at the request of the 
inhabitants in the upper part of New Jersey, where he will 
organize a congregation, and will preach occasionally dur- 
ing the week. He advised them to meet on Sundays and 
have a sermon read by one of the elders, out of the sainted 
Rambach's " Meditations on the Sufferings of Christ." 
Thirty years ago they had Lutheran services here ; they 
have now become English, and desire to have a pious min- 
ister of our Lutheran Church. Mr. Schaeffer thinks they 
will soon receive a minister, and could also give him an 
adequate support. He wishes a pious young minister of 

DIARY. 67 

our Synod would visit them. Would that we had maii 

Your affectionate son, 


The following extract from his diary during his visit 
in New York will be interesting reading, as it shows the 
state of the Lutheran Church and of the " Town" of New 
York seventy-five years ago : 

JOURNAL, 1820. 

Feb. ph, 1820. Arrived at New York 4 o'clock, p. m., in 
six and one-half hours from Princeton. The road from Prince- 
ton to Elizabethtown is very bad. Elizabeth is a handsome 
town, containing many houses built in a very neat style, 
mostly of frame work. Newark also, is a handsome town* 
more splendid than Elizabeth, and has many houses of 
really splendid structure. From here to New York, the 
road lies principally through meadows and swamps, which 
together are known by the name of Newark Meadows. 
These had lately been inundated by a thaw of the snow 
and consequent rise of the neighboring streams, and the 
water had risen to such a height, that the stage was almost 
prevented from passing that route. At some places the 
road for miles was covered by water, to the depth of two 
feet. Similar inundations occasionally occur, and the con- 
sequence is, that throughout miles of the most level and fer- 
tile country no one will venture to erect a dwelling house 
and it is only here and there, where the land has risen into 
little hills, that dwellings are seen. 

Crossed at Powel Hook, was kindly received by my 
friend, Dr. Van Arsdale, No. 51 Bowery, and urged to 
make his house my home. Next day, Sunday. In the 
morning went to hear Mr. Schaeffer preach. His church 
stands on Williams Street, built of stone, of solid structure. 



nt has a gallery and organ of about twelve stops, which is 
played tolerably well. Mr. Schaeffer preached in the German 
language from Psalm xxxviii. Theme : " When thou hum- 
blest me thou makest me great." Sermon, orthodox — the 
Savior's divinity most unequivocally reiterated and implied. 
The morality and instruction excellent, his enunciation dis- 
tinguished for distinctness, deliberation and force. His 
pronunciation of the German is very correct ; his voice is 
rather too loud and possessed of considerable harshness. 
His whole manner tolerably interesting, somewhat severe, 
but much defective in solemnity, and his audience, as might 
be expected, seemed also but little affected, though in gen- 
eral they were attentive. There seems to be less piety 
among them, than among the Lutherans at York, Pa. 

Afternoon, j o'clock, heard Mr. Schaeffer again, in Eng- 
lish — Gal. ii. 20 : " Christ liveth in me, and the life which I 
live," etc, the sermon, orthodox, able, well written, but much 
defective in the warmth of true piety. His pronunciation 
very correct ; his delivery like in the German, only a little 
less severe, less loud and moie rapid. Read the sermon 
both in the morning and afternoon, but read with great 
ease and liberty, and in general, nearly as well as if he had 
no paper before him. Prayed very lightly for the heathen 
in the afternoon, not at all in the morning. The church 
was not more than one-third filled, either fore or afternoon ; 
the members seem to be of the middle and lower class of 
society. On the whole, Mr. Schaeffer seems to be an 
orthodox man, not at all distinguished for the ardor or 
solemnity of his preaching. 

In the evening went to North Church, (Dr. Milledol- 
er's) situated on the corner of Fulton and Ann Streets. 
Dr. Milledoler had preached in the morning. The edifice 
is very large, indeed, probably 140 feet long and propor- 
tionally broad, the ceiling is somewhat circular, there is a 


large and capacious gallery and from the extremity of the 
gallery to the ceiling is a range of wooden pillars, of light 
structure, and from pillar to pillar there extends a semicir- 
cular partition, in the form of curtains, these join the ceiling 
and extend downwards about a foot in the middle and 
about two and one-half feet at the pillars. There is an 
organ three stories high, the pipes are gilt, the lower 
range contains six pipes on each wing, and the middle has a 
proportionate number. The organ was played with simpli- 
city and solemnity. This is the only Dutch Reformed 
Church which has an organ. In general the Christians of 
that persuasion entertain the same enmity against instru- 
mental music for which the Puritans are so distinguished. 
I could learn of no other church of that persuasion in the 
neighboring country, nor indeed, throughout the whole 
extent of their churches, which admits instrumental music. 
There is displayed in this edifice considerable deviation 
from the apostolical simplicity, and in general the Dutch 
Reformed are not such sticklers for the absolute exclusion 
of everything like ornament from churches. On each side 
of the pulpit sat the Deacons. Each one had a quarto 
Bible before him, and immediately turned to the text, when 
it was announced. This practice, I am told, is not found in 
any other Dutch Reformed Church, 

Between services I went into a Methodist Sunday- 
school, and after sitting silently about half an hour, some of 
the Methodist brethren came to me, and entered into con- 
versation. I found them very pious, and after I had talked 
for some time they were highly pleased with me, and asked 
whether I was not a Methodist. And having been answered 
in the negative, " Well then," said one of them," wererit you 
converted by Methodist preaching?" This appeared very 
singular to me, and I took the liberty to tell them, that 
though all they had hitherto said seemed to flow from 


hearts filled with the love of Jesus, yet I regarded it my;| 
duty to say, that I thought the last question arose from an 
unchristian spirit, and was prompted by spiritual pride. 
They then explained, or rather endeavored to explain away' 
that observation. 

Monday, jth, visited Mr. Schaeffer, and was received^ 
with unbounded expressions of friendship. He spent thej? 
greater part of the day in attending to me. His wife is anj ' 
intelligent, amiable woman. I found Mr. Schaeffer to be a( 
young man of fine talents and acquirements. He is all 
alive to the extension and prosperity of the Lutheran 
Church. Mr. Schaeffer maintains an extensive corres- 
pondence with some literary and scientific men in our 
country ; but more particularly with some of the literati o 
Germany. He receives a periodical work from Jena ; 
where the clergy are substantially orthodox. Among his'] 
correspondents are some of the most celebrated living 
authors, Draeseke, Ebsling, (lately dead), Knapp, etc. His 
sermon on the Jubilee, a copy of which he kindly presented 
to me, has been reviewed by German critics, and was much 
applauded. On a late occasion, when a Lutheran clergy- 
man was sent by the Church Missionary Society of London, 
as a missionary to the East Indies, the Bishop of London 
called him Brother, and thereby virtually acknowledged his 
ordination, which had been performed at Halle, as valid. 
Bishop Hobart of this city, in giving an account of it, well 
knowing that the acknowledgment of presbyterial ordina- 
tion was diametrically in the face of his practice and pro- 
fession, absolutely gave a perverted statement and perverted 
the facts, of which Mr. Schaeffer thought the Bishop had a 
correct statement. Mr. Schaeffer published in the English 
language, in a periodical work of this city, a refutation of 
the Bishop's statement, which he showed me, and which is 
written in a very spirited style. I was very much rejoiced 


o learn, that our Brother Jaeger, who was sent as a deputy 
"rom our Synod, had preached a very orthodox sermon on 
[ John i. 7 of which Christ was the theme. Mr. Schaeffer 
ilso told me, that Quitman had the night before at his house 
leclared, that no one that entered his pulpit should preach 
ny doctrine in it, but such as he approved. But to the 
3raise of Brother Jaeger be it said, that he denied not his 
Lord. Mr. Schaeffer believes, that Quitman and some 
t)thers are Socinians, and some others Arminians, but he is 
n hope, that the evangelic interest is increasing. Mr. 
schaeffer believed that Lintner is orthodox. 

I am informed by Mr. Schaeffer that Molther, who 
applied for admission to our Synod, was not a pious man, 
hat he had been employed as missionary by the Synod to 
he western parts of New York, and that he disputed on his 
(Vay with other Lutheran clergymen, and on the whole had 

, liot maintained a good character among their body ; had 
quarrelled with his congregation about his salary, etc. Mr. 
Schaeffer also assured me that previous to his journey to 
Renne, he had applied to the Bishop of his town for admis- 
sion to his church, but not being cordially received, went 
o our (Pa.,) Synod. Hence it appears that the conduct of 
^ur Synod in not receiving him, without satisfactory evi- 
dence of his good character, was very judicious ; for thus 
iy the blessing of God, an unconverted man is kept out of 
jhe ministry. 

Mr. Schaeffer complains that our clergymen corre- 
spond too little, and do not act more in unison in their efforts 
,0 promote the Gospel. Was opposed to the " Plan Ent- 
krurf," and thinks much of the Lutheran hymn book edited 

.J \y the New York Synod. 

Tuesday and Wednesday, 8th and gth of Feb., 1820. 
>pent the 8th in the forenoon in the museum. It is a large, 
espectable, well arranged collection. But inferior to the 

7o MUSEUM — dr^seke;. 

Philadelphia museum. There is much noise, and other 
immoral, disorderly conduct in the edifice in daytime. At 
night it is the fashionable time for visitors, who desire 
to spend only an hour. There is something striking about 
this edifice, which professes to be the repository of the 
curiosities of nature. On entering the door, you will look 
around you for the janitor, who is to receive the money, 
and will deem it strange that no one is visible. A little 
boy, only of three and one-half feet is standing near the 
door; but on advancing into the room this pigmy runs 
before you and demands the money. Surprised that the 
care of such an institution should be confided to such a 
child, I inquired where the doorkeeper was, and the little 
pert, in a very dignified manner declared that to be the 
office which he sustained. On examining him, I found 
that he was twenty-one years of age, of sound mind and 
body, and a native of the State of New Jersey, and the 
regular janitor. 

On the 9th, I spent the morning with Brother Schaef- 
fer, conversed more intimately with him on the state of 
vital religion in our Church, both in Europe and particu- 
larly in this country. He informed me of many circum- 
stances which rejoiced my heart, and afford reason for us to 
bless the God of Jacob. At Bremen, in " Ober Sachsen," 
is stationed the most excellent and pious Draeseke, whose 
second volume of sermons Brother Schaeffer has. I read his 
Karfreitags-predigt, (Good Friday Sermon,) and glanced 
over several others. He is a choice spirit, one of those 
who never did, nor never will bow the knee to Baal. His 
sermons evince him to be a man of great strength of mind, 
of flowery, beautiful style, of great solemnity and an over- 
whelming sublimity. They are characterised by a some- 
thing peculiarly fascinating ; they surpass in the true spirit 
of the Gospel, the far-famed sermons of Chalmers. This 


day I examined two periodical works published at Jena, 
which are the only periodical productions of that nature 
published from that place, and was rejoiced to find them 
not only orthodox, but truly pious. 

Through this morning I learned that Brother Schaef- 
fer is most sincerely and ardently devoted to the true 
interests of Lutheranism, and had much confidential con- 
versation with him relative to the interests of our Church. 
He was delighted with the plans which I stated to him as 
being contemplated by me for the cause of my dear 
Redeemer, Jesus Christ ; ' more particularly, with my 
intended translation of Dr. Mosheim's Dogmatic. This 
he thought was a necessary undertaking ; and he expressed 
his confident belief, that it would tend to promote ortho- 
doxy and piety in the church, and would meet with the 
encouragement of our Lutheran Brethren. 

Relative to the propriety of our Synod adopting a con- 
fession of faith, we also had some interchange of sentiments. 
He is of the opinion that something should be done, and 
ought to have been done many years ago. He agreed to 
the opinion that a confession should be adopted which 
ought to hichide only fundamental doctrines ; and that would 
leave sufficient room for that liberty of thought, which all 
Protestants must retain, and yet would be sufficiently 
specific to exclude heresy from our body. 

This ought to be subscribed by our clergy, and by 
this we might try those who are suspected of heresy. This 
would enable us eff .ctually to exclude from the Church of 
Christ those pests of society, the Socinians. I was rejoiced 
to learn from him that Rev. Gdssenhainer, Sr., had within a 
year become a changed man, and much more pious and 
evangelical. He also informed me, though in confidence, 

that Mr. B , of I , was at one time Socinian, but 

that at present he was entirely changed and truly pious, 


and that he had much reason to believe that H and 

M , were also either totally Socinian, or the very next 

thing to it. Mr. Meierheffer he believes to have been an 
orthodox, but unconverted man. He spoke very ener- 
getically of the propriety and necessity of passing a resolu- 
tion in our Synod, which would require every candidate 
for the Gospel ministry to submit to an examination before 
the Synod, on the subject of his personal piety. This is 
a regulation, which I think ought not to be neglected ; may 
the Lord God of his Church, in mercy incline the hearts of 
our Brethren to adopt all such measures as will tend to 
promote the interest of our beloved Lutheran Zion. 

At half past two I dined by invitation, with Rev. Mr. 
Knox, the minister of one of the Dutch Reformed Churches. 
I spent the afternoon till 4 o'clock with him, and found him 
to be a man of benevolence, of tolerably agreeable address, 
of talents not much above mediocrity. His wife is the 
daughter of Dr. Mason, is an intelligent, agreeable and 
accomplished woman. He lives in rather more style than 
comports with the humility of the Gospel of Christ. 

On my inquiring of him the origin of the peculiar cus- 
tom of sitting during prayer, which I observed in the 
Dutch Reformed Church he told me, he did not know it. 

In the evening I took tea with Mr. Schaeffer, who 
then accompanied me to Mr. McClew's church, where the 
annual report of the tract society was to be read. The even- 
ing was unpleasant, and the assembly very small. Mr. 
Knox sat on the middle seat of the pulpit ; on his right was 
the Rev. Dr. Spring, by whose appearance I was very 
agreeably disappointed. He has a dignified appearance, his 
forehead indicates strength of mind, but perhaps also want 
of judgment. He looks very serious and yet pleasant. 
But pitiful indeed was the appearance of Rev. M., who sat 
on the other side. He seems to be a light headed, inflated 


youth of about twenty years of age. After a long prayer 
by Mr. Knox, the choir began to sing, and in the midst of 
the piece a cry of fire and the alarm bells were heard, on 
which half of the httle audience ran out ; and the exercises 
of the evening were postponed till Thursday evening of the 
subsequent week. 

In general the Presbyterians, or rather Calvinists, 
of this city, are, though pious, a high-minded, 
ambitious, intolerant set of men. And into their pompous 
plans for the promulgation of the gospel enters very much 
of a self interested nature, which is diametrically opposed to 
the religion of Jesus. 

Thursday the loth, morning 1 1 o'clock, visited Brother 
Schaeffer, was introduced to Dr. Mitchell, the great 
naturalist. He is a man of rather less than middle size, and 
very corpulent. His manners are very easy and graceful. 
He is very communicative. If a subject be started, he will 
go on to discuss it with the greatest scientific precision, and 
if he is left undisturbed, he will pour forth from the vast 
resources of his mind a complete essay on that subject. He 
observed in the course of conversation, that Geology sup- 
ports the Bible ; though the Bible was not intended as a 
system of physical geography. His appearance resembles 
somewhat, that of Judge Cooper. He manifested consider- 
able vanity, and gave us a polite invitation to call and 
hear him lecture. 

Brother Schaeffer informs me, that the German Re- 
formed are much inclined to join the Lutheran Church, and 
have had some talk on the subject with him. At present 
their pulpit is supplied by Mr. Labach, a Dutch Reformed 
minister, and they are dissatisfied with his preaching the 
peculiarities and errors of Calvinism. 

Mr. Schaeffer on some occasions, when he has been 
prevented from preaching, got some of his vestry to read a 


sermon to the congregation. To-day a gentleman called on 
Mr. Schaeffer while I was there, relative to his coming to 
preach for them. This man is a resident in New Jersey, 
about twenty-three miles from this place, on Saddle River, 
near New Prospect, Franklin Township, Bergen County, 
New Jersey, where there has been no Lutheran worship 
for forty years. He was educated in the Evangelical faith, 
and such is his desire to obtain a minister, and to have a 
church erected, that he offers to give the land to build on, 
together with ^loo, and devote any portion of his time to 
it. Others, he says, are also willing to do much, and he 
came twenty-three miles on his own expense to endeavor to 
persuade Brother Schaeffer to come and preach for them. 
He intends to go on Sabbath after next, to preach twice 
that day, and also on Monday evening, to encourage them 
in the good work, to organize a church, to baptize their 
children, etc. He informed Mr. Schaeffer that there is a 
Lutheran Church within ten miles of him, which has long 
been abandoned, and is no\v in ruins. To this belonged a 
tract of land, which a farmer has at present in possession, 
and which they intended to regain, if practicable. In this 
Mr. Schaeffer will encourage them. 

The best book for a church to read a portion from, in 
the absence of a minister, is " Rambach's Meditations," that 
pious, learned and orthodox production. Oh, if we only 
had a pious, zealous young preacher, to send among these 
people; he would, by God's blessing, establish several 
churches, and save the souls of several hundreds of people. 
Oh ! thou God of the harvest ! we pray thee to send forth 
laborers into thy vineyard ! I encouraged Mr. Schaeffer to 
seek for pious young men, of talent, and persuade them to 
become preachers of the Gospel. And I was happy to 
learn, that he had his eyes upon a young man of the most 


promising character, a Mr. , who is now in Columbia 


I subscribed for that most excellent work of the pious 
Dr. Koethe, which was instituted for the express purpose of 
counteracting the influence of the flood of infidelity, which 
has deluged Germany, and which is conducted with 
singular ability and success ; Price 3 Rix dollars^^2.50. 
This evening I went to hear Mr. Burke preach. He is the 
most zealous Reformed minister I ever heard, a rfian of no 
classical education, and pronounces English badly. He is 
a Hessian by birth and came to America during the 
Revolutionary War, with the Hessian Troops ; but being 
very pious, he studied with Dr. Livingston, has acquired 
an unusually extensive and accurate acquaintance with his 
English Bible, and is probably by far the most useful 
minister of New York. One of his peculiarities is, that he 
states the chapter and verse of almost every text he quotes, 
perhaps sixty in one sermon ! This is both unnecessary and 

This day I also rode with Dr. V. D , in his sleigh to 
Harlem, six miles from the city. There I saw the Harlem 
River, which cuts off this island from the continent, and 
which is nothing but a -branch of tidewater running from 
the East to the North River and forming with the rivers a 
triangle. Saw the fort at Hellgate, the botanical garden, 
Harlem creek, etc. All the turnpikes throughout this 
island have been made by the prisoners of the state-prison 
and are free of toll, which circumstance and the consequent 
freedom of the traveler from the annoyance of the toll-gates 
are a circumstance that arrests the attention of the Phila- 

On Sunday the i^th of February. I heard Dr. Mason 
preach in the morning. He is a great and original speaker. 
Has some peculiarities, and much of the pompous in his 


manner. He has no pulpit in his church, but speaks from 
a stage, which projects from the wall about fifteen feet, is 
about three and one-half feet high, and has mahogany 
railings along the front of it. At the middle, in the space 
usually occupied by the pulpit, there is something similar 
to a small desk ; it is about four feet long and from one 
and a half to two feet broad. All this is covered with silk 
velvet, as is part of the railings on each side of it. He has, 
of course, no canopy. His church is large, has a tall 
steeple, and is decorated in a style, almost, if not quite, as 
splendid as the Episcopal churches are, and to say the 
least, altogether incompatible with the Puritanical profes- 
sions of apostolic simplicity, and their boisterous clamours 
against Episcopal splendor. Though it was a sacramental 
occasion, yet the church was only two-thirds filled. 

In the afternoon I went to hear Bishop Hobart, in St. 
Paul's Church. He is a little man, his physiognomy indi- 
cates considerable talent, particularly great perseverance 
and inflexibility of character. He read the evening service 
in a handsome and tolerably interesting manner, and then 
read a little bit of a sermon of about twenty minutes length 
and the subject was " The importance of keeping a good con- 
science." The sermon was orthodox, but cold, unedifying, 
and contained little more than moral reflections, and had 
very little of a kind, such as to build Up believers, and 
almost nothing that would promise to awaken the sinner. 
In the evening I heard a Methodist preacher, a Mr. Beattie, 
a pious, illiterate and very noisy man. 

Monday, iph. Visited the City Hall, which is a very 
splendid edifice. Indeed, I think it is rather more expen- 
sive than comports with the spirit of true Federal Repub- 
licanism. The principal rooms are lined with portraits of 
Washington, Hamilton, Franklin, Dewitt Clinton, Colden, 
and manv other worthies of this State and of the United 

Ai,MSHOUsE — i,ord's supper. 77 

States. My dear Brother Schaeffer accompanied me 
through all the departments, and obtained a guide to 
unlock the rooms, etc. In the hall of the city council, is 
the one precious relic of former days. The frame of the 
chair on which the Mayor sits, is the identical frame of Gen- 
eral Washington's chair ! With feelings of reverentia 
respect for that truly great and good man, I did myself the 
honor of sitting in it. 

Brother Schaeffer also hired a sleigh and took me with 
him to the Alms House about two miles from the city. On 
the road we had much interesting conversation on the state 
of our beloved Lutheran Zion. We went all through the 
Alms House, conversed on religion with as many as we 
could, and Brother Schaeffer distributed money to the 
German paupers, which money was taken from the treasury 
of the Lutheran Church in New York for the support of 

its poor. 

Dr. Mason's people come out of the pews to receive the 
Lord's Supper and surround a table which is placed in the 
aisles of the church. They have the bread in large slices, 
half round a loaf of about eight inches breadth. These I 
believe (though I did not look to see), are broken by the 
communicants and each takes a small piece. The Dutch 
Reformed have theirs cut into small inch cubes. The 
Dutch Reformed, also, all (as far as I could learn) surround 
a table in the aisle to receive it. But all the Presbyterians 
in the city and around the country, receive it sitting in their 

Tuesday, isth. Dined with Dr. Rogers, No. 14 Court- 
land street. He is a very lively, interesting and a pious 
man. He informed me during a long conversation that 
Mr. Whelfley is a ''good sort of a man',' but not the man to 
build up the church of which he is pastor. That he is now 
almost entirely clear of Hopkinsonian heresy, and is becom- 


ing more pious. I enquired the character of Mr, Albertus 
the Presbyterian Clergyman of this city ; he answered, " Ah, 
Mr. Schmucker, he's a dandy, he's the dandy preacher, a 
man that should never climb the pulpit !" Dr. Spring, he 
said, is a man of talents and possessed of a good deal of 
cunning. The Hopkinsonian controversy has subsided 
by the silence of both parties. 

Brother Schaeffer bestowed upon me a number of valuable 
pamphlets, and said he would endeavor from time to time 
to send me everything of an interesting literary character, 
and particularly anything which has a bearing on the re- 
ligion of our common Jesus. 

From a Mr. Keyser, who was an officer in the German 
army, against Bonaparte, I learn that all the students of 
Theology and everything else together with their profes- 
sors, also entered the army against the Tyrant of Europe. 
That old Eichhorn himself and all the great men served 
in the army two years — that the students were so enthu- 
siastic as to resemble madmen, that they dashed forward 
into the flames of battle, even where there was no necessity 
for it. This was the most learned army that ever took the 
field — and this it was which destroyed that enemy of man. 

Brother Schaeffer and I agreed also to promote the 
good of our Lutheran Zion by our literary labors. I 
informed him of my intention to translate Mosheim's Dog- 
matic, and he said probably he would compendize and 
translate the Theol. Mor. of the same author, of which I 
expressed high pleasure. May the God of mercy bless our 
interviews to the good of his church and use us as humble 
instruments to promote his glory. 

After Mr. Schmucker's return from New York he re- 
mained in Princeton until March 30, 1820. "He did not go 
back to the University in Philadelphia after the Sophomore 
year, but may have applied to be graduated with his class in 



1818, either upon examination or the continuance of his 
studies, as the records of the University show, that in that 
year it was proposed to confer upon him the degree of 
A. B., Honoris Causa. No action was taken then, but in 
18 19 this degree was conferred upon him at the Commence- 




1820 — 1823. 



"At Lancaster, Pa., on the second day of June, 1820, 
Samuel S. Schmucker, having passed a most satisfactory 
examination, was licensed by the Synod of Pennsylvania to 
preach the gospel. The authority already quoted, says, 
the York pupil was not immediately called to pastoral 
work, and that even so eminently qualified a young minis- 
ter had to abide his time. There were few, if any, vacant 
pulpits. Pastors were usually settled for life. Pastoral 
districts were large and rarely divided. Mission churches 
were not organized. Few changes occurred. It was only 
when a pastor died or became disabled by infirmities or old 
age, that a vacancy would occur in the Lutheran pulpit. 
There were but few exceptions to this general state of 
things. ' Hence,' says Dr. Morris, ' when young 
Schmucker came home, well furnished and ready for work, 
there was no room for him.' He waited till Providence 
should open an effectual door. How unlike our time, when 
the Church is growing and our pastoral charges are multi- 
plying so rapidly that all our schools cannot furnish, in suf- 
ficient numbers, young theologians of grave deportment, 
exemplary purity of life and pre-eminent attainments, to fill 
the vacancies in the pulpit." — D. 



The following account of his settlement in Virginia is 
given by Dr. Diehl : 

In the latter part of the year 1820, he received and 
accepted a call from New Market. According to the 
authority already quoted, by the division of the large pas- 
toral charge of Rev. Nicholas Schmucker, a godly minister 
in Shenandoah County, Va., a new parish was formed at 
New Market, and Samuel S. Schmucker, at the recommen- 
dation of his uncle (Rev. Nicholas Schmucker), was chosen 
pastor. " And so we see this highly educated Princetonian, 
the class-mate of men, who afterward became bishops — Bis- 
hop Johns, of Virginia, and Bishop M'llvaine, of Ohio — 
and of other eminent divines, tracing his steps to an 
obscure section of Virginia, to labor among a people not far 
advanced in intellectual refinement, of primitive simplicity 
and of exceedingly rural culture. A man of his mental 
endowments had never before ministered in that particular 
region. There were ministers, and good men, too, after 
their sort ; but here was a young man, a thoroughly edu- 
cated young man, taking pastoral care of churches, that had seen the like before." 

But in every portion of Virginia there were families of 
intelligence, wealth, and refinement. In the scope of coun- 
try some eight or ten miles around New Market, embracing 
a part of Shenandoah and a part of Rockingham counties, 
this class of society was not without a fair representation- 
Nor was it long before our accomplished young minister 
was heard of, by the most influential people. An incident 
occasionally related by Dr. Schmucker himself, gave him a 
favorable introduction to the highest classes of that com- 
munity. A death occurred in a prominent family some dis- 
tance from the town. As the family had no direct connec- 


tion with any church, a neighbor who had recently spent a 
Sunday in New Market, and heard young Schmucker 
preach, suggested that he should be invited to conduct the 
funeral services, in connection with an uneducated local 
Baptist preacher of the neighborhood. At the funeral Mr. 
Schmucker felt it to be proper to ask the local preacher, an 
elderly man, to deliver his discourse first. Our young 
preacher with all his attainments, had up to this time pre- 
pared only one funeral sermon, (no doubt an excellent one), 
on the text, " Blessed are the dead," etc. This sermon had 
been committed to memory. When the aged Baptist 
turned to Rev. xiv. 1 3 and read his text, " Blessed are the 
dead," the dismay of the young preacher may be easily 
conceived. But as the discourse proceeded in a rambling 
t>"ain of thought, with scarcely any reference to the text, the 
case assumed a more hopeful aspect. At the conclusion 
of his discourse the ground occupied by Schmucker's writ- 
ten discourse had scarcely been touched. The old preacher 
said, there was a young man present who would now make 
a few remarks. He therefore delivered his sermon 
as it had been written and fixed in his memory. The large 
audience, embracing most of the intelligence of that region, 
looked with wonder on the young man ; so intellectual, so 
solemn in manner, so admirable in his style of speaking, 
uttering thoughts so appropriate to the occasion, so thor- 
ough in the discussion of the subject, so earnest in his 
appeals, so happy in ministering consolation to the bereaved 
family — and withal having the appearance of an extempora- 
neous discourse, a^ he took up the old man's text at the 
point he left off — the effect was remarkable. This effort at 
once stamped him, in the estimation of the elite of that 
region, as a young man of astonishing gifts and attainments. 
This representation is altogether authentic. 

Before going to Virginia, and after his return, before 


accepting the call, he preached in some of the churches in 
and near York. He also visited Baltimore and Philadel- 
phia, and preached in some of the churches both in the 
German and English languages. 

The following extract from his diary during his first 
visit to Virginia, will be interesting to the reader, and give 
us an idea of the state of the church there at that time : 


Tuesday, Sept. 6th. Arrived at Gettysburg last even- 
ing. Called on Brother Herbst, who was very friendly. 
Staid with him. After tea we walked down to Mr, Buehler, 
found him friendly, and well; but rather too much involved 
in politics. 

When I had come near to Gettysburg, and saw the 
mountains which lie between this and Hagerstown, my 
breast was filled with delightful feelings. My thoughts, 
which had previously been occupied about Brother Herbst, 
instantaneously leaped over Gettysburg, and over the 
mountains, and dwelt with an almost unknown pleasure 
upon my friend, E. G. 

During the time that I was there (Woodstock, Va.,) 
I was rather dejected. The Brethren, Reck and Krauth, 
had given me so dark a picture of the manners of the Wood- 
stockers, that I thought no faithful minister could with any 
comfort reside there ; and this was resting on my mind. I 
was, indeed, more melancholy than a Christian ought to be. 
But when I rode off with uncle Jacob, the case was 
changed. He is the least mental of the Schmuckers, very 
rustic and uninformed. His observations were so local, 
and possessed withal something of a native peculiarity, that 
they rendered it not a little difficult for me to maintain my 
gravity. He kept me in very frequent inward laughter. 
But on the morning previous to my departure from 
Frederick, I was enabled to cast my cares upon the Lord^ 


and look up to him for guidance. Blessed religion, which 
can dispel the gloomy cares of this life, and enable us to 
believe, though we see not ! The circumstance which 
dejected me was, that God seemed to leave me so long in 
doubt, where he would have me labor. 

This morning I came to town with rather a heavy 
heart, yet feeling much of the power of religion. I went to 
Mr. Ott, was very kindly received ; but found that the 
church here is rather a cold one. I went to church much 
depressed. The assembly was remarkably large for this 
town. I preached on Isaiah Iv. 6 : " Seek ye the Lord 
while he may be found, call ye upon him while he is near," 
and blessed be God, I felt a peculiar solemnity and a sense 
of divine aid. The audience was remarkably attentive. In 
the afternoon I had all the English people there, church 
very full, I preached from i John ii. 28 : " Little children, 
abide in him," I also felt great solemnity and fluency, and 
the audience was very attentive. Singing excellent. I am 
sure I never preached with greater solemnity and feeling 
any two sermons. I feel thankful to God, that he has been 
thus near to me to-day; " Bless the Lord, O my soul," etc. 
Mr. Ott told me that he had been told from different 
sources, and from the most respectable English people in 
the town, that no young man had ever been in this town 
who was so liked in both languages as I. He said, that 
he had always been a friend of uncle Nicholas, and there- 
fore could not do any thing for me until he was convinced 
that Nicholas wished to give it up. But that if Nicholas 
gave them up, and I came here and preached both lan- 
guages, the church would be much increased. The Eng- 
lish Episcopal preacher, Lansing, is deaf, and will leave at 
the end of a year, and then all the Episcopalians, who 
amount to five in town and four ironmasters in the vicinity, 
would join my church. Smith, the English Presbyterian, 


is engaged as teacher and preacher for one year. This 
congregation consists of Dr. Irwin and family. 

This evening Mr. Williams, an Episcopalian, and Mr. 
Moreland of the same church, son-in-law to Mr. Ott, 
called to see me. Mr. Williams is very intelligent and 
apparently from his talk, pious, a man of noble heart, who 
wishes me to come here. Mr. Moreland is also very intelli- 
gent, though I did not learn so much of his character. 
What great reason have I to bless God, for his kind 
dealings toward me ! O my soul ! put thy trust always in 
God, even the living God ! for he is thy covenant keeping 

Tuesday, Sept. igth. Yesterday came here to uncle 
Nicholas and was very kindly received. Spent the after- 
noon and this whole day conversing with him on different 
points. He is a man of good talents and respectable infor- 
mation. He is very willing to give me two of his congre- 
gations, Woodstock and Huddle's schoolhouse, if I see fit 
to settle here. He is very kind. We have talked over all 
the circumstances of the town and of New Market. Henkel 
and sons persecute instinctively everything that bears the 
name of Schmucker. Nicholas is a true Christian. I gave 
him some general views, or rather abstract views of my 
matrimonial intentions, and he approves them. His wife is 
a very sensible, goodnatured, pious woman. Became pious, 
he told me, within the last two years. 

Thursday 21st. Although I trust my love to God 
is supreme, and though I examine and weigh with the 
utmost solemnity the important subject of my settlement in 
these congregations, yet daily do I dedicate myself anew to 
his service.* 

* Here the diary is abruptly broken off, a number of pages having 
been cut out from the manuscript, and irretrievably lost, which leaves 
a chasm of several months in the narrative. 



Nov. 26. This day I preached twice — once for Rev. 
Mr. Mayer, in the afternoon, to an unusually large audience, 
and in the evening for Brother Cruse, to as full a house as 
was ever collected there (so they told me). In the after- 
noon I preached only with tolerable warmth — my feelings 
had been congealed by several hours previous and unavoid- 
able intercourse with Mr. M , with whom I dined. In 

the evening I felt better, and trust, by the grace of God, did 
considerable good. Paid two or three visits after church — 
was attended by Rev. Brother Cruse, who was very friendly 
and attentive, and desired to be on corresponding terms. 
We agreed that when either had anything to communicate, 
he should write. Took leave of Mrs. Kneb's family, was very 
urgently invited to make their house my home when I 
come next to the city. 

Have conclusive evidence that Mr. M is not pious, 

and probably that he is not fundamentally sound — was told 
that he several times refused the degree of D. D., but 
believe him a man of fine talents and veiy respectable learn- 

Have been wonderfully led and guided by my God 
since I have been here. O may thy goodness fill my soul 
with gratitude and praise. Heard much about how the 
people were pleased with my sermon. Miss Mary Lex 
presented me with Gosner's works in three volumes, splen- 
did morocco binding, and Mr. Lex, Senior, with Dr. 
Jablonski on Ecclesiastes xii. i, etc., i volume quarto. 

Visited Dr. Wilson's new church, 120 feet by 85 — a 
large part of it cut off for vestry room and lobbies, so that 
the actual church room inside is square or nearly so — the 
ceiling very low and flat, except a small curve at the edges, 
the gallery reaches round three sides and is very low — 
windows low. 



Dec. jrd. Preached in the morning for Dr. Kurtz, 
German ; afternoon for Mr. Helfenstein, EngHsh. Was 
received with much attention and friendship by Dr. Kurtz 
and my other acquaintances. 


Dec. Thursday 22nd, 1820. On Tuesday I left Win- 
chester, where I had been treated with much attention by 
my friends Messrs. Bakers, Mrs. Streit, etc. Mrs. Streit 
has five children at home, two boys, one about twenty, the 
other about fourteen years old ; and three girls, the one 
nineteen, another twelve, and another eight years old. Was 
more pleased with Mrs. Streit's disposition than ever. Con- 
versed with her on father's concerns, she said he is young 
and must marry again. 

Left Winchester about 10 o'clock, fed at Strasburg, and 
traveled on toward Woodstock. The road was very muddy 
and bad, and it becoming dark, my tour was very unpleas- 
ant. I was becoming rather dejected, when I met two 
travelers coming toward me. I inquired the distance to 
Woodstock, and was recognized by uncle Nicholas and Mr. 
Ott. They spoke and we were much rejoiced. They were 
on their way to visit a sick man, but turned back to Mr. 
Ott's. I got supper, and Mr. Ott gave me one of his 
horses, and we went all three together to the sick man, 
administered the sacramental supper to him, and returned. 
Wednesday morning visited Mr. Moreland and Mr. Wil- 
liams, and went with uncle Nicholas to his house. On 
Thursday it rained, but I wishing to go, uncle Nicholas 
accompanied me six miles in the rain, though I wished him 
not to do it. I arrived at Mr. Bower's, and was received 
with his usual excessive and sincere friendship. Here then 
I would send up an acknowledgement of my gratitude to 


the God of mercy, who has led me hitherto. On my 
arrival I was informed of the various and unpleasant inci- 
dents which occurred during my absence. That Peter 

S wished to come back, and had written, informing 

the people of this, and telling them (which is not true) that 
he thought I would not come. Mayerheffer also offered, in 
case I refused, and scolded the people for not giving him 
the first opportunity. 

Jan. 6. The vestries of the town and Solomon's 
Church wrote, or rather requested me to write to Uncle 
Peter (they dictating the letter) to inform him of my arrival 
and adding, that he need not come now, and hoping he 
would spend his time agreeably there. 


Having accepted the call of the Woodstock pastorate, 
he entered on his work with zeal and energy, and both as a 
pastor and a preacher he was eminently successful. This 
will appear from Dr. Diehl's account of his labors in the 
Shenandoah Valley : 

" To form a correct estimate of Prof. Schmucker as a 
preacher, we must not view him in the pulpit as he was in 
his later years. We must go back to his pastoral life from 
1820 to 1826. Though he delivered his sermons without 
manuscript, he was not an extemporaneous preacher. He 
made full preparation, writing his sermons with great care. 
Such, however, was his facility in memorizing his own 
compositions, that three readings would often be sufficient 
to transfer an entire sermon from the manuscript to his 
memory. His sermons were framed after the model of the 
best authorities fifty years ago. Going to the root of his 
subject, analyzing it carefully, arranging his matter system- 
atically, clothing his thoughts in a clear, Addisonian style, 
instructive and practical at the same time, an occasional 


flower of rhetoric, appeals to the conscience as well as to 
reason, touching at times the fountain of emotions, always 
solemn in aspect and dignified in manner, distinct in his 
enunciation, clear in voice and loud enough to be easily 
heard by all, he was such a preacher, in 1822, as all classes 
delighted to hear, and universally regarded as having extra- 
ordinary ability and attractiveness." 

" He was not favorably located for the development of 
preaching ability. The audiences have much to do in 
bringing out power in the pulpit. The people to whom he 
ministered — those four small congregations of plain, uned- 
ucated people to whom he broke the bread of life, would 
exert no stimulating power upon a highly intellectual and 
cultured young man. The tendency would rather be to 
repress excellence. His quick intelligence soon took the 
measure of their capacity. His earnest piety prompted him 
to labor for their spiritual improvement. It is probable 
that his chief aim, in those four or five old-fashioned pul- 
pits, was to impress the elements of the gospel, the first 
principles of Christian truth, upon the minds and con- 
sciences of his flock. To make them comprehend what he 
said, and to enforce the doctrines, promises, warnings and 
consolations to which he gave utterance, required constant 
efforts at simplifying, and, consequently, a repression of his 
scholarly tastes and habits. Had he received only one- 
fourth of the educational training with which he was fur- 
nished, he would probably have preached in a style better 
adapted to the appreciation of that people. And it may be,, 
that when he sent out some smart student of his, like Sam- 
uel Hoshour, to fill his country appointments, some people 
may have thought that the student of one year's theological 
reading could preach as well as the young professor 
with all his college and seminary honors. Had he been 
settled over an intelligent congregation in a large place. 


under the stimulating power of appreciating audiences, his 
preaching would have been of a much higher order, than 
that which came in clear ringing tones from the goblet- 
shaped pulpits of the New Market parish. It was when he 
went from home and preached in places like Winchester, 
Frederick, Hagerstown, York, or Philadelphia, that his 
powers were fully enlisted. The testimony of intelligent 
laymen who heard him on such occasions, is unanimous, 
that fifty years ago Samuel S. Schmucker was a delightful 
and highly profitable preacher. His reputation in the 
places mentioned was such, that when it was known that 
he would preach in any of those towns, the intelligent peo- 
ple of all denominations flocked to hear him." 

There were other good preachers in the Lutheran 
church at that day — Dr. C. Endress, a man of a high order 
of intellect and extensive erudition, in the pulpit at Lancas- 
ter, till his death, 1827 ; Dr. George Lochman, an exceed- 
ingly popular pastor and preacher, at Harrisburg, till 1826; 
and Dr. F. Christian Schaeffer, one of the effective and 
attractive preachers of the time, in New York, till 1832. 
The man with whom Mr. Schmucker was more frequently 
compared was Benjamin Kurtz, of Hagerstown, a young 
man also, but older than he by precisely four years, being 
also born on the 28th of February, (1795). When 
Schmucker entered the ministry, Kurtz was already attract- 
ing notice as a rising man in the church. While young 
Schmucker was sprightly, intellectual, scholarly, practical, 
and at times impressive, he was on great occasions, too 
didactic for the popular appreciation ; Kurtz was ardent, 
evangelical, heart-moving and successful. On some occa- 
sions he was overwhelmingly powerful ; and not many 
years afterward generally regarded as the very first of our 
English preachers. Among the cotemporaries of Schmucker 
in the pulpits of other denominations, there were men of 


transcendent ability. Dr. Mason was not yet dead. Lyman 
Beecher was rising toward the zenith of his glory. Duncan 
was already brilliant in the Baltimore pulpit. The charm- 
ing Summerfield was already looming upward, shedding 
his heavenly light over the land. Bascom was filling a 
large space in the public eye. 

Now, while in many of the elements of popular elo- 
quence Mr. Schmucker, even under the most favorable 
influences, was not fitted to take a place in the same rank 
with those brilliant lights of the American pulpit, yet taking 
the entire man, his fine intellect, his large attainments, his 
scholarly tastes, his evangelical spirit, his fidelity to duty 
and his deep devotion to the interests of the church, he 
was worthy to be the contemporary and compeer of those 

As pastor his experience was limited. Even during 
the period of pastoral life at New Market, he was taxed 
with so many other duties that his best energies could not 
be given to pastoral work, if by pastoral work we are to 
understand the ministerial duties performed outside of the 
pulpit. But in this department of his work he was faithful. 
He never failed to visit the sick or the awakened, when 
informed of their condition. He ministered consolation to 
the bereaved. It has been said, that he rarely engaged in 
conversation with a parishoner, without giving the conver- 
sation a religious turn. Probably a few minutes of religious 
talk from the lips of young Schmucker left a better influence 
upon the church member, than the social visit of several 
hours' duration from some of his contemporaries. 

After the expiration of his first pastoral year, his time 
was so occupied, that very little could be spared for his peo- 
ple, excepting what was required for visits to the sick and 
those in spiritual difficulty or distress. And he was suc- 
cessful, as the fruits of his ministry abundantly prove. 


Upon the very best authority it has been said, that when 
Mr. Schmucker began his ministry, not one in four of the 
New Market families had a Lutheran member in it. When 
he left, in less than six years, not one in four was without a 
member of his church. 

In a sketch of his life published by Rev. H. C. 
Schierenbeck, 1863, the materials of which were drawn 
from the most reliable source, it is said, " He labored from 
house to house for the spiritual welfare of his people. He 
held weekly prayermeetings : instructed the youth in the 
catechism after the manner of the Patriarch Muhlenburg, 
and established Sunday-schools. His pulpit ability gave 
weight to his message, and he was greatly beloved by his 

The statistical reports to the Synod of Maryland and 
Virginia bear out this statement. At the Synod of Freder- 
ick, 1 82 1, the end of his first pastoral year, he reported 
twenty additions by confirmation, and ninety communicants. 
At the Synod of Cumberland, 1822, forty confirmed, and 
135 communicants. At Shepherdstown, 1823, seventeen 
confirmed. At Middletown, 1824, forty -two confirmed. 
At Hagerstown, 1825, forty confirmed, and 191 communi- 
cants. Commencing with five small congregations, having 
an aggregate communion list of seventy, to which he added 
twenty the first jear, and an average of nearly forty every 
year afterwards, from a small Lutheran community, and 
leaving, in four congregations, at his resignation in 1826, 
about two hundred communicants, shows a ministry as 
fruitful as that of any contemporary pastor. In estimating 
the fruits of a ministry, the extent of material to work upon 
must be taken into the account. There were pastors, of 
course, who confirmed more than forty annually, during 
those five years. But they had large pastoral districts, with 
three or tour hundred families, and seven or eight hundred 


communicants. Young Schmucker commenced, at New 
Market, with thirty-five or forty families. Yet, from this 
limited material his yearly accessions were large. It is 
probable that in no other parish of our church, during those 
five years, were there confirmed, every year, a number equal 
to the number of families at the beginning. 

The following extracts from the diary after his licens- 
ure, and while he was a candidate, may be interesting and 
instructive. Parts of it are written in German, English and 

1820, June 20. Funeral Sermon at the burial of Mr. 
Bernhardt. Text, John x. 27-30. Theme: The privileges of 
the true followers of Christ. 

I. The character of the true followers of Christ; 
II. Their privileges. 

28th. Baptized two children at Kreutz Creek Church. 

July 2. Preached at Carlisle for Brother Keller. In 
the^morning. Text: Acts iii. 19. 

I. The nature of true repentance. 

1. It embraces a change in the views 

a. Of God ; 

b. Of the divine law ; and of 

c. The future state. 

2. In \h.e feelings or dispositions; 

3. In the practical experience and life of the 

II. The proofs or verification of this conversion. 
It is the only way of true happiness ; 

1. In this life ; 

2. In death ; 

3. In eternity. 

Evening, Jeremiah ix. 23, 24. Theme: The true Glory of 


I. Consider some of the objects of the worldly man's 
glory ; 

a. Riches ; 

b. Fame ; 

c. Wisdoni ; 

II, Consider the object of the Christian's glory ; true 
and saving knowledge of God. 
III. Show why we ought to glory in the latter and not 
in the former ; 

a. Because God commands it in our text; 

b. Because the former are not, and the latter are 

proper objects of human glory ; 

c. Because man holds a high rank in the grade of 

July g. York. Text : Psalm ex. 3. The skeleton is 
founded on the following new translation of the Hebrew : 
" After the time of thy victory thy people shall bring thee 
willing offerings in the beauty of holiness, and children 
shall be born unto thee as the morning dew flows in the 
eastern horizon." Theme: The joyful consequences of the 
victory of Christ our King. 
I. The victory itself; 

Give a history of the rise, progress and termina- 
tion of the conflict between Jesus and Satan ; 
II. The joyful consequences thereof; 

1. A people shall be gathered; 

2. The people shall bring him willing offerings ; 

a. A profession of their faith by joining the 

visible church ; 

b. By sacrificing the pleasures of the world ; 

c. By yielding themselves a living sacrifice to 

Application, i. To those who are of his people ; 

2. To those who are not of his people. 



From July 2j to September j, he preached every 
Sunday in some one or the other Lutheran Churches in York 
Town or County. 

September i^. Preached at Strasburg, Va., on John 
X. 27-30. 

ii^th. Preached at Woodstock, Va. Isaiah Iv. 6 
" Seek ye the Lord while he may be found, call upon him 
while he is near," 

i^tk. Preached at Solomon's Church near New 

. Market, Virginia, on Rom. viii. 9. " But ye are not in the 

flesh, but in the Spirit, if so be that the Spirit of God dwell 

in you. Now, if any man have not the Spirit of Christ, he 

is none of his." 

2ph. Preached at New Market, on Micah vi. 3. " O 
my people, what have I done unto thee ? and wherein have 
I wearied thee ? Testify against me." 

2ph. Preached at Plains meeting-house in English 
and German. 

26th. Preached at Armentrauts. Text : Isaiah Iv. 6 
in German. 

I. By nature we have not the Lord ; 
II. If we would have him, we must seek him ; 

III. How shall we obey the command of the text ; 

IV. If we do not seek him now, we may not find him in 

In the evening, at the same place on Ephesians v. 16. 
" Redeeming the time, because the days are evil." 

November 4.. Preached at Quickels Church. Text : 
Matt. XX. 16. Theme: The chatiges in the Church of Christ. 

I. The persons ; 

a. The first ; 

b. The last. 


II. The changes ; 

a. The first shall become the last ; 

b. The last shall become the first. 

November 26. Preached for Rev. Mayer in Philadel- 
phia, on Prov. iii. 17. "His ways are ways of pleasantness, 
and all her paths are peace." 

The same day in the evening preached for Brother 
Cruse to a crowded and very attentive audience. Text : 
Rev. xiv. 13. "Blessed are the dead which die in the 

I. The persons. They are such as lived in Jesus, viz : 

1. In the faith of Jesus; 

2. In the communion of Jesus ; 

3. In obedience to Jesus. 
II. Their future blessedness ; 

(a.) They shall rest from their labors, in promoting 
the Kingdom of God 

1. In their own souls ; 

a. From the labor of self-denial ; 

b. From the use of means of grace ; 

c. From spiritual watchfulness ; 

d. From sorrow for their sins. 

2. In the souls of others ; 

(b.) Their works shall follow them ; applications. 
December 2. In the morning for Dr. Kurtz in Balti- 
more, Text : Acts iii. 20. " And he shall send Jesus 
Christ, which before was preached unto you." 

jrd. In the afternoon for Rev. Helfenstein, the Re- 
formed pastor. 

loth. Preached in York, on Heb. ii. 3. " How shall we 
escape, if we neglect so great salvation, which at the first 
began to be spoken by the Lord, and was confirmed unto 
us by them that heard him." 


Exordium. The salvation of an immortal being is infi- 
nitely important. Therefore the inspired writers were led 
to speak most earnestly, and as they were not deprived by 
inspiration of their natural capacities, they made use of 
human forms of speech. St. Paul gives expression to his 
ardent feelings by means of an antithesis, " How shall the 
transgressor escape ? " etc. 

Theme : The unhappy conditio7i of those who neglect the 
great Salvation, 

I. The Great Salvation embraces two principal parts ; 

1. Deliverance from the slavery, 

a. Of the world ; 

b. Of Satan ; 

c. Of our own sinful nature ; 

d. Of the curse of the law in this life and the life 

that is to come. 

2. In the blessings of 

a. The restoration of the image of God ; 

b. The restoration of the favor of God ; 

c. Adoption as children of God. 

3. The greatness of this salvation is shown ; 

a. By the price it cost — the blood of Christ ; 

b. The opinions of many saints and learned men ; 

c. The death of the martyrs ; 

d. The nature of the salvation — it is eternah 

II. The persons who neglect this salvation. 

1 . Those who deny the divine revelation ; 

2. Those whose Christianity is but an outward 

form ; 

3. Those who have had good impressions, but 

resisted them. Application. 



December ij. Preached at Winchester for Brother 

December 21. Arrived at New Market, Shenandoah 
County, Va,, and by the grace of God, in reliance on the 
aid of God, took charge of my churches. 

2pk. Preached Thursday before Christmas in the 
morning, in Solomon's Church, German, and in the after- 
noon at New Market. 

January /, 1821. Spent the day and the night previ- 
ous to New Year in meditation, self-examination and 

ist. Preached in New Market, on Job xvi. 22. 
" When a few more years are come, then shall I go the way 
whence I shall not return." 

i-6th. This week I spent in pastoral visits, principally 
in Solomon's Church. 

I4^th. Preached at Mount Pleasant to a large and 
attentive audience, and accepted the charge of that church, 
on application of the vestry. It had formerly been an 
Episcopal Church, but the minister having left them, they 
applied to me, and conform to Lutheran forms. 

Jan 22. was a day of peculiar solemnity, self-examina- 
tion and abasement to my soul, and I trust, truly profitable 
to me. 

Feb. II. Preached in the morning at Mount Pleasant. 
N. B. In the church at Mt. Pleasant I preach only Eng- 
lish, because the congregation, having been Episcopal, do 
not understand any German. 

April 4. Wednesday commenced the instruction of 
the catechumens preparatory to confirmation, in the New 
Market congregation. In the evening I held prayermeet- 
ing, and made an address of an hour's length to the assem- 
bly, who appeared very attentive and serious. 


20th. Good Friday, Preached in Armentraut's to a 
very large assembly. 

22nd. Easter Sunday. Preached in the morning at 
Mt. Pleasant. Afternoon, New Market in German. Eas- 
ter Monday, New Market in English*. 

2^111. Preached in Solomon's Church on Matt. xx. 
16 : " So the last shall be first, and the first last : for many 
be called, but few chosen." 

As some had imbibed prejudices agaiuoL tiie General 
Synod, I read the proceedings of its session at Hagerstown 
together with the constitution, and defended the General 
Synod. All appeared to be satisfied with it. 

May ^i. Preached at Armentraut's, Mark xvi. i6, in 
both languages, " He that believeth and is baptized, shall 
be saved ; but he that believeth not shall be damned." 

Baptized three children in the church, then rode two 
miles to baptize another. This day I rode thirty miles, 
preached twice, baptized four children, and visited four dif- 
ferent families, and I not unfrequently do this in one day. 

June 3rd. Preached at Mt. Pleasant to a large audience. 
Preached in New Market in German, on the nature of the 
Holy Sacrament of the Lord's Supper, and presented the 
various customs and views of this ordinance for the instruc- 
tion of the hearers. 

gth. I held meetings of the catechumens every day 
this week, excepting two. On Saturday previous to Whit 
Sunday I confirmed twenty-three persons, some of whom 
were fifty years of age, and held service preparatory to the 
Lord's Supper. 

lotk. Administered the Supper of my Lord and Mas- 
ter in the New Market congregation to sixty communicants. 
Preached in both languages to a numerous and attentive 

On the whole I have great reason to believe that I 


have not labored in vain in my congregations. There are 
several who have been truly converted, and at least twenty 
who have convictions of a religious kind, and very many 
who are very attentive to preaching. The morality of the 
people in general in my congregations is good. Some 
prejudice has been instilled into the minds of some by the 
Henkels, who are much opposed to the General Synod of 
our church. I frequently hold prayermeetings during the 

The foregoing is an abbreviation of my journal — entire 
it would have been tedious for the Synod. 


Jan. 7, /(5*2J. By the gracious providence of that 
God, who governs the universe and all things in it, I have 
been permitted to behold another New Year's Day in the 
land of mortals ! And I would, with the deepest rever- 
ence of heart, bow in humble submission to the will of my 
God, willing to live as long as he will, and willing, I trust, 
when he shall call, to leave these scenes of mortality. 
Another year of my life is gone. All ot its successive mo- 
ments have fled into eternity, and borne with them to the 
chancery of heaven a record of all the deeds, and all the 
words, and all the thoughts which were done in them ; and 
there they shall stand recorded till the day of judgment ! 
Thou Lamb of God, which takest away the sin of the 
world, I bless thy holy name, that by the grace afforded 
unto me, I find myself on the way to heaven ; that I am 
still, I trust, a sincere follower of my Lord and Savior. 



1821 — 1823. 







February 28, 182 1, he was married to Miss Elenora, 
daughter of Mr. John Geiger, of Hagerstown, Md. The 
ceremony was performed by Rev. Benjamin Kurtz, who 
was at that time pastor of the Lutheran Church in Hagers- 

She was a real helpmeet to him, and a devotedly pious 
woman. The following account of a journey of the young 
married couple will be very interesting to the readers. It is 
taken from his diary and is headed : 


In the fall of 1822 my health had been much impaired 
by the excessive heat and dryness, by preaching sermons, 
combined with more labor than I was well able to bear. 
Whilst traveling to the Synod at Cumberland, I was fre- 
quently unable to sit up without the greatest effort. My 
digestive system was much impaired, and my debility ex- 
ceedingly great. On my return from Synod, I started, by 
recommendation of the physician, to Capon Springs, in 
company with Elenora, my wife. When approaching the 


mountain, between the ridges of which the Spring lies, it 
was becoming dusk, although we were yet seven miles 
from the place of our destination. I proposed to remain at 
the last tavern, until morning ; but, Elenora wishing to be 
at the end of the journey, I proceeded. It, however, soon 
became very dark, the traveling very tiresome, as I had to 
lead the horse, being unable to see the road from the gig, 
and dangerous, too, on account of the very steep descents 
at many places on the side of the road. After traveling 
several hours in this very unpleasant manner, without see- 
ing or hearing a human being, in the midst of a mountain- 
ous country, unknown to us, we espied a fire at a distance. 
We were very much rejoiced at the sight, expecting to find 
some living being who would tell us the road, and inform 
us how near we were to the Springs. But alas, when we 
reached the fire, it proved to be merely the burning of the 
underwood, which had been set on fire. I took out my 
watch and found it was lo o'clock! We had expected to 
be at the Springs by 9, and therefore feared that we had 
missed the road. I hallooed, my voice echoed through the 
mountains, but no answer was heard. After resting a while, 
being scarcely able to lead the horse any farther in 
my debilitated state, we traveled onward about half a mile, 
when I again entered the gig, and driving at a pace down 
hill, trusting to Providence and the faithfulness of my horse, 
the animal suddenly stopped, and though urged, refused 
to go farther. I got out, and passing onward to the horse's 
head, found him close up to a wagon. Ah, thought I, 
here surely is a wagoner who was also benighted, and he 
will be company for us. I called loud, but no friendly 
voice replied. Thinking there might be a dog about the 
wagon, I whistled ior him, but discovered nothing. I then 
climbed along the side of the wagon (the road was washed 
out three feet deep) to the front, and found the horses gone. 


the wagon-tongue aground against a large tree, two feet in 
diameter, which had fallen across the road. After a fruit- 
less attempt to get around the wagon, we determined to 
remain in the mountain. I therefore unharnessed the 
horse, tied him by the line to the wheel, made a kind of 
bed in the empty wagon, assisted Elenora to get into it, and 
there, under the protection of Providence, slept safe in the 
mountain, having had no supper, and not knowing where 
we were. In the morning I could drive around the tree, 
proceed on, and in one mile reached the Springs. 

On the third of July, 1823, he sustained an overwhelm- 
ing affliction in the death his wife. In his diary, written 
at Shanondale Springs, Va., August 15th, he gives an 
account of her sickness, death and burial. We have never 
read anything more pathetic, touching, and withal, submis- 
sive to the will of God, than this tribute to his sainted wife. 
That must, indeed, be a hard heart, which can remain 
unmoved by its perusal. 

ABOUT AUG. 15, 1823. 

Upwards of four weeks have now elapsed since my 
God visited me with the most mysterious and appalling 
dispensation. In the interval that has elapsed, my mind 
has had time to recover from that suspense and anxiety, 
which the long expectation of the death of my dearest and 
most devoted wife had excited ; and my feelings are no 
longer now those of dreadful anticipation, but a painful, yet, 
I trust, resigned retrospect of the wonderful ways of God. 
Before her death I feared the loss of the object of my dear- 
est affection, but since that event I have learned to feel that 
I have lost my wife, the partner of my bosom, the solace of 
my life ; my daily, hourly and momentary companion ; yea, 


I feel as if I had buried part of myself. That beautiful, and 
graceful, and perfect body, which she denied to the 
addresses of more than a dozen others, some the most 
wealthy and respectable persons in Maryland, and gave to 
me, that body is now mouldering in the dust, is returning 
into those elementary principles of matter out of which the 
hand of the great and intelligent Artificer has constructed it. 
But I find relief from those horrible feelings, into 
which I at first had sunken, by contemplating that joyful 
doctrine, which reason, indeed, could not teach, but which 
is brought to light by the Gospel, that all the hairs of that 
dear head are numbered, and that the providential protec- 
tion of God extends no less to every particle of her dissolv- 
ing body, than it did to the beautiful form, which was 
composed of them ; that as she departed from this life, a 
firm believer in the Lord Jesus, and in the strong assurance 
of her acceptance v/ith God, that God will not suffer her to 
endure pain of any kind ; yea, I rejoice, my dearest wife, 
with a melancholy joy in the thought, that you are now in 
the arms of that blessed Savior on whom you so often 
called, and on whose merits alone you relied for happiness 
and heaven ; I rejoice in the happy thought, that agreeably 
to the request several times made on your deathbed, you 
are my guardian angel, ministering unto me, an heir of 
salvation. Now you are convinced of the benevolence of 
the design for which you were permitted to suffer so much ; 
now you know that you were permitted to suffer by a good 
and holy God, who studies your greatest and best interest ; 
now you are enjoying ineffable felicity in heaven. Yes, you 
were happy in the arms of your beloved husband, but you 
are infinitely more so in the arms of our coinmon God. O, 
delightful thought ! He is our common God ! We shall, 
at some future period, worship Him together, as we daily 
did on earth ; nay, in an infinitely higher and happier 


degree ! Sometimes, blessed spirit, my heart would 
mourn, that thou wast not permitted to enjoy the lawful 
pleasures of this life, for which thou wast so highly quali- 
fied ; but my religion tells me, that instead of losing these, 
thou hast gained infinitely greater happiness, and therefore 
bidst my mourning heart be silent. When I recollect the 
declaration made in the beginning of your serious illness, 
that separation from me was the only remaining thing 
which you thought hard, my heart would mourn, and wish 
you back ; but when I remember, that being separated 
from me, thou art united to God, I rejoice m your gain, and 
endeavor to feel an humble satisfaction in my loss. 

that God may preserve me faithful to his cause, and 
prepare me for admittance to the same heaven in which 
thou now art. 

1 find some consolation in the reflection, that nothing 
was left undone, which man could do, to save the life of 
my wile. I had the advice of four of the best physicians, 
which the neighboring country afforded, and the constant 
attendance of two. I am therefore convinced, that her 
death was not the result of any neglect of the appointed 
means of preserving life, but the appointment of God. 

About three weeks previous to her death, when she 
was very low for several days, so that we expected her de- 
parture hourly, I sent to Brother Jacob of Woodstock, to 
come and visit us ; to baptize our little son, whose baptism 
had been deferred from time to time, on account of the 
wish of my dear wife, to present him to God in church per- 
sonally herself He came, and the day was an awfully solemn 
one. Mrs. Williamson, my dear wife's most intimate friend, 
and the friend of God, stood as sponsor ; I myself held him 
in my arms during the baptism, and gladly gave him to my 
God, and besought his protection for him. Afterwards I 
administered for the last time to my wife the Holy Supper 


of our blessed Lord and Savior. Mrs. Williamson and Mr. 
Foote communed with us. O God, it was an awful day ! 
Lord, make me submissive to thine awful and mysterious 
will ! It is a source of pleasing reflection, that my dear 
wife retained the perfect use of her mental faculties, until 
the last moment of her life. During the last day and night 
she occasionally yet conversed with me, though only a few 
sentences at a time. I now desire to say, " The Lord gave, 
the Lord hath taken away, blessed be the name of the 

It was the third of July, at half-past two o'clock in the 
morning, that she died ; on the fourth, at eleven o'clock she 
was buried. 

Brother Foote preached the funeral sermon, on "The 
righteous hath hope in death," in the English language, 
and Uncle Nicolas preached in the German. The audience 
was very numerous and attentive. May the death of her 
body prove the life of the soul to many of those who wit- 
nessed those solemnities. 

On Monday after her death I started with Sister 
Henrietta ; we went by stage to Hagerstown, thence to 
York, where I spent five days ; then to Fredericktown, to 
Brother Schaeffer ; thence to Bedford Springs with Sister 
Betsy ; staid two weeks, during which I visited Brother 
George at his iron works ; returned to Hagerstown, and 
am by the grace of God come so far on my journey. 

At the meeting of the Maryland and Virginia Synod 
in Fredericktown, Md., Sept. 2, 1821, a letter was sent, 
from the congregations of his charge, expressing their de- 
cided approbation of his deportment generally, and the 
doctrines taught by him. 

The Synod directed Mr. Kibler to pursue his theolog- 
ical studies etc., under the instructions of Rev. S. 


In the Ministerium it was 

Resolved, That the Revs. Messrs. Graeber, Kehler, 
Krauth and S. Schmucker, be ordained this evening, and 
that Rev. M. Wachter be likewise ordained, immediately 
after he shall take charge of congregations. 


October gth, 18 2j. I have just answered a letter from 
my friend, Robert Baird, teacher in the Lamma School, at 
Princeton, N. J., which he wrote to me at the request of the 
Board of the American Bible Society, requesting that I 
would consent to accept an appointment as agent, and 
make one or more tours through different parts of the 
United States, to promote the interests of the Society by 
forming auxiliaries. 

From a variety of reasons, I stated to him, it was im- 
possible for me to accept the offer. The work itself is one 
in which I should delight to engage. 

The image of my departed wife is also often before 
me ; those feelings of desolation and melancholy, excited 
by the mournful catastrophy, I regret to find, are as acute 
as they were six months after her death. Everything re- 
minds me of her, — here a sentence written in a book, — 
there an effusion of affection recorded on one of my most 
frequented pages, rouses all my former feelings, and I can- 
not deny, makes me unhappy. May God pardon my in- 
ordinate love for her ! May he teach me submission ; may 
he comfort my uneasy heart, and in due time take me unto 
himself, for the Redeemer's sake. 

December 8th, 1824. I have just had the happiness to 
learn, that Mrs.Beale Steenbergen was awakened by my dis- 
courses at the Sacramental season at this place in October. 
O that God would carry on the good work in her heart, 
and make her a true child of God ! She is a most amiable 


and accomplished lady, very affectionate and interesting, 
and how much more eternal interest would be added to 
her, if her soul were yet truly transformed into the divine 
image ! O that God may make me instrumental in leading 
many more souls to the Redeemer ! 

Yesterday I received a letter from one of the principal 
members of the English Lutheran Church in Philadelphia, 
stating, that English preaching was to be introduced 
shortly in Michael's and Zion Churches, and informing me, 
that their members desired me for their minister. 

When I was at Baltimore, I was also requested by one 
of the managers of the English Lutheran Church, then to 
say definitely, whether they could expect to obtain my ser- 
vices, if they should elect me. But the Lord knows, I have 
no desire of being in any of these great places, but would 
rather live in the country, and have leisure to educate 
young men for the holy ministry. 

O Lord, teach me thy will, and let me be guided by 
plain intimations of thy providence. O Lord, I would ac- 
knowledge thee in all my ways, and pray, that according to 
thy word thou wouldst direct my path. Not my will, O 
Lord, but thine be done. 

DOVER, MASS., IN 1 824. 

Left Nczv Market, May j. Strasburg Conference on 
the 15th. Settled all difficulties, Dei gracia. 

May igth. Arrived in the steamboat Thistle, after a 
pleasant passage, in New York at lo o'clock this day. At 
Princeton I submitted my work to Drs. Alexander and 
Miller and Professor Hodge. They expressed, personally 
and in writing, to me their high approbation. Dr. Alex- 
ander examined the notes on the Trinitarian controversy, 
and said, " The reasoning is clear and conclusive." I had 


staid at the public inn, but at the invitation of my old 
friend, Mr. White, removed to his house, and made it my 
home. Was invited to dine at Prof McLean's, with Presi- 
dent Carnahan and other distinguished gentlemen. Found 
the President an humble, retiring, and almost diffident man. 
But he did not, during this and several other visits, display 
the evidence of an extraordinary mind. My old friend, Mr. 
Baird, is master of the grammar school, and his school is re- 
puted to be the best in New Jersey. But the glory of 
Nassau is past, and I think there is but little doubt, it will 
sink still lower, and never rise to its former celebrity. 

Nnv York. After my arrival I called on Brother 
Schaeffer, at No. 132 Bowery, and was received with his 
usual affection and candor. Found his health better than 
usual. He hired a coach and took me to see the Aetna, 
which has been shattered by the explosion of her boiler, 
(which was of the high pressure kind), by which about 
thirteen persons were killed and many seriously wounded. 
It was an awful calamity, and I would render thanks to 
God, that I was not in the boat ; it was only one day's 
journey ahead of me, I learned with surprise, that Dr. 
Romyn has been officially accused of intoxication ! ! ! and 
that Rev. McLead, Jr., was sent off for the same reason ! ! 
that Dr. McLead is suspected of the same detestable prac- 
tice in a slight incipient degree. Brother Schaeffer informs 
me, that the Neologians of their Synod are opposed to Mr. 
Hazelius, and wish to have Wackerhagen in his stead ; that 
they oppose the orthodox with much rancour and determi- 
nation, and that the Hartwick students are acquainted, in 
some degree, with this state of ecclesiastical nixation. 
Brother Schaeffer has two students, Messrs. Gaertner and 
Wessel Brother Lintner, whom Brother Schaeffer has 
pronounced sound in the faith, has been compelled, in self- 


defense, to publish a periodical publication of rather an 
anti-calvinistic nature. 

Among the distinguished divines of Germany, who are 
orthodox, and at present fearlessly active, Claus Harms is 
one of the very first, if not the greatest himself He pub- 
lished nine-five theses against the Neology of the day, at the 
celebration of the centennial jubilee of the Reformation. 
These excited extreme attention, and drew from the press 
several kindred publications, either in opposition to their 
doctrines, or in support of them. He is a resident of Kiel, 
Holstein, near Hamburg. He sometime since declined, 
from religious motives, a call to a Probsthum, connected 
with great pecuniary advantages, and his flock were so de- 
lighted, that they immediately presented him a house of 
residence, (he being very poor,) Schleiermacher wrote 
against his theses. 

Klein's Dogmatic gives both the orthodox and hetero- 
dox views; but the spirit of the work seems to be (I judge, 
however, only from a slight examination) rather " Hellen- 

Franz Theremin, koeniglicher Hof-und Dom-Prediger, 
published in 1817, a volume of sermons of a decided ortho- 
dox character for the professed purpose of promoting or- 
thodoxy and true piety. In his preface he professes to 
have experienced the power of religion in his heart, and his 
prefactory remarks are of a delightfully zealous and ar- 
dently evangelical nature. The fact, that a man of such 
sentiments is court preacher in Berlin, affords strong evi- 
dence of the returning prevalence of orthodoxy. More- 
over, I am informed by Rev. Vandersloot, of Virginia, that 
fifty per cent of the preachers in Berlin are orthodox. The 
above sermons are in one volume, Octavo, 314 pages, 

L. C. G. Strouch, Haupt Pastor zu Nicolai, wrote in 


opposition to Dr. Garlich, and has been assailed on all 
sides by the orthodox.* 

During my stay at New York, I visited Professor 
Turner, of the Episcopal Theological Seminary, submitted 
my version to his perusal, and received his recommenda- 
tion. His deportment was remarkably friendly, and his 
manners are those of an accomplished Christian gentleman. 
My old friend Mr. Schroeder accompanied me to his house. 
Mr. Schroeder is vicar in the stead of Dr. and Bishop 
Hobart, who is now on a tour to England for his health. 
On Sunday preached twice for Rev. Schaeffer in St. Mat- 
thews Church, which is a most elegant and remarkably 
tasteful edifice. It is a perfect model of a church, and is 
visited as such by many persons intending to build. There 
is no gallery ; there is an excellent and very good toned 
organ in it; which cost ;^2,ooo. The expense of the whole 
building, as it now stands, was ^30,000, of which ^16.000 
are paid. The edifice is 90 feet in length, and about 68 
feet in breadth. The ceiling is flat and low, very lozv. The 
floor is an inclined plane, so that the seats rise as they re- 
cede from the pulpit. The pulpit is all mahogony wood, 
and rather lower than common. The organ is in a projec- 
tion of semicircular form, directly back of the pulpit, and 
above the vestry-room. The doors, which are four in num- 
ber, are all at the gable end, and next to the street ; two 
lead from the vestry-room to the altar on either side of the 
enclosure around the altar. The entrance into the pulpit is 
up a flight of stairs in the vestry-room and through a door 
into the pulpit. There is a basement story under the whole 
edifice, in which Mr. Hoxel and a number of other males 

* We fear the ardent hopes expressed in the foregoing of the in- 
creasing progress of orthodoxy in Germany, have not been fully re- 
alized. — Ed. 


and females teach one of the most extensive and respectable 
schools in the city. The clergy in New York are, in gen- 
eral, not distinguished for piety. I visited also the Rev. 
Geisenhainer, pastor of the German Lutheran Church, who 
is a man of very distinguished talent. 

Tuesday, May 2^th. Left New York at 8 o'clock, a. m., 
in the steamboat United States, for New Haven. The fare 
through is ^3.00, including board. 

The object of his journey to Andover, Mass., was to 
consult with Prof. Moses Stuart, in regard to the transla- 
tion of Storr and Fiatt's Biblical Theology. On this sub- 
ject he wrote ; " When I left Princeton there were three 
pia desideria, which were very near to my heart, for the 
welfare of our church. A translation of some one eminent 
system of Lutheran Dagmatics, a Theological Seminary, 
and a College for the Lutheran Church." 

He set himself to work to do what in him lay to meet 
these wants. At Princeton already he had selected Mos- 
heim's Elementa Theologise Dagmaticae, which selection 
was warmly commended by his father and by his intimate 
friend, F. C. Schaeffer, of New York. Dr. Koethe, of Alt- 
stadt, near Jena, urged him to take Storr and Flatt, and 
Dr. Moses Stuart, of Andover, strongly urged him to do 
so. He so decided and translated, re-arranged, enlarged 
and published this work. The first edition was printed in 
Andover, in two volumes 8vo., by Hagg and Gould, in 
1826. The second edition, somewhat abridged, also 
printed in Andover, by Gould and Neuman, one volume in 
1836. It was also reprinted in England in 1845. 


During his pastorate in Virginia, he organized a class 
of theological students. This httle school of the prophets 


was the nucleus of the theolog^ical seminary at Gettys- 
burg. Dr. Diehl gives the following account of it, in his 
biographical sketch : 

" In 1820, several prominent pastors were giving theo- 
logical instruction to candidates for the ministry. Dr. Hel- 
muth had trained some. Drs. Lochman and D. F. Schaef- 
fer had each a little private theological school. There was 
no Lutheran Theological Seminary, except Hartwick, and 
it was far off and poorly organized. Candidates for the 
Lutheran ministry were under the necessity of repairing to 
the theological seminaries of other denominations, or put- 
ting themselves under the private mstruction of eminent 
pastors. Very few went to foreign schools. A number 
had gone to Philadelphia, Harrisburg and Frederick. 

The talents and learning of young Schmucker, soon 
pointed him out as the man to teach candidates. At the 
first Synod he attended, after his setth ment, 1821, the 
Synod placed a catechist and theological student, Mr. 
Kibler, of North Carolina, under his tuition. Soon after- 
ward others sought his services. J. B. Reck, Samuel K. 
Hoshour, J. P. Kline, J. G. Morris and others, found their 
way to New Market. A private theological school of 
higher repute, and promising larger dimensions, than any 
hitherto, was growing up in Shenandoah County, when the 
General Synod determined to establish a Seminary." 

Dr. Morris, who was one of the first pupils in this Pro- 
Seminary, gives the following account of it in his own char- 
acteristic style : 

" After he had been settled there several years he con- 
ceived the idea of establishing a sort of Pro-Seminary. This 
was in 1823, and it gradually led to the founding of the 
schools we now have at Gettysburg. Here, the second 
time, I became the pupil of S. S. Schmucker. There were 
five other young men who constituted the class, and a mis- 


cellaneous crowd it was. I mean that we were in every 
stage of preparation ; one was a college graduate, another 
could spell but a few words of the Greek Testament, and a 
few others had the same difficulty with English. But they 
were all trained to be useful men. The mode of teaching 
was not very systematic, and we toddled along after a very 
remarkable fashion. 

Our teacher was at that time engaged in translating 
the Theology of Storr and Flatt, which was published at 
Andover, and which reached a second edition. He was a 
most untiring worker, and, being a widower, he had not the 
cares of a household, not even taking his meals in the 
parsonage. He thus devoted his whole time to his books, 
I never knew him to take a walk or do anything else for 
mere exercise. He did not seem to require it ; at least I 
never knew him to suffer from severe confinement to head 
work. He had no visitors to annoy him, and was very im- 
patient of intruders. His study was in a remote part of the 
house from ours, and I do not think one of us darkened 
the door of that sacro-sanctum in a month. So neither did 
he ever enter our workshop, except once a day at recita- 
tion. He had no time for social intercourse, and we had 
none to hear a lecture on propriety," 

While Morris was a student in the Pro-Seminary in 
Virginia, he was confirmed by Rev, S. S. Schmucker, and 
received as a communicant member of the church. This 
information he imparted to Dr. B. Sadtler a few days before 
his death. Some doubts having been expressed, as to the 
correctness of this statement, by friends who maintained 
that he had been confirmed by Dr. J, G. Schmucker, in 
York, Pa., and received as a member of Christ Lutheran 
Church, Rev, Dr. G. W. Enders kindly searched the re- 
cords of Christ Lutheran Church. He found there a record 
of the baptism of Johann Gottlieb Morritz, on January 8th, 


1804, by Rev. Jacob Goehring, but no record of his con- 
firmation. Dr. Enders then wrote to Rev. Dr. S. Henkel, 
pastor of the Lutheran Church at New Market, Va., and 
received the following reply : 

" I went to see Miss Martha Cline, daughter of the 
late Rev. J. P. Cline, who has possession of her father's 
diary. I there found the following information : ' On Sun- 
day, April 25, 1824, Rev. Dr. S. S. Schmucker had a com- 
munion meeting at Mt. Jackson, seven miles north of this 
place. J, G. Morris was confirmed.' This, I think, is reli- 
able, and the information you want. I hope, this will prove 
satisfactory. Yours fraternally, 

S. Henkel." 

It will be noticed, that this church at Mt. Jackson, is 
the same, which was formerly Episcopalian, but called Rev. 
Schmucker to become their pastor, and became a 
Lutheran Congregation. 


On October 12th, 182^, he was married to his second wife. 
Miss Mary Catharine Steenbergen, daughter of Mr. Wil- 
liam Steenbergen, of Shenandoah County, Va, The Steen- 
bergens and the Beales were two prominent English fami- 
lies, of high respectability and wealth, said to have de- 
scended from a branch of the nobility of England. They 
owned large contiguous tracts of the most beautiful and 
fertile lands in the Valley of Virginia, and were intermar- 
ried with each other. The eldest son of the second mar 
riage was named Beale M. Schmucker. * 

See Family Record, Page 26. 



1819 — 1823. 

Numerical strength of the church — spread of the 
church — initiatory steps — convention , in balti- 
more — object of the general synod — hagerstown 







The General Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran 
Church, in the United States of North America, was organ- 
ized in Hagerstown, Md , in 1820. The Lutheran Church 
of this country" was not then very large. It is estimated that 
there were then in the whole country only 170 ministers, 
850 congregations, (some of which were very small indeed) 
and about 35,000 members. 

These were scattered over a great extent of country, 
principally in the eastern part of Pennsylvania, New York, 
Ohio, Maryland and Virginia, and North and South Caro- 

The following were the only synodical bodies then 
organized : 

The Synod of Pennsylvania, with 85 ministers. 


The Synod of New York, with 17 ministers and eight- 
een congregations. 

The Synod of Maryland and Virginia, with 15 minis- 
ters and 5,863 members. 

The Synod of North Carolina, with 12 ministers. 
The Synod of West Pennsylvania was organized in 
1825, with 7 ministers. 

"As the church began to diffuse itself over a more ex- 
tended territory, and the number of district synods was in- 
creased, the propriety of forming some central bond of 
union was often discussed. The conviction, from year to 
year, deepened among those who were interested in the 
prosperity of the church, that a step of this kind was neces- 
sary, in order that injudicious divisions might not arise, and 
that more general uniformity in the usages and practice of 
the church might prevail. Our best men felt, that the oc- 
casional intercourse of the District Synods, through their 
representatives, assembled in a general convention, would 
secure to the church great advantages, and impart increased 
strength and more efficient action to all those enterprises, 
in which conventions are so essential to success. This was 
the origin of the General Synod, which forms a new epoch 
in our history, and has been a great blessing to the 
church." — Ev. Quarterly, Jan. i86g. 

The initiatory steps were taken by the Synod of Penn- 
sylvania, which is the mother of the other Synods, and em- 
braced more ministers and members at that time, than all 
the others put together. The first traces of it are found in 
the meeting of the Synod at Harrisburg, in 18 18, of which 
Dr. J. G. Schmucker, was then president, and at which it 

" Resolved, that the Synod regard it as desirable, that 
the different Evangelical Synods in the United States 
should, in some way or other, stand in closer connection 


with each other, and that the Reverend Ministerium be 
charged with the consideration of the matter, and if the 
Reverend Ministerium recognize the advisability of it, that 
some such desirable union be effected if possible." " Ex- 
traordinary unanimity and the most hearty concord and 
brotherly love prevailed at this meeting, for which the 
secretary records fervent thanksgiving." * 

The officers were appointed a committee to give effi- 
cacy to the movement. Communications expressive of the 
Synod's action were accordingly forwarded to the other 
Synods, and they were invited to send deputies to the next 
annual meeting of the Pennsylvania Synod, to be held in 
Baltimore, on Trinity week, in 1819, for the purpose of 
considering the expediency of organizing a General Synod. 

At that convention a letter was read from Pastor Quit- 
man, of New York, favoring a more intimate union of the 
Synods. And the North Carolina Synod, holding, " that 
toward such a union of our church all possible assistance 
ought to be rendered," promptly elected its secretary. Rev. 
Gottlieb Shober, to attend the above meeting in Baltimore, 
and in the name of the Synod, endeavor to effect such a de- 
sirable union. He was accorded a seat and a vote, and his 
presence for this particular object gave great encourage- 
ment to the Synod to proceed, and it became the para- 
mount subject of consideration. A committee was ap- 
pointed, consisting of Revs. F. D. Schaeffer, J. Daniel 
Kurtz, and J. George Schmucker, with Messrs. Demuth, 
Keller and Schorr of the laity, and the delegate, Rev. G. 
Shober, to examine the whole matter and to outline a plan 
as early as possible. 

* Seven years before the Pennsylvania Synod had taken the initi- 
atory steps for the organiza ion of a General Synod; namely, in the 
year 18 II, "Revs Storch and Shober introduced and advocated the 
opening of correspondence with the Pennsylvania S>nod, in accord- 
ance with the warmly expressed wishes for a closer union with these 
brethren of our common faith." — Minutes N. C. Synod. 


The report of the committee was thoroughly discussed, 
and its plan for the establishment of a General Synod 
adopted by a vote of 42 to 8. Its first paragraph states 
that, " in view of the extension of the church over the 
greatest part of the United States of North America, and as 
the members of the said church are anxious to walk in the 
spirit of love and concord, under one rule of faith, * * * it 
appears to be the almost unanimous wish of the existing 
synods or ministeriums, that a fraternal union ol the whole 
Evangelical Lutheran Church in these United States might 
be effected by means of some central organization." 

The plan thus adopted by the Synod of Pennsylvania 
was signed by J. George Schmucker, President, and Conrad 
Jaeger, Secretary, and was published for general distribution 
among all the ministers and delegates of the several synods, 
with the understanding, that they were to take action upon 
it as soon as possible, and that, if three-fourths of the 
synods adopted it, "at least in its spirit and essentials," the 
President of the Synod of Pennsylvania should proceed to 
call a convention of deputies who at such time and place as 
he might determine, would meet for the purpose of framing 
for themselves a constitution, to be conformed as nearly as 
possible to the plan proposed. 

The proposition having been favorably received by the 
requisite number of synods, the convention for effecting an 
organization was announced to be held at Hagerstown, 
Md., October 22, 1820. There appeared as deputies from 
the Synod of Pennsylvania, Drs. George Lochman, F. W. 
Geisenhainer, Christian Endress, J. G. Schmucker, H. A. 
Muhlenberg, (a son of Henry E. Muhlenberg, D. D., and 
grandson of the Patriot), and Messrs. Christian Kunkel, 
William Hensel, and Peter Strickler ; from the Synod o. 
New York, Drs. F. P. Mayer and F. C. Schaeffer ; from the 
Synod of North Carolina, Revs. G. Shober and P 


Schmucker ; from the Synod of Maryland and Virginia, Drs. 
J. D. Kurtz, D. F. Schaeffer, and Mr. George Shryock. " It 
was much regretted by all present, that from the Synod of 
the State of Ohio, the expected deputies did not appear." 

J. D, Kurtz, D. D., was chosen President of the Con- 
vention, and H. A. Muhlenberg, D. D., secretary. A more 
important meeting was never held within the bounds of the 
Lutheran Church this side of the Atlantic, and a nobler 
band of enlightened men could not have been found at that 
time within her pale, or outside of it. 

They seem to have realized the responsibilities with 
which they were charged in laying the foundation of a 
United Lutheran Church on this continent, and with the 
spirit of the utmost harmony they built so wisely that their 
structure, with some modifications, still remains, and has 
been by general consent one of the most powerful instru- 
ments in determining the character and advancing the gen- 
eral welfare of the church. 

The organization of the General Synod forms a new 
era in the history of the Lutheran Church of this country. 
Although one cherished object of its founders 
has not been realized ; namely, the union of all the Luth- 
eran Synods into one organic body, to work conjointly 
and harmoniously in extending the kingdom of Christ and 
the building up of the Lutheran Church ; yet incalculable 
good has been accomplished in the establishment of her 
literary and theological institutions, in awaking a deeper 
spiritual life among her people, a more active and liberal 
benevolence, resulting in the establishment of Home and 
Foreign Missionary and Church Extension Societies, and 
last, but not least, her reflex influence on those synods, 
which have receded from her, or have never even united with 
her. Already, during the Reformation period, divisions 
had rent the Protestant Churches into opposing factions. 


Even in the days of Luther efforts were made to unite the 
Lutherans and the Reformed, the followers of Luther, 
Zwingle and Calvin, into Christian unity and brotherhood ; 
in America the effort was repeated to unite the Lutherans 
and Reformed into one Evangelical organization, but the 
efforts failed. So, alas, also the repeated efforts in America 
to unite all the Lutherans into one homogeneous Church 
have failed. The General Synod has tried it, the General 
Council has tried it, neither has succeeded, and at present 
the church is far more split up into opposing factions, than 
ever before. Voices are at this time again loudly calling 
for a united Lutheran Church in America. Colloquiums 
have been held, delegates exchanged, Lutheran Leagues 
are organized, committees on fraternal conferences ap- 
pointed. What shall be the final result God only knows 
and time will show. But whether there shall be a united 
Lutheran Church in this country, embracing all the differ- 
ent languages, nationalities and organizations, bearing the 
Lutheran name, whether there shall be such a union or not, 
the General Synod, by the help and grace of God, will go 
forward, unchecked by opposition from without or mis- 
guided friends within her pale. 


It has been objected that he could not have had any 
thing to do with the organization of the General Synod, be- 
cause he was too young at that time, only 20 years of age, 
merely a licentiate, and did not become an ordained minis- 
ter until 1 823, nearly four years after the incipient steps had 
been taken. 

The statement in the College Book, by his son. Dr. B. 
M. Schmucker, will throw some light on the subject. He 
thus writes of his father : 

" In the General Synod and its work he took an active 


part, from his entrance into the ministry to the close of his 
Hfe. Though not a delegate to that body until its third 
meeting in 1823, he was present in 1819, 1820, and 1821, 
When in 1823 the Ministerium of Pennsylvania withdrew, 
and the existence of the General Synod was imperilled, he 
was very active in the measures taken to prolong its life, 
and became prominent in the group of young ministers, 
whose energies were aroused to meet the demands of that 
decisive period." 

We append Dr. Diehl's account of his early connection 
with the General Synod. Dr. Diehl was, indeed, a warm 
friend of Dr. Schmucker, although he did not agree with 
him in all his doctrinal views. He was regarded as " a 
very conservative man," and therefore his testimony is all 
the more valuable. Dr. Diehl writes : 

" When Rev. G. Shober, of North Carolina, at the 
meeting of the Pennsylvania Synod, at Baltimore, brought 
forward the first formal proposition for the establishment of 
a General Synod, Mr. Schmucker was a student in the 
Princeton Seminary. He had, however, accompanied his 
father, who was President of the Synod, to that convention. 
When the convention for the framing and adoption of a 
constitution for a General Synod, met at Hagerstown, Oct. 
22, 1820, he had entered the ministry and attended this 
convention, though not a delegate. That convention em- 
braced a large portion of the ablest ministers in the church, 
Dr. J. G. Schmucker, Dr. Lochman, Dr. Endress, H. A. 
Muhlenberg, Dr. Mayer, Dr. V. C. Schaeffer, of New York, 
Drs. SchaefTer and J. Daniel Kurtz, of Maryland, were in 
that body. It is said that young Schmucker, a visitor pres- 
ent, interchanged views with the leading men, and was not 
without influence. 

" At the first convention of the General Synod, at Fred- 
erick, Oct. 22, 1 82 1, Mr. Schmucker was not a delegate. 

deiiEgate; at second convention. 123 

So he could not take part directly in the initiatory steps 
and the organization of the General Synod. Yet, as his 
father, probably the most active member of the first two 
conventions, at Hagerstown and Frederick, treated his son 
Samuel, in many respects, as a companion, and discussed 
all church questions with him, there can be no doubt, that 
Samuel exerted considerable influence, through his father 
and other delegates, in the framing of the constitution, and 
at the first business convention. He was however a dele- 
gate to the second General Synod, at Frederick, Oct. 21, 
1823. Here, also, we find him at once an active member, 
taking a leading part in all important business. He was 
one of the committee to examine a catechism prepared for 
the Synod. He offered a resolution, which was adopted, 
that the materials furnished by the minutes of the district 
synods, should be wrought into a pastoral address to the 
churches, in the name of the General Synod. He brought 
forward his proposition adopted by the Maryland and Vir- 
ginia Synod, recommending the appointment of a commit- 
tee on foreign correspondence. This was adopted. His 
Formula was now adopted also by the General Synod. He 
drew up, for the General Synod, the pastoral address to all 
the Lutheran churches in the United States, which was 
printed with the minutes, — an admirable production ol 
eleven pages, giving a resume of all the synods in this 
country, and a general account of the Lutheran Church in 
Germany, Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Russia, etc. He 
was again a member of the third General Synod, at Freder- 
ick, Nov. 7, 1825. He was the author of many of the most 
important resolutions passed at this convention. He was 
one of the committee to report on an important letter from 
Dr. Planck, of the University of Goettingen. He furnished 
a translation of the letter. Both were printed. He also 
prepared the plan for the establishment of a Theological 

124 schmucker's participation in the organization. 

Seminary, which embraced the germ and general principles 
of the charter and constitution afterwards of the Gettysburg 
Seminary. He was one of the committee to prepare a 
hymn-book, liturgy, and collection of prayers. The other 
members were Dr. J. G. Schmucker, C. P. Krauth, G. 
Shober, and B. Keller. He again wrote the pastoral ad- 
dress of the General Synod to the churches. And at this 
Synod he was elected the first Professor of Theology in the 

The Pennsylvania Synod sent delegates to the first 
regular meeting of the General Synod, in 1821, and then 
abandoned her own child. Dr. Diehl gives a graphic ac- 
count of Mr. Schmucker's herculean effort to save the in- 
fant organization from destruction after the Pennsylvania 
Synod's withdrawal : 

" If Mr. Schmucker was too young to be one of the 
nominal founders of the General Synod, he is entitled to 
the lasting gratitude of the church for saving it from disso- 
lution at the most critical moment. The mother Synod oi 
Pennsylvania, after attending through her delegates one 
business convention in 1821, determined in 1823 to with- 
draw. This was considered the death-blow of the General 
Synod, The New York and the Ohio Synods had not 
come in. There were but two small Synods left in the 
General Synod, — that of Maryland and Virginia and that of 
North Carolina. West Pennsylvania was not yet organized. 
Samuel S. Schmucker, more than any other man, felt that 
this was the crisis of the Lutheran Church. If the noble 
effort of uniting the Synods, and organizing the church 
should be frustrated, there was no future in the country for 
the church of the Great Reformer. So general was the im- 
pression, in 1823, that no convention of the General Synod 
would be held in October that year, that the members of 
the Synod of Pennsylvania, living west of the Susquehanna, 


and who were favorable to the General Synod, in appoint- 
ing a special conference, with a view to organizing the 
West Pennsylvania Synod, fixed on the very day that had 
been appointed two years before for the meeting of the 
General Synod. When S. S. Schmucker, in Virginia, 
learned these things, he was deeply concerned. He 
thought the very life of the General Synod depended upon 
the West Pennsylvania brethren organizing their confer- 
ence in advance of the day appointed for the General 
Synod, so that they might organize and send a delegation. 
The friends of the General Synod had now lost heart. It 
was believed that the delegates appointed by the North 
Carolina Synod, having learned the withdrawal of the Penn- 
sylvania Synod, would not undertake a long journey to 
Frederick ; for they looked upon the General Synod, as in 
the act of expiring. But there was one young Lutheran 
minister equal to the crisis. Samuel S. Schmucker deter- 
mined if possible to save the youthful organization from 
this death blow. If he could help it, under Heaven's bless- 
ing, the bruised reed should not break, the smoking flax 
should not be quenched. He at once wrote to the North 
Carolina brethren, urging them by all means to come to 
Frederick in October. He wrote to the Tennessee breth- 
ren, urging them to send delegates. He wrote to several 
in Ohio ; and to many of the West Pennsylvania ministers, 
urging them to change the time of their special conference, 
and hold it a few weeks earlier, so as to organize and ap- 
point delegates. In letters to Ohio, Tennessee and North 
Carolina, he expressed a hope that the Pennsylvania Synod 
would reconsider her act, and at a future convention return. 
(This she did thirty years afterward.) He paid a visit to his 
father at York, to urge on him the change of time for the 
special conference. He called on all the brethren along his 
route. Reck, Schaeffer, Kurtz, Krauth, Sr., Herbst, etc. By 


his herculean efforts he succeeded in turning the tide, and 
securing a respectable attendance of delegates at Frederick 
in October, 1823 : — two ministers from North Carolina, a 
full delegation from Maryland and Virginia, two clerical 
delegates of the West Pennsylvania Conference, and one 
commissioner from the Synod of Ohio. It is difficult to 
measure the momentous interests that hung upon the reso- 
lution he inspired in the fainting hearts of the brethren in 
that critical hour. He saved the General Synod from de- 
struction, and, with her, secured the prosperity of the Luth- 
eran Church in this country." 

The following extracts from his diary will give the 
reader an idea of his deep interest in the General Synod 
and his personal efforts to save it from dissolution : 

" I have within the last six weeks written sixteen letters 
to different parts of our church, in order to support the 
General Synod, which would have certainly been dropped, 
in consequence of the secession of the Pennsylvania Synod, 
had it not been for the exertions, which God enabled me to 
make during my tour down the country, after the death of 
my wife. I also, at the request of some of the clergy, wrote 
a long German address to the special conference, which 
met on the fifth inst., and is perhaps now in session at 
York, Pa. The time of their meeting had been appointed 
on the day of the meeting of the General Synod, but I per- 
suaded father, (who was the pastor of Christ Church in 
York), to publish it two weeks earher, so that they could 
adopt measures to support the General Synod, and send a 
deputy to the meeting. And my address to them was to 
promote this object. O, that God would bless his own 
work, and not suffer the gates of hell to prevail in any re- 
spect against his kingdom ! " 

" My soul has for four months past been most intensely 


interested about the wellfare of our church in Denmark, 
and Sweden." 

While examining the Historical library in Gettysburg, 
we found among the literary remains of Dr. Schmucker, 
the following extracts from one of his lectures, delivered to 
the theological students. It appears to be the conclusion 
of one of his lectures on Church Government, and gives the 
account of the separation of the Pennsylvania Ministerium 
from the General Synod, and the successful effort made to 
save it from dissolution. It is an important document, and 
we give it lierewith for the benefit of our readers : 


" With gratitude to God, we turn from the compli- 
cated,* unstable and unsatisfactory code of human enact- 
ments, to the blessed Book which the Protestant Church in 
these United States regards as the ultimate and only infal- 
lible source of their views and legislation on the subject. 
The views of the Lutheran Church on this subject are de- 
tailed in the Formula of Government and Discipline, 
adopted by the General Synod, and prepared by appoint- 
ment of said body, and of the Synod of Maryland and Vir- 
ginia. As the circumstances of its organization and history 
cannot be without interest to all who expect to practice by 
the aid of this Formula through life, we will specify some 
of them, especially, as you have no other means of arriving 
at them in detail. The Formula consists of three parts. 
The first relates to congregations, their members and pas- 
tors ; the second to synods ; and the third to the General 

" That part of the Formula which relates to individual 
congregations ; viz : the first seven chapters, was prepared 
by us (Schmucker) in New Market, Va., as a member of a 
committee, consisting of Revs. A. Reck, B. Kurtz, and my- 


self, appointed by the Synod of Maryland and Virginia, on 
September 24, 1821. It was presented to the committee at 
a meeting, held March 5, 1822, in the house of Rev. A. C. 
Reck, then pastor of the church in Winchester, Va. After 
having been examined and adopted by said committee, it 
was reported to the Synod in August, 1822, during its 
meeting at Cumberland. It was adopted by that body, and 
printed (not published) for the first time unofficially, at the 
expense of the late Dr. Schaeffer and myself, by George W. 
Sharp, in Fredericktown, Md., April 23, 1823, for the pur- 
pose of being laid before the General Synod. Having been 
submitted to that body in October, 1823, it was approved 
and recommended to other synod's for adoption. 

" The second part of the Formula which relates to dis- 
trict synods; viz: from Chapter VII to Chapter XX, in- 
clusive, that is, till the constitution of the General Synod, 
was also prepared by us in conformity to the resolution of 
the General Synod at their session in Gettysburg, October, 
1827, and reported to the next General Synod, convened at 
Hagerstown, October, 1829. 

"It was adopted at the same session, and commended to 
the different district synods. 

" The third part of the Formula, constituting Chapter 
XXI, is the constitution of the General Synod. 


"At the time when the formation of the General Synod 
was first formally discussed, which was in the year 18 19, 
East and West Pennsylvania Synods were embraced in one 
synodical body, which also comprehended the State of 
Maryland and part of Virginia. This meeting at which the 
preparatory steps were taken, convened in Baltimore on the 
Sunday after Whitsunday in 18 19. As the minutes of that 


convention, so far as they relate to this subject, were pub- 
lished in a separate pamphlet, which is now rarely met with, 
and as it presents a brief sketch of the reasons, which in- 
fluenced the members of that body, and of the steps which 
were taken, we shall extract the paragraph more immedi- 
ately concerned, and present a translation of it. It may not 
be amiss to state, that the ' Plan Entivurf, or sketch of a 
plan of union then adopted, had never been translated into 
English : 

' Whereas the Evangelical Lutheran Church has, 
under the guidance of divine providence extended itself 
over the greater part of the United States of North 
America, and 

' Whereas the members of said church are desirous 
of walkj^ng together in the spirit of love and unity, guided 
by one rule of faith ; 

' Therefore, the ministers, and generally also, lay dele- 
gates of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, have hitherto 
annually met, and held synodical, or as others term them, 
ministerial sessions, in order to preserve the bond of love 
and unity, and to settle any differences, which may have 
arisen. But as the number of these synods or ministeri- 
ums, has been multiplied in consequence of the great ex- 
tension of said church, and from the same cause may in- 
crease still more, and thus eventually unnecessary and in- 
jurious divisions might arise, and also deviations from the 
common design hitherto had in view by said church ; 

' Therefore, the existing synods, or ministeriums, seem 
almost unanimously to desire, that a fraternal union of the 
entire Evangelical Lutheran Church in these United States 
might be formed by some central connexion.' 

" Such, according to the statement of the parties them- 
selves, were the reasons, which influenced them in endeav- 
oring to form some bond of union in our church. At the 
meeting of the Pennsylvania Synod, above referred to, the 
Rev. G. Shober, a venerable minister of our church in 
North Carolina, appeared as delegate for the express pur- 


pose of proposing and urging the formation of a general 
union among our synods. That zealous and respected 
father of our church, who has since gone to his rest, had 
prepared the outline of a plan, which was read before the 
synod, very much resembling the constitution of the Pres- 
byterian Assembly of the Presbyterian Church. This was 
submitted by him to the Synod, and formed the basis of 
the discussion on the subject. 

"Several days of fraternal deliberation took place, which 
having- ourselves been present, we can testify, that the spirit 
of brotherly love most visibly reigned. 

" The so-called ' Plan Entwurf; ' that is, sketch of a 
plan, was adopted. In this plan the strongest features of 
the outline, presented by Rev. Shober, were softened down, 
almost into Congregationalism. The ' Plan Entwurf^ 
signed by Rev. J. G. Schmucker, D. D., as President, and 
Rev. Conrad Jaeger, as Secretary of Synod, was printed and 
sent to all the different Lutheran Synods. 

" The ' Plan Entwurf, having met the approbation of 
three fourths of the existing synods, the President of Penn- 
sylvania Synod, according to the i ith section of the ' Plan 
Entwurfl published a meeting of the delegates, to form a 
constitution for the General Synod, at Hagerstown, on the 
22d of October, 1820. At this convention Dr. Daniel 
Kurtz was chosen chairman, and Rev. H. Muhlenberg, 

" From the Synod of Pennsylvania Dr. J. G. 
Schmucker, Dr. Lochman, Dr. Endress, Rev. F. C. Geisen- 
hainer and Rev. H. Muhlenberg, together with the lay- 
delegates, C. Kunkel, Wm. Hensel and P. Strickler. From 
the Synod of New York, Rev. P. F. Mayer, and Rev. F. C. 
Schaeffer, with no lay-delegates. From the Synod of 
North Carolina, Rev. G. Shober and Peter Schmucker, with 
no lay-delegate, and from the Synod of Maryland, Dr. 


Daniel Kurtz and Rev. D. F. Schaefifer, with the lay-dele- 
gate, Mr. George Shryock. 

" The Synod of Ohio was also expected to send dele- 
gates, but they did not appear, and although I was present 
at the meeting, also, I do not recollect whether the reason 
was assigned on their minutes, and as my collection of 
Ohio minutes began with the year 182 1, I am unable to 
say, what action that body took on the subject, although I 
well recollect, that their principal ministers were at first 
known to be favorable to the union, and were expected to 
unite in the establishment of the General Synod. 

" The first regular General Synod under the constitution 
was held in Fredericktown, Md., October 21, 22, 23, in the 
year 1 82 1. At this meeting delegates were in attendance 
from Pennsylvania, Maryland and Virginia, and North 
Carolina, but in consequence of a mistake in the advertise- 
ment by the secretary, which fixed the time one week 
earlier, than had been appointed by the Synod, about half 
of the delegates did not appear. Some started agreeably to 
the early advertisement, and hearing of the mistake on the 
way, turned back. The secretary himself, Dr. Endress, 
having come to York a week too soon, and finding that the 
brethren would not generally come, till the time appointed 
by Synod, remained a week at father's, and then went with 
him to Synod. 

" In September of this year the Synod of Ohio had the 
constitution of the General Synod under consideration and 
postponed their final answer till the ensuing year, at which 
time the subject was resumed, and two delegates appointed 
to attend the meeting of the next General Synod, and report 
on the proceedings, after which the question of permanent 
union with said body should be finally decided. The dele- 
gates appointed were the Revs. P. Schmucker and Steck. 
There was therefore a very flattering prospect, at this time. 


of the union of the whole Lutheran Church in the General 
Synod. There was then no other synod remaining, as the 
whole church was in 182 1, embraced in the Synods of Ohio, 
Pennsylvania, Maryland and Virginia, and North Carolina 
and adjoining States. 

" About this time an event occurred, which to all ap- 
pearances was expected to put an end to the General 
Synod, and blast the hopes which had been cherished for 
the improvement of our Zion. 

" Owing to various disturbances and opposition excited 
by political demagogues, by infidels and by a few renegade 
Germans from Europe, the Synod of Pennsylvania, at a 
meeting held at Lebanon, May 26th-29th, in the year 1823, 
passed resolutions to relinquish the idea of sustaining a 
General Synod. Instead of nobly braving the opposition 
of ignorance, prejudice and irreligion, and taking measures 
to circulate better information among the churches, they 
resolved to abandon the General Synod, to take no steps 
towards establishing a theological seminary, and to adhere to 
those resolutions till their churches requested them to 
abandon them, and instructed their president to communi- 
cate these resolutions to the other synods who had united 
in the General Synod. As the Pennsylvania Synod at that 
time constituted more than half of the whole church, and 
had been chiefly instrumental in establishing the General 
Synod, her abandonment of the cause was deemed by 
nearly all as decisive of the fate of that institution. How 
fully this impression prevailed, may be seen from the fact 
that the members of the Pennsylvania Synod who resided 
west of the Susquehanna, some of whom were very warm 
friends of the General Synod, after the passage of the above 
resolutions at Lebanon, consulted together about holding a 
special conference, considering the General Synod as de- 
funct, and appointed their conference on the very day 

schmucker's efforts to save gen. synod. 133 

which had been fixed for the meeting of the General Synod 
in the ensuing fall. This was indeed an important crisis. It 
was evident that if this attempt to establish a General 
Synod should be abandoned, nothing like it could be at- 
tempted for years, and our church would continue in her 
former lifeless and distracted condition. 

" With these views, as soon as I heard of the recession 
of the Pennsylvania Synod, I felt convinced that faithful- 
ness to the cause of our beloved Zion required a desperate 
effort to sustain the General Synod, notwithstanding the 
fearful odds of influence arrayed against it. I therefore 
immediately wrote to the principal brethren friendly to the 
cause, and in a few days determined to visit those brethren 
personally, and devise means to sustain the General Synod. 
With this view I started from home about a week after the 
news of the recession of the Pennnsylvania Synod reached 
me, and visited the principal brethren. At Frederick in 
conjunction with Rev. D. F. Schaeffer, we wrote letters to 
all the ministers of the different synods who had been 
elected as delegates to the General Synod to be held in 
October ensuing, and besought them not to regard the 
course of the Pennsylvania Synod — assured them that the 
General Synod should be sustained, and begged them to 

" I then went to Gettysburg to Rev. Herbst, who was 
one of our most zealous and active ministers, took him 
along to York, and there formed the following agreement, 
of which I still have the original memorandum, which runs 
as follows : 

'At a meeting in York, July 15th, 1823, present J. G. 
Schmucker, J. Herbst and S. S. Schmucker, it was agreed : 

I. That J. G. Schmucker shall publish the time o 
the West Pennsylvania special conference on the first Sun- 
day in October (instead of the third Sunday.) 


2, That J. G. S. and J. H., shall use their utmost in- 
fluence at the Special Conference to have the following re- 
solutions passed : 

(a) Resolved, That we are convinced of the impor- 
tance of the General Synod. 

(b) That in Christian love we lay this, our opinion, 
before the next Synod at Carlisle. 

(c) That two members of this conference be chosen 
to attend the General Synod at Frederick, and to present 
this, our opinion. 

3. Resolved, That S. S. Schmucker promise and 
guarantee the presence of one or more members of the 
Maryland and Virginia Synod at the session of the Penn- 
sylvania Special Conference to advocate the interests of the 
General Synod, and aid in forming plans for the further- 
ance of this object in conjunction with the Pennsylvania 

" Conformably to this arrangement, father assumed the 
responsibility of changing the time fixed by conference, and 
published the meeting of the conference two weeks earlier 
than had been determined at Lebanon. The conference 
met on the first Sunday in October in 1823. I had pre- 
pared and sent to them a long and earnest appeal, urging 
them by every proper motive not to think of abandoning 
the General Synod, which appeal was read and favorably 
considered. The result of their deliberations was, that the 
Conference adopted the resolutions which had been agreed 
on by us, and sent two delegates, father and Rev. Herbst, to 
the General Synod, which was held at the appointed time, 
and thus that system of measures secured which has since 
eventuated in the establishment of this seminary, the 
adoption of a system of government and discipline, a hymn 
book, and numberless other benefits to our beloved Zion, 

"This General Synod, the second ever held in our 
American Church, consisted of seven ministers and two 
laymen ; viz., Daniel and D. Sherer of North Carolina ; Dr. 


Daniel Kurtz, David Schaeffer, myself, and Mr. Lehr, and 
J Ebert, of Md. and Va.; Dr. J. G. Schmucker and Rev. 
Herbst, of West Pennsylvania." 

Concerning the above Dr. Richard remarks, in the 
LutJierafi Observer: 

" We thus see how and by whom the General Synod 
was saved. The principal part of the work was done by a 
young man not yet twenty-five years old. The crisis was 
without doubt the most important in the history of our 
Church in the United States. God had provided the man 
for the hour. The General Synod was sustained, its 
Lutheranism from that hour became more pronounced, and 
the Lutheran Church itself in this country was saved from 
that union with the Reformed, which was so long sought 
by the Pennsylvania Synod. ' Destroy it not for a blessing 
is in it.' " 

It seems very singular that, with the exception of Dr. 
Diehl, none of the writers who profess to give a history of 
the General Synod, have said anything about the part 
which Dr. Schmucker took in its organization and preserva- 
tion from dissolution. Dr. Jacobs, in his " History of the 
Lutheran Church in the United States," gives an account 
of the organization of the General Synod and the recession 
of the Pennsylvania Ministerium, but gives no hint of Dr. 
Schmucker's efforts to save it from dissolution. 

Dr. Morris, in his " Fifty Years in the Ministry," gives 
a brief history of the General Synod and an extended bio- 
graphical sketch of Dr. Schmucker; but unaccountably 
overlooks his participation in the organization of the Gen- 
eral Synod, and his successful efforts for its preservation. 

When the General Synod met in Hagerstown, where it 
had been organized in 1820, the President in his sy nodical 
sermon very appropriately emphasized the remarkable 
coincidence, that this, the 70th Anniversary of the General 


Synod, was celebrated in the place where it had been 
organized, but in the printed copy of his sermon containing 
a brief history of the General Synod, I do not find the 
name of Dr. Schmucker once mentioned in connection, 
with its origin or preservation. 

In Dr. Wolf's book, " Lutherans in America," there is 
no allusion to Dr. Schmucker's agency in rescuing the Gen- 
eral Synod from dissolution. This is all that is said about 
it : " The hopes whicli had been cherished for the improve- 
ment of our Zion seemed blasted, and many were disposed 
to abandon the project of a union. Happily the project 
was of God, and brave and capable men with strong faith 
and with true hearts, men capable of enduring hardship 
and of meeting the issue, were provided for the crisis." 

We must presume that these later historians have not 
made themselves acquainted with all the facts in the case. 
Another generation has come up, " who know not Joseph." 




1775— 1823. 

Hindrances and opposition to the general synod. 

The revolutionary war — infidelity— socinianism among 






The Revolutionary War at the close of the i8th and 
the beginning of the 19th centuries had a very demor- 
ahzing effect on the country and the church. 

French and English Infidelity and German Rational- 
ism of the grossest type had gained great prevalence among 
the educated or higher classes of society, and found expres- 
sion in Tom Paine's " Age of Reason." As a consequence, 
the morals of the common people were at a very low state. 
The members of the New York Ministerium, as can be 
seen from young Schmucker's letter to his father, were 
nearly all Socinians, and the Pennsylvania Ministerium 
was not much better. These were the two largest bodies 
of Lutherans in America at that time, containing more 


members than all the other small synods, scattered over 
other parts of the country, taken together. There was a 
little salt yet left in the church, however, that kept the 
whole mass from spiritual putrifaction. This was found in 
such men as Helmuth, Schmidt, Lochman, J. G. Schmucker, 
the Schaeffers, who became the nucleus of the Gen- 
eral Synod. But the great bulk of the ministers in the two 
above named Synods were Socinians. Socinianism denies 
all the fundamental doctrines of the Christian religion, as 
will be seen by the following definition : " Socinianism is a 
system of doctrines taught by Faustus Socinus, an Italian 
theologian of the i6th century, who denied the Trinity, the 
deity of Christ, the personality of the devil, the native and 
total depravity of man, the vicarious atonement, and the 
eternity of future punishment. His theory was, that Christ 
was a man divinely commissioned, who had no existence 
before he was conceived by the Virgin Mary ; that human 
sin was the imitation of Adam's sin, and that human salva- 
tion was the imitation and adoption of Christ's virtue ; that 
the Bible was to be interpreted by human reason ; and that 
its language was metaphorical, and not to be taken liter- 

The state of morals among the people corresponded 
with the debasing Socinianism among the ministry. The 
following extract from the biography of Dr. Archibald 
Alexander gives a glimpse of the state of things in the Val- 
ley of Virginia from 1789 to 18 18. Whether this is a true 
picture of the state of religion in other parts of the country 
we will not undertake to say. The following is his account; 

" My only notion of religion was, that it consisted in 
oecoming better. I had never heard of any conversions 
among the Presbyterians. The state of morals and religion 
in the country, after the Revolutionary War, was very bad. 
The old continental soldiers, many of whom in that quarter 


were convicts, now returned, and having received certificates 
for their wages, were able to hve for a while in idleness and 

dissipation. Robert , a shrewd, intelligent man, 

who was one of this number, had acquired a house in Lex- 
ington, the old farm house of Israel Campbell, who owned 
the land. Here he collected all the vagrants in the country, 
and a drunken bout would be kept up for weeks. They 
called themselves the Congress, and made Bob their presi- 
dent. Hard battles were fought here. The better class of 
people were much injured by the profane and licentious 
manners of the officers of the disbanded army, as the lower 
classes by the soldiery. There were a few pious people in 
the land, who kept up the pov/er of religion, and were as 
salt to preserve the mass from universal putrifaction." 

-i .... 

The Protestant Episcopal Church in Virgmia seems to 
have been in a still more deplorable condition, not only as 
regards the laity, but still more so in regard to her ministry. 
This is what Archdeacon Tiffany of New York says in his 
history of the Episcopal Church : 

" Two-thirds of the preachers are made up of leaden 
lay priests of the Vesteries ordination (evidently lay-read- 
ers) and are both the grief and shame of the rightly 
ordained clergy there." 

" The General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church, 
after similar deliverances in previous years, declared in 
1798: 'We perceive with pain and fearful apprehension a 
general dereliction of religious principle and practice — an 
abounding infidelity — a dissolution of religious society 
seems to be threatened. Formality and deadness, not to 
say hypocrisy, visibly pervade every part of the Church. 
The profligacy and corruption of public morals have ad- 


vanced with a progress proportioned to our declension in 
religion.' " * 

" The Evangelical Lutheran Church had her full share 
of these disastrous experiences. Rev. Storch, writing from 
North Carolina, in 1803, says : ' Party spirit has risen to a 
fearful height. The prevalence of infidelity, the contempt 
of the best of all religions, its usages and servants, the 
increase of irreligion and crime, have occasioned me many 
sad hours.' She had fearful trials in addition to those 
which threatened the extinction of other denominations 
that had advanced beyond her in organization and growth. 
She was subjected to fiery ordeals which once more and to 
the last degree tested her vitality and her inherent powers 
of endurance." 

Some of the prominent ministers became absorbed in 
party politics, permitted themselves to be elected to politi- 
cal offices, and resigned the ministry of the Gospel. The 
writer distinctly recollects hearing one of these old minis- 
ters, in Pennsylvania, earnestly discussing political ques- 
tions, on Sunday morning, with the male members of his 
congregation, outside of the church, till it was time to go 
into the pulpit and preach. 

Rev. J. P. G. Muhlenberg, the eldest son of the Patri- 
arch Muhlenberg, was one of the predecessors of Rev. S. S. 
Schmucker at Woodstock, Va. In January, 1776, he 
preached his farewell sermon. After service he laid aside 
his clerical robe, disclosed a military uniform, and enlisted, 
outside of the church, about 300 men for service in the 

* " A frightfal apcstacy from religion ensued. Skepticism and reck- 
less blasphemy became common Infidelity was never more rampant 
among influential citizens ard professional men, never more deliter- 
ious in its work. Revelation was decried as without authority or evi- 
dence, moral obliga'ion as a cobweb. 'The clergy were a laughing 
stock, or objects of disgust.' Young men especially became enam- 
ored of the new ideas. Bishop White of Virginia wrote, that scarcely 
a young man of any literary culture believed in Christianity," — U^'ol/. 


revolutionary army. He became Colonel of a regiment, 
participated in a number of battles, and was promoted to 
the grade of Brigadier General. After the war he was 
called back by his old congregation to Woodstock, in 
1783. But he declined the call, and was elected to the leg- 
islature of Pennsylvania. After this he was elected to con- 
gress successively from 1789 to 1801. 

Rev. Henry A. Muhlenberg, was pastor of Trinity 
Lutheran Church in Reading, Pa., from 1802 till 1828, 
when he resigned his charge, and soon after was elected a 
member of the twenty-second congress, from the districts 
of Berks and Lehigh Counties. To this post he was re- 
elected until 1838. In 1835 he was nominated as the can- 
didate of the Democratic party in Pennsylvania for gover- 
nor, but was defeated. In 1837, President Van Buren ten- 
dered him a position in his cabinet, and also a mission to 
Russia, both* of which he declined ; but in 1838 he accepted 
the mission to Austria, and was unanimously confirmed by 
the Senate. In 1844 he was again nominated by the 
Democratic party for governor, and would undoubtedly 
have been chosen, had not his death occured before the 
election. — Spragne. 

The following letter dated, Nov. 12th, 1828, was writ- 
ten by Rev. J. G. Schmucker, D. D., of York, when he 
heard of Rev. H. A. Muhlenberg's election to Congress. 

" My dear and much respected Brother: — I am truly 
sorry that you have relinquished your Episcopal charge for 
one of vastly less importance in the kingdom of God. 
There are thousands qualified 'for congressmen before you 
find one fit for a truly able messenger of the glorious 
gospel of Christ. Besides all this, you are perfectly ac- 
quainted with the state of our church in this country, and 
how much we stand in need of your first rate and superior 
abilities and labors. When I consider the loss your Synod 


sustains, I cannot but pronounce it irreparable. You are 
the only one who possessed sufficient weight of character, 
around whom the brethren formed a rallying point of 
union ; and thus by proper exertion and judicious manage- 
ment, you might, like your worthy father and grandfather, 
have proved a vast blessing to the church. 

J. George Schmucker." 

Our readers will be interested in the following congre- 
gational call extended to Rev. H. A. Muhlenberg in 1802. 
It will also indicate the confessional state of the churches 
in the Pennsylvania Ministerium at that time. The con- 
gregation at Reading was, no doubt, at that time one of 
the largest in the church. 

specimen of a congregational call. 

It was extended by the Lutheran Trinity Church of 
Reading, to Rev. H. A. Muhlenberg, grandson of the 
Patriot, H. M. Muhlenberg: 

" Inasmuch as the Evangelical Lutheran Church of 
Reading has elected Rev. H. A. Muhlenberg as their 
teacher and preacher, therefore we desire and expect of 
him, that he will preach in this congregation the pure and 
simple vvord of God, administer the holy Sacraments in a 
Scriptural manner, visit the sick, etc. 

" On the other hand we promise for ourselves and our 
congregation, so long as he remains our pastor, and faith- 
fully performs his duty, the following : 

" Free residence in the parsonage and the use of the 
grounds attached thereto. 

" Six cords of hickory and six cords of oak wood. 

" Five hundred dollars per annum, payable every half 

" Also the customary perquisite. 

" And especially all love and friendship, which a faith- 


ful and conscientious pastor should have, so that he may 
fulfill his office among us with joy, and not with grief." 

Dr. Fry, in his " History of Trinity Church " remarks, 
" It was a sign of the times that in neither of these calls 
(Muhlenberg's and Miller's) was there any mention of the 
Confessions of the Lutheran Church, which were always 
mentioned in the calls of the pastors during the preceding 
century." — Frys History pages ij6 and 757. 

Rev. Christopher Emanuel Schultze was a son-in-law 
of Dr. Henry Melchior Muhlenberg, born in 1740 and died 
1809. His son, John Andrew, was for several years Gov- 
ernor of Pennsylvania. 

Another great obstacle in the formation of the General 
Synod was the unyielding adherance of the early Luther- 
ans to the German language, while the synods and congre- 
gations composing the General Synods were predominently 
English. ^ 

The antipathy to English, on the one hand, and the 
anxiety to have English on the other, occasioned a violent 
struggle in the Philadelphia Congregation, of which Drs. 
Helmuth and Schmidt were the pastors. The advocates of 
English under the leadership of General Peter Muhlenberg 
insisted that a third pastor should be called, who would 
officiate in Engl'sh. The feeling was intensified by the 
impression on the part of the opponents of the English, 
that Rev. H. A. Muhlenberg, afterwards pastor in Reading 
and minister to Austria, then completing his studies under 
Dr. Kunze, was to be the English pastor. At the election, 
Jan. 6, 1806, 1,400 votes were polled, the majority against 
the proposition being 130. Prior to this the controversy 
had been carried into the Ministerium, which at its meeting 
in Germantown in 1805, passed the resolution, that it 
" Must remain a German speaking Ministerium," and for- 
bidding the introduction of any measure, " which would 


necessitate the use of any other language, than the German 
in synodical session." The English speaking Lutherans 
then organized themselves into a congregation. This was 
the first exclusively English Lutheran Congregation in 
Pennsylvania. It was organized in Philadelphia, by Dr. 
Mayer, who ministered in the same church for upwards of 
half a century. * 

In his " Retrospect of Lutheranism," Dr. Schmucker 
gives the following description of the state of the country 
during and succeeding the Revolutionary war : 

"The struggle by which this glorious declaration of In- 
dependence was sustained and in which our forefathers 
took a distinguished part, was like every othsr war, detri- 
mental to the religious prosperity of the community. Chris- 
tianity is a religion of peace, and the tempest of war never 
fails to blast and scatter the leaves which are for the healing 
of nations. Hear the account of one of those venerable 
men, the Rev. Dr. Helmuth, just after General Gage had 
landed at Boston with 9,000 British troops, dated February 
25th, 1775. ' Throughout the whole country great prepar- 
ations for war are making, and almost every person is 
under arms. The ardor is indescribable which is mani- 
fested in these melancholy circumstances. If a hundred 
men are required, many more immediately offer, and are 
dissatisfied when all are not accepted. I know of no sim- 
ilar case in history. Neighborhoods concerning which it 
would have been expected, that years would be requisite 
to induce them voluntarily to take up arms, became 
strongly inclined for war, so soon as the battle of Lexing- 
ton was known. Quakers and Menonists take part in the 
military exercises, and in great numbers renounce their 
former religious principles. The hoarse din of war is 

* See Jacob's History, Page 328. 


hourly heard in our streets. The present disturbances inflict 
no small injury on religion. Every body is constantly on 
the alert, anxious, like the ancient Athenians, to hear the 
news, and amid the mass of news the hearts of men are, 
alas, closed against the good old word of God. The Lord 
is chastising the people, but they do not feel it. Those 
who appear to be distant from danger are unconcerned j 
and those whom calamity has overtaken are enraged and 
meditating vengeance. In the American army there are 
many clergymen, who serve both as chaplains and as offi- 
cers. I myself know two, one of whom is a Colonel and 
the other a Captain. The whole country is in a perfect 
enthusiasm for liberty. The whole population, from New 
England to Georgia is of one mind and determined to risk 
life and all things in defence ol liberty. The few who think 
differently are not permitted to utter their sentiments. In 
Philadelphia the English and German students are formed 
into military companies, wear uniform, and are exercised 
like regular troops. Would to God that men would once 
become as zealous and unanimous in asserting their spirit- 
ual liberty, as they are in vindicating their political free- 
dom ! * 

" This melancholy state of things lasted upwards of 
seven years. — Many of the churches were destroyed 
throughout the land, and especially in New England. 
Zion's church, the largest in Philadelphia, was occupied as 
a hospital t by the British army in 1778, and the congrega- 
tion for a season wholly expelled ; and their other church, 
St. Michaels, which had been built 1743, the year after 
Muhlenberg's arrival, was used by the enemy as a garrison 
church, half of every Lord's day, the congregation having 

* Hallische Nachrichten p. 1367 — 8. 
IHallische Nachrichten p. 1408. 


the use of it in the afternoon. During the ravages of this 
war, no regular reports were forwarded to Halle, and our 
acquaintance with the particulars of our history is necessar- 
ily circumscribed. Many, however, of the fathers of the 
church survived the revolutionary struggle, and remained 
in the field during the earlier part of this period ; yet one 
by one they dropped off, and were received to their eternal 
rest. From the (Kirchenagende) * Directory for Worship,' 
published in 1786, three years after the Independence of 
these United States was acknowledged by Britain and the 
war closed, we learn, that at that time our ministry in the 
Middle States embraced the following twenty-four persons : 
Henry Melchior Muhlenberg, D. D., senior of the minis- 
terium, Nicolas Kurtz, his younger brother William Kurtz, 
Lewis Voigt, John Andrew Krug, Christian Imanuel 
Schultze, John George Eager, Just Christian Henry Hel- 
muth, D. D., John Frederick Schmidt, John Christopher 
Kunze, D. D., Gotthilf, Henry Ernst Muhlenberg, D. D., 
Conrad Wildbahn, Jacob B. Buskirk, John Friderici, Chris- 
tian Streit, John George Jung, Conrad Roeller, Jacob Geo- 
ring, Daniel Schroeter, Daniel Lehman, Henry Moeller, 
Frederick Ernst, Frederick Valentine Melsheimer, and 
Daniel Kurtz, D. D. 

" In addition to these, the following laborers, among 
many others, entered the field during the second period, 
and carried forward the work of the Lord : John Frederick 
Weinland, Frederick David Schaeffer, D. D., Wm. Carpen- 
ter, George Lochman, D. D., John George Schmucker, 
D. D., Christian Endress, D. D., Ernst L. Hazelius, D. D., 
Philip F. Mayer, D. D., John Bachman, D. D , John Ruth- 
rauff, George Flohr, Paul Henkel, John Stauch, F. W. 
Geissenhainer, D. D., Augustus Wackerhagen, D. D., G. A. 
Lintner, D. D., G. B. Miller, D. D., Jno. Herbst, John 
Knosky, H. Muhlenberg, D. D., David F. Schaeffer, D. D., 


John Hecht, Jacob Miller, D. D., Ulrich, Baetis, Ernst, 
D. D., J. Becker, D. D., F. C. Schaeffer, D. D., J. P. Shin- 
del, A. Reck, B. Kurtz, D. D.* 

" The number of congregations and ministers was much 
increased during this period ; but owing to the want of a 
suitable institution for their education and to other causes, 
the proportion of men destitute of a learned education was 
also augmented. Nor can it be denied, that, whether it is 
attributable to the unhallowed influence of the war, or to 
this and other causes in conjunction, the standard of piety 
in the churches was somewhat on the decline, especially in 
the latter part of this period. As the same remark is also 
applicable to other religious denominations of our land, the 
war of the Revolution and the war with England in 1812 
were most probably its principal reason ; for a general 
effect requires an equally general cause. With this cause 
co-operated another, almost as influential, the general and 
unprecedented facilities offered by our young and nascent 
country to accumulate deceitful riches, and to neglect the 
treasures in heaven ; and also the less pious character of 
the late accessions made to our churches by emigration 
from Germany, then devastated and demoralized by the 
deadly poison of war." 

In the minutes of the Maryland and Virginia Synod,, 
held in Shepherdstown, Va., November, 1823, we find a 
petition from a meeting held in Baltimore, beseeching the 
Reverend Synod to send severa) of their brethren succes- 
sively to preach in the English language. They state in 
their petition, that Lutherans have left, and others are wan- 
dering for the want of those doctrines and principles which 
they deem compatible with the Holy Scriptures, and the 
practice of their forefathers. 

* To which should be added S. S. Schmucler, D. D. 


It was 

" Resolved, that Synod approve of the intention of our 
brethren in Baltimore, to establish an English Evangelical 
Lutheran Church in that city, and sincerely wish them the 
divine blessing in their undertaking." 

After discussion the yeas and nays were called for, and 
the result was as follows : 

Yeas : Revs. Sackman, Benj. Kurtz, Koehler, Krauth, 
S. S. Schmucker, Schnee, Winter, Ruthrauf, Moeller; 
Messrs. Ebert, Esig, Rohrer, Weis, Jr. 

Nays: Rev. Mr. Haas, Messrs. Link, Paulus, Strayer, 

Thirteen yeas and five nays. The President, D. F. 
Schaeffer, had no vote, except there had been a tie. It was 

^^ Resolved, that any of our brethren, who officiate in the 
English language, may visit the petitioners according to 
their request ; and it was further 

Resolved, that under existing circumstances it is desira- 
able, that brethren, who may visit Baltimore for the pur- 
pose above specified, to regulate their appointments so as to 
interfere as little as possible with the services performed in 
the German Lutheran Church, and that those who are at 
this time members of the German congregation, and may 
attach themselves to the contemplated English church, 
should not, for the present, withdraw their support from 
said congregation." 

This was the beginning of the first English Lutheran 
congregation in Baltimore. Rev. J. G. Morris became its 
first pastor, and served it with marked ability and success 
for many years. 

In regard to the design of the General Synod, and the 
withdrawal of the Pennsylvania Ministerium, Dr. Schmucker 
writes in his Dedication to the Church of the Redeemer, 
1866: "The original design of the General Synod of our 
church, in this country, was to effect a fraternal union or 


confederation, of limited and chiefly advisory powers, be- 
tween all the Lutheran Synods then existing in our coun- 
try. This object was also happily effected in the organiza- 
tion of that body in 1820, in regard to all those synods, 
except that of Ohio, which had not yet completed its con- 
nection with us in 1823. In that year the Pennsylvania 
Synod, after having attended a single meeting, withdrew 
from the union, not on account of any dissatisfaction with 
its principles, (for they expressly affirmed the contrary,) but 
because their congregations had listened to the misrepre- 
sentations of ignorance and prejudice, which were caught 
up and circulated in their congregations by political dema- 
gogues, for selfish purposes. The charges, forsooth, were, 
that the General Synod, the Bible Societies, Tract Socie- 
ties, and Thi^ological Seminaries were all parts of a secret 
scheme to unite church and state, and to introduce into our 
church in this country religious coercion, like that in the 
Fatherland. Thirty years afterwards the Pennsylvania 
Synod again united with the General Synod." 

Dr. Morris represents the matter in his brusk manner 
thus : " A resolution was passed (at the meeting of the Gen- 
eral Synod in Frederick, 1823) expressing deep regret that 
the Pennsylvanians were induced by peculiar circumstances 
to secede from the institution which they had aided in 

" ' The peculiar circumstances ' were the prejudices of 
the congregations, and the fear entertained by some ot the 
ministers, that the General Synod would exercise too much 
authority, and invade the rights of the districts ; all of 
which was simple nonsense, and unworthy of the men who 
pretended to entertain these fears. The fact is, that some 
of those ministers were intimidated by the ravings of some 
fanatical foreigners, who made the simple people believe 
that their civil liberties were in peril, and that church and 


state were about to be united through the agency of the 
Synod. Some of the ministers were afraid to assert their 
rights, lest they might lose their bread." 

Dr. Jacobs gives the cause for the withdrawal of the 
Ministerium as follows : 

" The withdrawal of the Ministerium of Pennsylvania 
was due to the fact that the leaders of the Synod were una- 
ble to overcome the opposition of the rural districts. A 
country school teacher, by the name of Carl Gock, pub- 
lished a small book, in which he excited the prejudices of 
the country people against the General Synod. The 
scheme was declared to be a plan of the ministers to tread 
the rights of the people under foot. An entire chapter was 
devoted to a picture of the despotism exercised by Romish 
priests in Europe, and a warning that the General Synod 
was attended with such perils. Another chapter dwells en 
the great evils of theological seminaries, and urges that the 
money of the people would be better spent in establishing 
elementary schools. All the proceedings of the General 
Synod, it was urged, will be English, and the rights of the 
German will be given away, because the lay delegates will 
not know what is transpiring. It will be an aristocratic 
spiritual congress. As to the expenses, who is to pay 
them? We farmers, collections upon collections, etc.* 

"The country clergy from the beginning had not cared 
much for the General Synod, which had its chief advocates 
in Philadelphia, Harrisburg, York, Lancaster and Reading. 
While they had generally voted for it, they made no efforts, 
when the excitement against it arose among their people, to 

* The writer becomes most eloquent in the apostrophe: " Spirit of 
Washington, appear from the spirit world, quicken in us the true 
sense of freedom, in order that the foundation thou hast laid we may 
defend, even with our blood." Jacobs' Church History p. 360. 


instruct them, or withstand the current, but acquiesced and 
carried their demands to Synod. 

" The form of opposition, however, was, that the General 
Synod interfered with the plans that had been projected for 
a closer union with the Reformed, and the establishment of 
a Lutheran Reformed theological seminary. Congregations 
in Lehigh County petitioned the Synod, for this reason, to 
' return to the old order of things ; ' and the Synod, in the 
spirit of charity (?) towards its congregations, in order that 
nothing might interrupt the mutual fraternal love that sub- 
sisted between the brethren, consented, by a vote of seven- 
ty-two to nine,* to desert the child which it had brought 
into being." 

The opposition to the General Synod was not confined 
to the laity ; some of the prominent ministers of the Penn- 
sylvania Ministerium were also opposed to it. An example 
of this is given in a biographical sketch of Rev. Jacob Mil- 
ler, D. D., pastor of the Trinity Lutheran Church in Read- 
ing, by Dr. Hiester H. Muhlenberg : " Still another of his 
strong prejudices was to be seen in his opposition to the 
General Synod, which he looked upon as a mere scheme 
for religious and even political influence. Whether this 
view originated in mere distrust of the men, who were at 
the head of the enterprise, or in general views of human 

weakness, or both, I am not able to say I have 

repeatedly argued this point with him, and could never 
even get him to agree to the expediency of the General 
Synod as a bond of closer union to our churches. Noth- 
ing, in his judgment, but similarity in religious faith and 
principles could be permanent." 

* The nine were Dr. G. Lochman, (J. G. Schmucker?) Revs. J. 
Heibst, B. Keller, C. T. Cruse and J. Schnee; and the lay delegates 
Barnitz of York, Stoever of Germantown, Schmeiser of Gettysburg, 
and Bohn of Berlin. Jacobs' History p. 361. 


In 1839 a movement was made to have the Minister- 
ium resume its connection with the General Synod, which 
will explain the foregoing : 

"The vestry and congregation met in the church. 
The president of the vestry, Rev. Dr. Jacob Miller, informed 
the congregation that he was instructed by the Reverend 
Synod to take the vote of the congregation, whether they 
desired to join the General Synod, or to remain as they now 
are. The vote was taken and was unanimous against 
making a change. So testifies John Hanold, Secretary. 

" Dr. Miller personally was opposed to the return of 
the Ministerium of Pennsylvania to the General Synod, and 
at the subsequent meeting of that body offered the resolu- 
tion, that for the present it was not advisable, which was 
adopted by a vote of 33 to 28." * 

We must not suppose, however, that Dr. Jacob Miller 
was the only minister in the Pennsylvania Ministerium who 
was opposed to the General Synod. It will be noticed that 
at the meeting of the Ministerium in Baltimore, 1819, where 
the initiatory steps were taken, the motion to form a gen- 
eral Synod was adopted by a vote ot forty-two in favor, and 
eight against the organization. The names of the eight 
men who voted in the negative are not given, but they 
were doubtless influential members and Dr. Miller probably 
was one of them. 

But opposition to the General Synod was found not 
only in the Ministerium of Pennsylvania. It had some 
warm friends and advocates in the New York Ministerium ; 
but in the minutes of that body in the year 1822, we find 
that it was not thought expedient to send delegates " for the 
present." The year previous, the president had been 
requested to lay before the next Synod a circumstantial 

* History of Trinity Church, Reading, Pa. Page 169 


report concerning the decision, which he received from the 
different church councils, on the subject of a proposed 
union with the General Synod. 

" The Secretary stated, that but few congregations had 
sent in their declarations concerning the General Synod ; 
and that a majority of the few, who had expressed an opin- 
ion on the subject, had deemed the proposed plan inexpedi- 
ent for the present." 


The Synod of Ohio presented eight objections against 
uniting with the General Synod. Among these were the 
following : 

" The introduction of uniform hymn books and liturgies 
is contrary to Article VII of the Augsburg Confession"; 

" The freedom and parity of the ministry is infringed 
upon, since the delegates to the General Synod will usurp 
their rights ; 

" An act of incorporation will follow, and the resolutions 
will be enforced by the strong arm of the law ; 

" The Ministerium of Ohio must remain a German speak- 
ing body, and in the General Synod the Enghsh will soon 
prevail." * 

How unreasonable these objections were ! It is difficult 
to see how intelligent, sensible men could urge them ; 
the Ohio Synod certainly has long since disowned them in 
theory and practice. 

The New York Ministerium had assisted in forming 
the General Synod in 1820, but did not send delegates 
again till the ninth session, in Hagerstown, June 1837, sev- 
enteen years after. It seceded again in 1866-7, and became 
a part of the General Council. 

* Jacobs' History of the Lutheran Church, p. 159. 



The most violent and persistent opposition to the or- 
ganization of the General Synod, however, came from what 
was then called the Tennessee Conference. Their opposi- 
tion was founded mainly on doctrinal grounds. In the 
year 1821 they appointed a committee, consisting of Adam 
Miller, David Henkel, Ambrose Henkel, and others, to 
" compile objections to the General Synod, and have them 

The Synod approved the objections compiled by the 
committee appointed at the previous year's session in opposi- 
tion to the constitution of the General Synod. Their principal 
objections to the constitution of the General Synod seem 
to have been : 

1. " That it was not sufficiently definitive on the Luth- 
eran doctrine of the Sacraments. 

2. " That it declared that Christ had given no special 
direction or order for the establishment of Church Govern- 

3. " That it maintained that the synods should be ruled 
by the majority." 

From a German paper, published in Baltimore, June 
25, 1823, the lennesseeans heard that the Pennsylvania 
Ministerium had withdrawn its connection with the General 
Synod. In view of this fact, and in order to obtain desired 
information, they deemed it proper to submit the following 
inquiries to the Pennsylvania Ministerium. It will be 
noticed that some of the inquiries point to the Rationalism 
and the third one especially to the Socinianism of some of 
the members of the Pennsylvania Ministerium at that time : 

I. '' Do you believe, that Holy Baptism, administered 
with natural water, in the name of the Father, and of the 
Son, and of the Holy Ghost, effects the forgiveness of sins, 
delivers from death and the devil, and confers everlasting 


salvation upon all who believe it, as the words and promises 
of God declare ? 

2. " Do you believe, that the true body and blood of 
Christ, under the form of bread and wine in the Holy Sup- 
per, are present, administered, and received ? Do you also 
believe, that the unbelieving communicants receive in this 
Supper the body and blood of Christ, under the form of 
bread and wine ? 

" We do not ask whether the unbelievers obtain the 
forgiveness of their sins thereby, but whether they also re- 
ceive the body and blood of Jesus in this Sacrament. 

3. " Do you believe, that Jesus Christ, as true God 
and man in one person, should be worshipped ? 

4. " Is it right for the Evangelical Lutheran Church 
to unite with any religious organization that seeks to deny 
the doctrines of the Augsburg Confession and Luther's 
Catechism ? Or is it right for Lutherans to goto the Holy 
Supper with such ? 

5. "Is your Synod to be henceforth ruled by a major- 
ity of the voters ? 

6. " Does your Synod intend still to adhere to the 
declaration, that Jesus Christ, the Great Head of his Church, 
has given no special direction or order for the establishment 
of Church Government, as it is declared in the Constitution 
of the General Synod ? 

" Your answers to these questions in writing, addressed 
to our Secretary, Rev. David Henkel, Lincolnton, Lincoln 
County, North Carolina, will be duly appreciated." * 

The name of the German agitator, who influenced the 
members of the Pennsylvania Ministerium against the Gen- 
eral Synod appears to have been Carl Gock. In 1823, he 
wrote a letter to the Tennessee Synod, in which he ex- 

* We do not find, that the Ministerium ever made a reply, or paid 
any attention to these questions. — Ed, 


pressed himself dissatisfied with the General Synod, and 
stated, that he had reprinted the report of their committee, 
appointed to compile objections to the constitution of the 
General Synod, and circulated 1,200 copies. — Hist. Tenn. 

Several letters from Pennsylvania were sent, requesting 
Rev. David Henkel to visit that state, and preach and vin- 
dicate the distinctive doctrines of the Lutheran Church. 
He was advised to go, and he finally agreed to do so. — 
Hist. Tenn. Synod. 

Some time before the organization of the General 
Synod, a disruption of the North Carolina Synod occurred; 
differences of opinion had arisen among the members on 
the subject of denominational union, revivals of religion, and 
subscription to the Symbolical Books. We quote from the 
History of the Tennessee Synod, pages 13, 14 : 

" There were conflicts in the pulpit, in the congrega- 
tion, and in the family. One of the leading ministers 
charged Rev. David Henkel with teaching doctrines con- 
trary to the position of the Church. To defend himself 
against such unfounded charges, the latter appealed to a 
Latin copy of the Book of Concord, which he had in pos- 
session. That gave him a decided advantage, in some re- 
spects, in the estimation of many of the people, who were 
not willing to acquiesce in the extreme, latitudinarian views 
inculcated by the former. To counteract this increasing 
advantage, that minister called into question the correct- 
ness of these translations from the Latin. This proved dis- 
paraging for a while, but soon afterwards Rev. David Hen- 
kel happened to come across a German copy of the Book of 
Concord, at the residence of a German in South Carolina, 
with whom he spent a night or two. After much persua- 
sion the German let him have the book. This he brought 
with him, rejoicing in his good fortune to get it, to North 


Carolina. This he presented, to sustain the correctness of 
his translation made from the Latin copy of the Book of 
Concord. For, this the people could now understand for 
themselves, and finding that the translations from the Latin 
copy referred to, were correct, many members of the 
Church took a decided stand in lavor of him and his posi- 
tions, and faithfully defended him and his doctrines against 
the innovation and false doctrines of his opponents. 

" The council of the congregation met, and after con- 
sidering the matter, one of the elders, Captain John Stire- 
walt, father of the late Rev. Jacob Stirewalt, presented the 
Book of Concord to the minister, saying, ' We want to know 
whether you intend to preach according to this book in the 
future ? ' The minister hesitated and evaded, but being 
pressed, he raised the book up and brought it down on the 
table, saying, ''From this day henceforth, I will not; it 'is 
nothing but a controversial book.* Mr. Stirewalt then 
raised the book up, and brought it down on the table, say- 
ing, ' From this day henceforth, you won't be our preacher.' " 

This was certainly a very summary, arbitrary and un- 
justifiable proceeding. It required the minister to conform 
his preaching of the gospel to the teachings of a book, 
which he had never read, perhaps never seen before. 

The following extract from an Historical Address, by 
Rev. Geo. H. Cox, will give the reader an idea of the vio- 
lence of feeling which agitated the church in the South, 
about the time of the organization of the General Synod- 
The address was delivered in St. John's congregation' 
Cabarras Co., N. C: 

" The third regular pastor was Rev. C. A. G. Storch, 
who served the congregation twenty-one years, from 1800 
to 1 82 1. During his administration were those terrible 
times when, in the church, father was pitted against son, 
mother against daughter, brother against brother, and friend 

158 REV. storch's conchiatory offer. 

against friend ; when anger and malice and hatred, and all 
the evil passions, seem to have run rampant, and which 
culminated in the organization of what is now known as 
the'Tennessee Synod. But amid it all Pastor Storch stood 
untouched and unstained. I have yet to learn of one un- 
kind criticism of him, though he was the most prominent 
and conspicuous man in the North Carolina Synod." — 
Liith. Visitor. 

The Synod of North Carolina also changed the time of 
their meeting, and made it on August 26, 18 19, in order 
that their delegates might be present in Baltimore at the 
initiatory steps for the organization of the General Synod 
on Trinity Sunday. 

In the minutes of the North Carolina Synod, on May 
28, 1820, we find the following: "Revs. Paul and Philip 
Henkel, together with candidate Bell and David Henkel, a 
former catechist, took possession of the church. 

"As it was known, that the last two had separated them- 
selves from us, and Paul Henkel no longer belonged to us, 
Philip Henkel was asked if he would unite with us, and 
submit to be governed by a majority of votes. He an- 
swered nothing. 

" The Rev. Storch offered up a fervent prayer to the 
God of love, to again establish peace and harmony among 

" Rev. Storch's offer, that we were inclined to forget 
everything, because mistakes have been made on both 
sides, and on the question, whether we would unite again, 
being put, they answered No ! Because we did not preach 
Baptismal Regeneration, did not in the Holy Communion 
receive the elements as the true body and blood of the 
Lord, and that the plan for a General Synod was against 
the Augsburg Confession, that therefore they would not 
submit to a majority of votes. To put an end to David's 


coarseness, it was resolved that Synod meet in the after- 

In 1 8 19, some charges having been made against 
David Henkel, who was at that time (18 19) a licentiate in 
the North Carolina Synod, he with a few others separated 
themselves from the Synod. The Secretary remarks, 
" Here Satan began his division among us .... he and 
others of his adherents came with Philip Henkel on Trinity 
Sunday to the church, where the convention of Synod was 
being held, and as the door was locked against them, Philip 
ordained his brother David and J. E. Bell under an oak 
tree ! In this manner did they separate themselves from 

At the next meeting of the Synod, this ordination 
under the oak tree was declared invalid.* 

Subsequei;jtly Joseph Bell, who had also been ordained 
under the oak tree by Philip Henkel, reported himself as 
willing to unite with the Synod. He acknowledged, that 
he had been led astray contrary to his own conviction. 

" On the question, whether the administered ordina- 
tion was proper, it was considered invalid, according to the 
rules of all Christian denominations." — Minutes of the N. C. 
Synod. Pages ^o, ^/, ^2, 4.J. 

At the same meeting of the North Carolina Synod, 

* It is reported that the above named oak tree died the next year 
after the ordination had been performed. Some superstitious people 
then attributed its death to some baneful influence which proceeded 
from this irregular performance The tree was then cut down and 
sawed up into small pieces, which were widely distributed as relics. 
The writer saw one of these relics in the Historical Library at Gettys- 
burg. It is a small block of wood about four inches long and two 
inches wide, smoothly planed, having a label pasted on one side. On 
this label is written, said to be in the handwriting of Prof. H. E. 
Jacobs, the following statement: " From the tree near Concord, N. C, 
benea-ih which David Henkel was ordained in 18 19 (Trinity Sunday), 
and the rupture with the North Carolina Sjnod effected, leading I0 
the formation of the Tennessee Synod. From Rev. S. L. Keller, 
Concord, N. C." 


Rev. G. Shober presented his report as representative to the 
Pennsylvania Synod, which met in 1 8 19 (in Baltimore). 
He reported that a plan had been agreed upon, which had 
been printed, setting forth how all Synods could join in one 
General Synod. The plan was considered, item by item, 
and the necessity of having a central union was admitted, 
even by those who were against this plan itself, and it was 
adopted by more than two-thirds majority. 

" Hereupon two ministers and two lay delegates were 
elected according to the provisions of the plan, to meet 
with other representatives of other Synods this year in 
Hagerstown, Md., to unite with them in adopting a consti- 
tution, and in forming the General Synod." 

Another obstacle to the formation of a union of the 
Lutherans in this country at that time, was a very general 
desire for a union of all Protestant denominations. In the 
Ministerium of Pennsylvania this project had been very 
strongly agitated. A book had been written by Revs. 
Probst and Jaeger in advocacy of a union between the 
Lutherans and Reformed. Negotiations had been carried 
on between the respective synods, but the effort failed. 
The subject of a union with other Protestant denominations 
was also proposed in Baltimore, at the meeting of the Min- 
isterium, in 1 8 19, where the organization of the General 
Synod was first agreed upon. But here also the proposi- 
tion was not entertained. 

In North Carolina and Virginia a union with the Epis- 
copalians was proposed, with whom the Lutheran Church 
at that time stood in very peculiar relations. A remarkable 
illustration of this is given in the case of Rev. Johann P. G. 
Muhlenberg. After having pursued his theological studies 
under the tuition of Provost C. M. Wrangel, and been 
ordained in 1768, he received a call in 1772 to the pastor- 
ship in the Lutheran Church, in Woodstock, Va. In order 


to accept this call, Muhlenberg was obliged to go to Eng- 
land and receive a new ordination, as the law of Vinginia 
required that the ministers should belong to the Episcopal 
Church. His ordination took place April 23, 1772, at the 
royal chapel of St. James, the bishop of London offici- 
ating.* t 

The most active advocate of the General Synod, and 
one of its founders was Rev. Gottlieb Shober. He was the 
President of the General Synod when it met in Frederick, 
in 1825, and was on this account also very obnoxious to 
the members of the Tennessee Synod. He was born in 
Bethlehem, Pa., and in his 17th year became a member of 
the Moravian Church. He removed with his parents to 
Salem, N. C, a new settlement of Moravians, where he en- 
gaged successively in school teaching, mechanical and 
mercantile trade, built a paper mill (the first establishment 
of that kind south of the Potomac), and opened a book 

* Anderson's History, American Lutheran Biographies, page 540. 

]f Muhlenberg had not enlisted in the army of the Revolutionary 
War, or had returned to his charge after the war, instead of devoting 
himself to politics, we might have had the boasted Apostolic Succes- 
sion in the Lutheran Church of America. — Ed. 

t This regulation was changed after the Revolutionary War, and the 
Independence of the United States, when ministers of the Gospel in 
Virginia were no longer required to secure ordination from the hands 
of a bishop of the Church of England, This will appear from the fol- 
lowing certificate: 

" This shall certify to all whom it may concern, that at a court, 
held for Shenandoah Countv, on the 13th day of February, in the year 
one thousand eight hundred and twenty-one, Samuel S. Schmucker 
produced credentials of his ordination, and also of his being in legular 
communion with the Evangelical Lutheran Church, took the oath of 
allegiance to this commonwealth, and entered into bonds, as required 
by the act, reducing into one the several acts, to regulate the solem- 
nization of marriages, prohibiting such as are incestuous, or otherwise 
unlawful; to prevent forcible and stolen marriages; and for punish- 
ment of the crime of bigamy; and that he is thereby authorized to 
celebrate the rights of matrimony agreeable to the forms and customs 
of said Church, between any persons, to him regularly applj ing there- 
for, within this state. Given under my hand and seal the day and 
year above written. 

Jacob Lantz. [Seal.]" 


Store, serving at the same time as postmaster. Subse- 
quently he studied law, and was engaged for some years in 
the practice — being prompted to this chiefly by the desire 
to assist his Moravian brethren in the law-suits in which 
they were involved in respect to a portion of their property. 
He was also repeatedly elected to the state legislature, and 
was a prominent member of that body. Daring all this 
time Mr. Shober was living an eminently godly life, and 
endeavoring to make every employment in which he 
engaged, subservient to the cause of Christ, and the best 
interests of his fellowmen. At length, having passed his 
fiftieth year, and lost all relish for secular business, he 
resolved to devote what remained of his life to the ministry 
of the Gospel. Having determined to enter the ministry in 
connection with the Lutheran Church, he offered himself, 
in due time, to the North Carolina Synod, and was received 
with great joy. He was solemnly set apart for the work of 
the ministry, and immediately became pastor of the church 
in Salem, and several other churches in the neighborhood- 
Here he continued laboring with great zeal till a few years 
before his death, which occurred at Salem, the place of his 
residence, June 27, 1838. Just before his last illness, he 
said, with great cheerfulness, to one of his brethren, " When 
you hear of my death, you may be sure I have gone to my 

Mr. Shober also took a deep interest in the establish- 
ment of a seminary for the training of young men for the 
ministry, and was appointed one of the first directors of the 
Theological Seminary at Gettysburg. In his last will and 
testament he left three thousand acres of land to the insti- 
tution ; and though the land did not increase in value, as 
the doner expected when the bequest was made, yet his 
act was an evidence of his deep interest in the institution. 

Many of the earlier students in the Seminary at 


Gettysburg will remember the sign in large letters on the 
door of the Reading Room, " Shober Room*^ the expense 
of furnishing which was contributed by Rev. Shober. 

The only offense charged against Rev. Shober was 
that he was not a good Lutheran. Rev. Dr. Bernheim gives 
the following description of him in his History of the Luth- 
eran Church in the Carolinas : " He was a man of decided 
opinions, unyielding in everything which he considered 
right, with a mind that knew no dissimulation, an ardent 
temper, and a character decidedly affirmative. . . . The 
lineaments of his countenance gave indication of a strong 
and active mind. He was one of the most active defenders 
of the General 'Synod, as he had also been prominent among 
its early founders. But Rev. Shober was no Lutheran, he 
was a member of the Moravian Church, and never discon- 
nected himself from communion with the same, but lived 
and died as a member of that church. This information 
the writer has from his daughter, the widow of Bishop 
Herrman." ' 

To this I remark, that Mr. Shober did not need to 
make much of a doctrinal change in coming from the 
Moravian to the Lutheran Church, for both denominations 
hold to the Augsburg Confession. Further, his commun- 
ion with the Moravian Church could not have been of a 
very intimate nature, as the Moravians undertook to eject 
him from their colony in Salem, because he had joined the 
Lutheran Church, but he appealed to the highest authority 
in the Moravian Church, in Hernhut, and received permis- 
sion by letter, that he might remain in Salem and continue 
his business, although he had joined the Lutheran Church, 
by which he had been ordained. This information I have 
from a verbal statement by Dr. D. J. Hauer, who was at 
that time a young minister, laboring in that part of the 


country, was acquainted with the facts, and can vouch for 
their truth. 

The best fruits of a Christian's faith are his works, and 
the best evidences of a man's Lutheranism are his love for 
the doctrines and usages of the Lutheran Church, and his 
labors and sacrifices for her defence and upbuilding. ^Ac- 
cording to these tests no man has a better claim to be called 
a Lutheran than Rev. Gottlieb Shober. 

The following extract from the minutes of the New 
York Ministerium, of 1823, will be interesting reading. It 
shows the unsuccessful attempt of the Episcopalians to 
annex the Lutheran Church in the South, and Mr. Shober's 
manly stand and courageous defense of the church of his 
choice : 

" The beginning of Rev. President Shober's letter con- 
tains an expression of regret, at the propagation of false 
accounts concerning the late intercourse between the Luth- 
eran Synod and the Episcopal Convention of North Caro- 
lina. The President alludes also to certain articles which 
have appeared in several religious journals, and to a com- 
munication under his official signature, which he had caused 
to be inserted in some Southern publications, in order to 
counteract the painful mis- statements which were made in 
various places. 

" The 'Family Visitor ' and the ' Theological Repertory^, 
among others, had published to the world, ' that the Epis- 
copal and Lutheran churches had effected an honorable and 
Christian union ; ' and added : 'which places the Lutheran 
Church under the care and superintendance of the Episco- 
pal authority of that diocese.' 

" President Shober then remarks in substance : About 
seventeen years ago, a former Episcopalian layman was 
desirous to enter some ministry, and no Episcopal church 
being then known in North Carolina, except in sea- 


ports, he applied to the Evangelical Lutheran Ministry for 
ordination ; and, as our church was increasing, though the 
laborers were few, the ministers were glad to accept his 
services. He was born in Scotland, and cannot speak the 
German language. His name is Robert Johnson Miller. 
He was ordained by the Lutheran Ministry ; but on his 
part he reserved at that time, that if ever the Episcopal 
Church should arise in this state, his ordination should be 
without prejudice to the membership of that church. Un- 
der this ordination he formed and served sundry congrega- 
tions, and was at sundry times employed by our Synod as 
an itinerant preacher — and he was serviceable to our church 
for many years. 

" Sometime ago the Episcopal church lifted up its 
head in this state, and when they had formed a convention 
under Bishop Moore, of Virginia, they called upon the Rev. 
Mr. Storch, the President and Senior of our church, to 
meet them in convention as one of their church. President 
Storch requested me to answer the invitation, which I did, 
and explained to them that the Evangelical Lutheran 
Church is independent of the Episcopal Church, and stated 
to them how our church was governed, etc.. but invited 
them to preach in our churches, and thereby gather in their 
dispersed members in the western parts, which would be 
the way to form congregations among the English, for we 
then had but the above named English preacher among us! 

" To this my statement and invitation, I received no 
answer. Two years afterwards I received a letter from R. 
J. Miller, mentioning that as he was invited by the Bishop 
to attend their convention, he had determined to unite with 
his original church, which he did ; and by the minutes of 
their convention, the information is held forth, that Mr. 
Miller had appeared as deputy from the Lutheran Church, 
which, however, was not true, though he might have 


received a sanction from one or two of his congregations. 
His appearance, as a deputy from the Lutheran Church, was 
unknown to our church as a body. Yet he was received as 
such, for purposes which afterwards appeared, and suffered 
himself to be ordained by the Bishop to priest's orders. 
Mr. Miller may have persuaded that Convention, that all 
the Lutheran ministers would come under their Bishop ; 
and they elected and sent deputies to our next Synod, to 
treat of a union. 

" We could not but exercise common politeness, and 
granted them a seat with us. A committee was appointed 
to converse with them about a union. They had found in 
private conversation that our Ministerium spurned the idea 
of accepting re-ordination, as whereby we should have dis- 
graced our Church forever. They proposed no such thing 
when our committee met them, and offered, that if we sent 
deputies to their Convention, they should have seat and 
vote with them on all questions not relating to their 
church : in course of common politeness, we offered them 
the privilege to meet us on similar terms. Consequently 
this ' union,' concerning which they make much noise, is no 
more than a civil intercourse. 

'* Our Synod approved of this ; their Convention did 
the same. We elected deputies to meet them at their next 
convention, but none attended. I made my excuse in writ- 
ing. I could not perceive that a true Christian union was 
contemplated by the Episcopalians ; for, when we invited 
the above mentioned Mr. Miller to commune with us, and 
thus to take a friendly leave of us, he refused, except he or 
some Episcopalian consecrated the elements ! Now, 
although none of us had attended their succeeding conven- 
tion, they elected deputies to meet us last year, and these 
according to agreement, took seat with us, but when we 
ordained, or administered the sacrament, they went out ! 


But, as their Convention was to meet this year in our cen- 
tre, we elected deputies to meet them, which we did in Sal- 
isbury, and were treated genteelly, according to contract. 
I was one of the deputies. I was determined to find out 
how far their love extended, and motioned, that as we had 
given them the privilege of our churches, they should give 
us the same in theirs. This motion, although seconded by 
one of their own lay deputies, was refused to be minuted, 
and in friendly debate they told us to our faces that it could 
not be admitted, as our ordination was not valid ! The 
conclusion was, that I withdrew my motion, but told them 
that we should retire to our former significancy. We on 
our part refused to commune with them ; and on being 
questioned why we did so, I told them that as they had 
refused to commuive with us, and did not invite us to preach 
as they had done in our Synod, cordiality was wanting. 
After this Convention our Synod met ; when, without say- 
ing much, in order not to irritate their deputy, we declined 
electing deputies to their next Convention — of course the 
union is on the wahe. 

" This being the true situation of cur Connection, I am 
surprised that honest Christian Ministers should propagate 
to the world, that we had come under the Episcopal super- 
intendance of another Church, and were re ordained by a 
Bishop ! If it were the case, we should deserve to be dis- 
owned by our Church throughout the United States, with 
whom we desire to remain one body and soul, in brotherly 
affection and indissoluble union. 

" Public use may be made of this letter, and I should 
wish the information in the printed communication afore- 
mentioned, to be widely diffused, so that all Christians may 
see, that the Evangelical Lutheran Church had not surren- 
dered and will not surrender any of her rights and senior 
privileges ; for, all Protestants have their origin in Luther. 



^^'It " The Rev. President concludes his letter with the follow- 
ing expressions : ' Be pleased to salute your synod from me 
and the steadfast brethren in North Carolina. Commend 
us to their intercession at the Throne of Grace, that we may 
remain united in love and principle ; and, may the Lord 
guide us all to his heavenly rest. This is the sincere 
prayer of your fellow laborer in a rough vineyard. 

[Signed) G. Shober, President.' " 




181 1— 1826. 

Efforts made to establish seminaries — in north caro^ 
lina, 181i-1817 — hartwick — prof. hazelius — pro- 
seminary by schmucker — troubles as to his lifes 
work — first students — dr. morris' account — pro- 
ceedings in general synod — professor chosen — 

LECTION TOURS — Kurtz's tour to europe — collec- 





The first ministers of the Lutheran Church in America 
came from Germany, principally from Halle. For the edu- 
cation of pastors in this country little private theological 
seminaries were conducted by prominent Lutheran minis- 
ters, in connection with their pastorates. Such schools 
were conducted by Drs. Helmuth and Schmidt, in Philadel- 
phia, Dr. Lochman, Sr., in Harrisburg, and D. F. Schaeffer 
in Frederick. 

The Swedish Lutherans formerly received their 
preachers from the Consistorium of Upsala ; the king of 
Sweeden supported them, and was, therefore the first patron 
of the Lutheran Church in North America. 

The German Lutherans were principally supplied with 


preachers from Halle until the time of the Revolution, 
which was very expensive, and the means could be sup- 
plied only by contributions from Christian friends. This 
arrangement gradually ceased entirely. (In the years 1770- 
1786, only two more ministers were sent from Germany to 
Pennsylvania.) To send their sons to Germany, as Muhlen- 
berg had sent his eldest son, F. A. Muhlenberg, was impos- 
sible for most of the pastors. There was, hence, no other 
way left than that some of the prominent ministers should 
privately instruct young candidates for the gospel ministry. 

But toward the close of the eighteenth century efforts 
had already been made to establish classical schools and 
theological seminaries for the preparation of ministers in 
the Lutheran Church. 

In the year 1773, Rev. Dr. Kunze, pastor of the 
Lutheran Church in Philadelphia, attempted to organize a 
German and Latin school. It was supported by voluntary 
contributions, especially from the Society for the Promo- 
tion of Christianity and useful knowledge among the Ger- 
mans in America. 

But it could not be sustained by private contributions. 
Dr. Kunze accept, d a call to a professorship in Columbia 
College, New York, and the war of the revolution, which 
followed soon afterwards, put an end to it. 

A more auspicious prospect was promised the Frank- 
lin College in 1787, in Lancaster, Pa. A considerable sum 
of money had been subscribed; the state legislature had 
conferred a charter and donated 10.000 acres of land. It 
was to be jointly owned and occupied by the Lutherans, Re- 
formed and Moravians. Besides the usual college studies, 
theology was also to be taught ; five professors were ap- 
pointed with a salary of 200 pounds sterling each. But the 
plan failed, because there was no income from the land and 
the subscriptions were not paid. Many years later the j 


Reformed bought out the interest of the Lutherans, united 
their Mercersburg institutions with it, and have now a flour- 
ishing college and theological seminary at Lancaster. 

In 181 1, the North Carolina Synod proposed the 
establishment of a seminary for the education of young 
men for the ministry, and this was a subject of much dis- 
cussion in their meetings; but in 1814 the report was 
made, that after mature deliberation it was found " that we 
are not in a position to form such an institution, and will 
not be, until our congregations be aroused to do everything 
possible to support our young candidates, to accomplish 
which our ministers are earnestly requested to do all they 
can." — Mhi. N. C. Synod, Page 21. 

In 18 17 Pastor Philip Henkel reported, that a small 
seminary had been begun by himself and Joseph E. Bell, in 
Green County, Tennessee, in which Hebrew, Greek, Latin, 
and the German and English languages were taught, and 
that Pastor Bell was the chief professor in it. 

" On request, this seminary was accepted and adopted as 
our own Seminary, and as worthy of our encouragement 
and patronage (support) in the hope that under the bless- 
ing of the Lord, this small one may grow into a large one, 
in which many able ministers and missionaries may be 
trained. To aid the Seminary, money shall be collected in 
our churches next May. The same shall be turned over to 
the treasurer, who shall keep an account of all the benefac- 
tions." — Minutes N. C. Synod. 

Some mon^y had been collected for the support of 
this seminary, but it had not a successful career. Its two 
professors, Philip Henkel and Jo.seph E. Bell, had separated 
themselves from the North Carolina Synod and joined their 
fortunes with the Tennessee Conference, organized at that 
time. Consequently the North Carolina Synod refused to 
pay the money collected in their congregations for the 


establishment of the institution. The httle seminary there- 
fore had to be abandoned, and candidates for the ministry- 
continued to study under the instruction of pastors, which 
practice continued in the Tennessee Synod many years, 
even after a number of Lutheran theological seminaries 
had been established. 


A pastor long associated with Muhlenberg, although 
not called for the Pennsylvania work, or by the authorities 
at Halle, was John Christopher Hartwig. He was a Ihur- 
ingian, born in 17 14, who had for a short time been con- 
nected with the institute of Dr. Callenberg in Hamburg, 
for the conversion of the Jews. He was called in 1745 to 
the pastorate of the churches along the Hudson, with 
Rhinebeck as the centre, and was ordained for the work in 
London by the two pastors of the Savoy Church, and the 
pastor of the Swedish Church. He was chaplain of a Ger- 
man regiment in the French and Indian war. 

He visited Muhlenberg in 1747, acted for a time as a 
substitute for Brunnholtz during the latter's illness, and par- 
ticipated in the arbitration to settle the difficulties in the 
Raritan congregations, as well as in the organization of the 
Ministerium of Pennsylvania in 1748. He was a Hfe long 
bachelor and noted for his eccentricities, and continued, 
until the close of his life, in 1796, his attachments and visits 
to the descendants of Muhlenberg, as he had previously 
done to their father. " Tradition tells, that the domestics 
dreaded his appearance, because of the excessively long 
prayers which he made at family worship." — Jacobs, P. 22^. 

When Hartwick died, July 16, 1796, his estate was left 
to found an institution for the education of pastors and mis- 
sionaries, he having been especially interested in the neigh- 
boring North American Indians. Drs. Kunze and Hel- 


muth were named as directors of the institution ; but 
when the latter, on account of the distance, declined serv- 
ing, Dr. Kunze, with the sole surviving executor, provided 
for the opening of the seminary in 1797. But the plan was 
a novel one. Dr. Kunze was constituted theological pro- 
fessor in New York, Rev. A. T. Braun of Albany was made 
the classical instructor in Albany, and Rev. J. F. Ernst was 
sent to Otsego County to occupy Hartwick's lands and teach 
the youngest pupils. Thus were established an embryo 
theological seminary in New York, a college in Albany, 
and a preparatory department where Hartwick Seminary 
now stands. . . . Rev. A. T. Braun succeeded to the place 
on the death of Dr. Kunze. The location was finally fixed 
in 18 1 2, when the buildings were begun, and in 181 5 Dr. 
E. L. Hazelius became principal and professor of theology. 
— Jacobs' Hist., pp. J^2, Jjj. 

"In 181 5 Hartwick Seminary was opened with 19 
students, the number growing within a few years to 44. 
Its first president was Dr Ernst Ludwig Hazelius, a man 
who brought to this country thorough German culture, em- 
inently fitting him for an instructor. He was an earnest 
Christian . . . and instrumental, through his students, in 
putting an end to the sway of Rationalism in the New 
York Ministerium." — Wolf. 

This institution he served with great ability for fifteen 
years, at the same time preaching every Sunday and acting 
as pastor of the village congregation. 

" Mr. Hartwig was possessed of an estate consisting 
of a large quantity of land, which he left by will for the en- 
dowment of an institution, for the training up of young men 
to become missionaries among the Indians. The bequest, 
owing to certain circumstances, became the occasion of 
considerable difficulty, which was continued through quite 
a number of years. The seminary was finally located at 


Hartwick, in Otsego County, N. Y., under a special charter 
obtained from the legislature." — Sprague. 

In 1830 Hazelius accepted a call to the professorship 
of Biblical and Oriental Literature and the German Lan- 
guage, in the Theological Seminary at Gettysburg. His 
connection with this institution, however, was brief He 
resigned his chair, much to the regret of the directors, in 
1833, to accept a professorship in the Theological Seminary 
of the Synod of South Carolina, the vacancy having been 
occasioned by the lamented death of Professor Schwartz. 

Dr. Hazelius continued his connection with the South 
Carolina Seminary until his death, February 20, 1853. 

But Hartwick Seminary has kept on in its useful 
career and is now in a fair way to be established as a regu- 
lar college, in connection with its theological department. 
It has received about ^30,000 in a bequest, and the New 
York synods are making efforts to endow professorships. 

In the year 18 19 a committee of delegates from the 
Lutheran and Reformed churches met in Lancaster, Pa., in 
order to arrange for a union theological seminary. But 
this attempt also met with insuperable difficulties, and the 
plan had to be abandoned. This effort was made in the 
interest of an organic union between the Lutheran and Re- 
formed churches in Pennsylvania. 

Dr. Twesten makes the following comment on this 
subject in his pamphlet, published in Germany in the inter- 
est of Dr. Kurtz's agency in behalf of the Gettysburg Sem- 
inary : " When we consider what hindrances the union of 
the two confessions met with among us, where the govern- 
ment cast the weight of its influence in the scale, we can 
realize that in America these hindrances must be much 
greater. On the doctrine of the Lord's Supper they could 
have agreed. But the Lutherans objected to the Calvinistic 
doctrine of election, which at this time gained currency 


among some of the Reformed ministers in America ; and 
the Lutherans were reluctant to intrust the training ol their 
future ministers to an institution where this dogma might 
possibly become prevalent." — Twestens Nachricht, p. i8. 

" The Reformed," says Twesten, " manifested more 
courage than the Lutherans, and ventured to take the 
establishment of a theological seminary into their own 
hands." In addition to collections among their own con- 
gregations in America, they also sent an agent to Germany, 
in the person of Rev. James Reily. Dr. De Wette published 
a pamphlet in advocacy of his cause, just as Twesten after- 
wards published and circulated one in Germany in advocacy 
of Dr. Kurtz's mission. It appears, from De Wette's publi- 
cation, that Mr. Reily canvassed, not only in Reformed 
countries, such as Holland and Switzerland, but also in 
countries where the Lutheran confession prevails ; namely, 
in the kingdom of Wurtemberg, " where he found the most 
friendly and liberal reception." — Tzvesten, p. i8. 

Doubtless the example of the Reformed, and the suc- 
cess of Mr. Reily encouraged the Lutherans to send Rev. 
Benjamin Kurtz on a similar mission. 


Dr. Schmucker was an organizer and a teacher. After 
he had entered into the ministry, he had very earnest 
thoughts, as to what particular department of the Lord's 
work he should devote his life. The translation of Mos- 
heim's Dogmatic, the translation of the work of Storr and 
Flatt, the founding of an Orphans' House and Publish- 
ing Establishment, like that of Francke in Halle, Ger- 
many, or the founding of a Theological Seminary, occupied 
his mind. He finally fixed upon the last of these institu- 
tions as the work of his life. His son, B. M., writes as fol- 
lows : 

" During this period he was much occupied with the 


general interests of the church. He writes : ' When I left 
Princeton, there were three pia desideria, which were very 
near to my heart, for the welfare of our church : A Trans- 
lation of some one eminent system of Lutheran Dogmatics, 
a Theological Seminary, and a College for the Lutheran 
Church.' He set himself to work to do what in him lay to 
meet these wants. At Princeton already he selected Mos- 
heim's Elementa Theologiae Dogmatics, which selection 
was warmly commended by his father, and by his intimate 
friend. Rev. F. C. Schaeffer, of New York. Dr. Koethe, of 
Allstaedt, near Jena, urged him to take Storr and Flatt, and 
Dr. Moses Stuart, of Andover, also strongly urged him to 
do so. He so decided, and translated, re-arranged, enlarged 
and published Storr and Flatt's ' Biblical Theology.'" 

The work of preparation of students for the ministry 
he began in 1823, and during those years had six students, 
among whom was his old York pupil, John G. Morris. 

The following extract from his diary will give the 
reader an idea of his state of mind about this time : 

" For a week past I have been rather dejected, partly 
from the want of clear spiritual light to shine upon me, and 
comfort my heart, amid its sorrow, and partly from the un- 
settled state of my mind, as to future duty. Sometimes I 
think it is the will of God, that I should devote myself 
entirely to the education of youth, principally for the gos- 
pel ministry ; then I desire to establish a P'ranckean Sem- 
inary. On these subjects I sometimes think so much, as 
really to become sick. 

" Tuesday, Dec. gth, 182J. This day, in reliance on the 
gracious aid of my heavenly Father, I commenced a course 
of theological instruction, after having matriculated the fol- 
lowing young gentlemen as students : 

John Morris, of York, Pa., undergraduate of Dickin- 
son College ; 


John Reck, of Winchester, Va.; 

Philip Kline, of this county, near Woodstock ; and 

George Schmucker, son of my Uncle Nicolas. 

"They are all hopefully pious and promising young 
men. O that God would enlighten my mind, and grant 
me grace to lead them into all the necessary truths, which 
shall qualify them for being eminently useful in the church. 

" I prepared a ' Plan ' of the course of theological study, 
and Christian deportment, which I read to them, explained, 
and required each one solemnly to promise, in reliance on 
divine aid, faithtuUy to observe. This ' Plan ' I leave- with 
them in their recitation room, for their daily perusal." 

Dr. Morris gives an account of this little school of the 
prophets in his characteristic style. We quote it in his own 
words and leave the readers to form their own judgment : 

" After he had been settled there several years, he con- 
ceived the idea of establishing a sort of Pro-Seminary, 
This was in 1823, and it gradually led to the founding of 
the schools we now have at Gettysburg. Here, the second 
time, I became the pupil of S. S. Schmucker. There were 
five other young men who constituted the class, and a mis- 
cellaneous crowd it was. I mean that we were in every 
stage of preparation ; one was a college graduate, another 
could spell but a few words of the Greek Testament, and a 
few others had the same diflficulty with English. But they 
were all trained to be useful men. This mode of teaching 
was not very systematic, and we toddled along after a very 
remarkable fashion. 

" Our teacher was at that time engaged in translating 
the Theology of Storr and Flatt, which was published at 
Andover, and which reached a second edition. He was a 
most untiring worker, and, being a widower, he had not the 
cares of a household, not even taking his meals in the par- 
sonage. He thus devoted Jiis ivhole time to his books. I 


never knew him to take a walk or do anything else for 
mere exercise. He did not seem to require it ; at least I 
never knew him to suffer from severe confinement to head 
work. He had no visitors to annoy him, and was very im- 
patient of intruders. His study was in a remote part of the 
house from ours, and I do not think one of us darkened the 
door of that sacro-sanctum once in a month. So neither did 
he ever enter our workshop, except once a day at recitation. 
He had no time for social intercourse, and we had none to 
hear a lecture on propriety." — Fifty Years in the Ministry ^ 
pp. 127, 128. 

His son, B. M., writes in the College Book : 

" The energies of his whole life were devoted pre-em- 
inently to the preparation of candidates for the ministry. 
This was, from his entrance into the ministry, the work to 
which he believed himself to be called. He began with 
one student in 1822, and soon others gathered around him 
in the secluded village of New Market." 

In the convention of the General Synod of 1825, a 
committee was appointed " to prepare a plan for the estab- 
lishment of a theological seminary, who shall govern 
themselves by the instructions which shall be given by the 

The chairman of this committee was Rev. S. S. 
Schmucker, who reported the next morning. The first 
resolution is as follows : " That the General Synod will 
forthwith commence, in the name of the Triune God, and 
in humble reliance on his aid, the establishment of a theo- 
logical seminary, which shall be exclusively devoted to the 
glory of our divine Redeemer, Jesus Christ, who is God 
over all, blessed forever. And in this seminary shall be 
taught, in the German and English languages, the funda- 
mental doctrines of the sacred Scriptures, as contained in 
the Augsburg Confession." 

e:.ected as professor. 179 

In the afternoon of the same day, the Synod proceeded 
to ballot for a professor, when Rev. S. S. Schmucker was 
elected — " unanimously, excepting one vote, which was 
given as a compliment to Rev. Dr. Geisenhainer, Sr.,by his 
friend. Dr. Daniel Kurtz." 

The following resolution was passed : 

" Resolved, That the Professor be furnished with a 
dwelling and a salary of five hundred dollars for a current 
year, and that the Board of Directors fix his salary here- 

The professor-elect was instructed to prepare a consti- 
tution for the proposed seminary. The Constitution, which, 
with but {^"^ changes, is in force still, declares in Arti- 
cle I, as the design of the institution : 

" To provide our churches with pastors, who sincerely 
believe and cordially approve of the doctrines of the Holy 
Scriptures, as they are fundamentally taught in the Augs- 
burg Confession, and who will therefore teach them in 
opposition to Deists, Unitarians, Arians, Antinomians, and 
all other fundamental errorists." 

Dr. Diehl gives the following account of its establish- 
ment : 

" In 1820 there was no Lutheran Theological Semin- 
ary, except Hartwick, and it was far off and poorly organ- 
ized. Candidates for the Lutheran ministry were under the 
necessity of repairing to the theological seminaries of other 
denominations, or putting themselves under the private 
instruction of eminent pastors. Very few went to foreign 
schools. A number had gone to Philadelphia, Harrisburg 
and PVederick. 

" The talents and learning of young Schmucker, soon 
pointed him out as the man to teach candidates. At the 
first Synod he attended, after his settlement, 182 1, the Synod 
placed a catechist and theological student, Mr. Kibler, of 


North Carolina, under his tuition. Soon afterwards others 
sought his services. J. B. Reck, Samuel K. Hoshour, J. P 
Kline, J. G. Morris and others, found their way to New 
Market. A private theological school of higher repute, and 
promising larger dimensions, than any hitherto, was grow- 
ing up in Shenandoah county, when the General Synod 
determined to establish a Seminary. 

" When the plan had been adopted and the time had 
come for organizing the classes, nobody was surprised that 
upon the first ballot at the General Synod, 1825, for a pro- 
fessor of theology, Samuel S. Schmucker received every 
vote except one, given by Dr. Daniel Kurtz, for Dr. Geissen- 
hainer, Sr., of New York Ministerium. Dr. Kurtz evidently 
intended it merely as a compliment to an old friend. So 
sensible a man as he knew, that as to fitness for the enter- 
prise of founding a new Theological Seminary, there was 
no comparison between the accomplished young divine of 
New Market, and the aged German preacher, learned a man 
as he was. He could afford to pay his venerable friend 
this compliment, for he knew Schmucker would receive 
every vote except his own. 

" Having attended to all the preliminary measures for 
the establishment of a Seminary, including the election of 
the professor, the General Synod (1825) proceeded to elect 
a Board of Directors ; made arrangements to collect funds, 
and appointed a meeting for the Directors to decide the 
question of the location of the institution. Accordingly the 
Directors met at Hagerstown, March, 1826. Four towns 
had petitioned for the Seminary. While the claims of 
Hagerstown, Chambersburg and Frederick were duly con- 
sidered, the Directors came to the conclusion that Gettys- 
burg held forth the strongest inducements, making the 
largest pecuniary offers, and being more central to the 
whole body of the Lutheran church. 


" Mr. Schmucker now resigned his pastoral care of the 
Shenandoah county congregations, and removed, during 
the summer of this year, from Virginia to Gettysburg. On 
the 5th of September, the Directors met at Gettysburg, to 
attend to the inaugural ceremonies. 

" It was a great day for Gettysburg, that 5th of Septem- 
ber, 1826. There was no little commotion in the commun- 
ity. The citizens were rejoicing, that their hitherto insig- 
nificant town was to be a great seat of learning, which 
would yet make their place famous. On the preceding 
evening, a number of strangers — eminent ministers of the 
gospel and others, had arrived, some by private conveyance 
and some by the stage coach. It was Tuesday, at 9:30 
A. M., that a large number of persons gathered together in 
the Library room of the old brick building which had been 
the Gettysburg Academy, but was now given to the use of 
the Seminary of the Lutheran church. There were Direc- 
tors of the Seminary. There was a number of Lutheran 
ministers, and a few of other names. There was also a 
crowd of citizens. They formed into line — Directors first, 
then ministers, then students, then citizens. The venerable 
Dr. J. G. Schmucker, of York, leaning on the arm of the 
manly form of David F. Schaeffer, of Frederick, headed the 
procession. They moved in slow, solemn march to the 
Lutheran church, near the eastern end of the town. The 
house was filled with people from the town and from the 

" In the church, the services were opened with an anthem 
by the choir. Rev. J. Grob then offered a prayer. Dr. J. 
G. Schmucker, President of the Board of Directors, preached 
an impressive sermon in the German language, from the 
text, ' The things that thou hast heard of me among many 
witnesses, the same commit thou to faithful men who shall 
be able to teach others also,' (2 Tim. ii. 2). Then Rev. C. 


P. Krauth offered a prayer. Rev. D. F. Schaeffer now 
requested the new Professor to utter and subscribe the oath 
of office, which had been written by the Professor himself. 


" Then, Mr. Schmucker, young in appearance, less than 
twenty-eight years of age, rose and spoke in solemn tones 
these words : ' I solemnly declare in the presence of God 
and of the Directors of this Seminary, that I do ex anhno 
believe the Scriptures of the Old and New Testament to be 
the inspired word of God, and the only perfect rule of faith 
and practice. I believe the Augsburg Confession, and the 
Catechisms of Luther to be a summary and just exhibition 
of the fundamental doctrines of the word of God. I declare 
that I approve of the general principles of church govern- 
ment, adopted by the Lutheran church in this country, and 
believe them to be consistent with the word of God. And 
I do solemnly promise not to teach anything, either directly 
or by insinuation, which shall appear to contradict, or to be 
in any degree more or less remote, inconsistent with the 
doctrines or principles avowed in this declaration. On the 
contrary I promise by the aid of God to vindicate and 
inculcate these doctrines and principles, in opposition to 
the views of Atheists, Deists, Jews, Socinians, Unitarians, 
Universalists, and all other errorists, while I remain Profes- 
sor of this Seminary.' 

" Rev. David F. Schaeffer then ascended the pulpit and 
delivered a charge to the Professor. He said : ' You are 
entrusted with the care of young men who are designed for 
the ministry — who are to go forth as heralds of the Lord 
Jesus Christ, to become instruments of life or death to 
many. You are to instruct them in all things pertaining to 
an ambassador of the King of kings. Upon you it will 
depend largly whether they will become burning and shin- 


ing lights or not. I charge you to remember your respon- 
sibility, and be faithful to God. Establish the students in 
the faith which distinguishes our church from others. 
Unity of sentiments on important matters of faith and dis- 
cipline, among pastors of the same church, is indispensable. 
I object not to difference on subjects of minor importance 
between different denominations. The Church is more 
beautiful from such variety, as is a garden on account of its 
flowers being of various color. But every flower must be 
like all others of the same genus and species. Above all, 
ground our students well in the doctrine of the atonement. 
Dr. Gray says : ' Therefore be it known that Martin Luther, 
that only not inspired man, whom the Lord Jesus raised 
up with semi-apostolic unction to save his Church from 
annihilation, did maintain that the atonement made by the 
Son of God on Calvary, is competent to effect the salvation 
of mankind, and nothing is wanting to render it universally 
efficacious, but the sinner's faith.' ' 

" Then, at Mr. Schaeffer's request, the students rose. 
The following young men stood up : Wm. Artz, Lewis 
Eichelberger, David Jacobs, Wm. Mcering, and Jonathan 
Oswald, all of Maryland ; Daniel Heilig, J. G. Morris, D. 
P. Rosenmiller and N. G. Sharrets, of Pennsylvania ; and 
Jacob Kempfer, of North Carolina. After an address of 
five minutes to these young men, Mr. Schaeffer closed, and 
Professor Schmucker delivered his inaugural. He began 
by saying : ' The occasion on which we are assembled, is 
fraught with peculiar solemnity to him who now addresses 
you, and with deepest interest to the friends of Zion.' 

" He announced his subject : ' Theological education 
with special reference to the ministry. Who are the proper 
subjects of ministerial education ? What branches of 
science are entitled to their attention ? What is the proper 
method of conducting this education ? ' 


"Under these heads, he pointed out the requisite quali- 
fications for the study of theology with a view to the minis- 
try, the extensive range of learning desirable, and the 
advantages of a Theological Seminary, over the private 
instruction of pastors. The discourse was an able one of 
an hour's length. It was received with great favor. It 
was published and widely circulated. 

" Such was the beginning of Mr. Schmucker's career as 
the head of the theological education of the church. The 
first year opened encouragingly. The catalogue for this 
year contains the names of twenty-three students, three sen- 
iors, eleven middle class, and nine juniors." 


was prepared by Mr. Schmucker, and printed in the Ger- 
man and English languages, in which the design of the 
institution is stated. Several things in this constitution are 
noteworthy, such as, " A professor may be impeached for 
fundamental errors in doctrine, morality, or inattention to 
duty, by a vote of two-thirds of the Directors." 

" The Directors shall inspect the fidelity of the profes- 
sors, as well in regard to doctrine, as the manner of teach- 
ing, devotednejs to the Lutheran Church," etc. 

" No person shall be elligible as Professor, who is not 
an ordained pastor of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, of 
high repute for piety and talents. And no one shall be 
elligible to the Professorship of Didactic and Polemic The- 
ology, who has not officiated as pastor in the Church for at 
least five years." 

" Every Professor must also publicly pronounce and 
take the oath of office." 

"The Seminary shall be open to students of all Chris- 
tian denominations, possessing the proper qualifications." 

" Every student shall be expected to treat his teachers 
with the greatest deference and respect, and all persons 


with civility. Cleanliness in dress and habits shall be 
observed by every student." 

" All theological students shall "board in commons, 
special cases excepted, of which the faculty shall take cog- 
nizance." * 


The establishment of a theological seminary could not 
be accomplished by merely selecting the location, appoint- 
ing a professor and adopting a Constitution, Buildings 
must be purchased or erected ; the professor's salary must 
be provided for, a theological library collected, and money 
raised for the support of students. Professor Schmucker 
led off by subscribing ^1,000 for the support of students in 
annual payment of $ioo, thus reducing his meagre salary 
of ;^500, to ;^400 a year. Then additional subscriptions 
were made by the following brethren : 

Dr. J. G. Schmucker, York, _ _ . ;^ioo.oo 

Rev. J. Herbst, Gettysburg, - - - loo.oo 

" J. G. Morris, Baltimore, . - _ loo.oo 

Dr. D. Kurtz, Baltimore, - - - 50.00 

D. F. Schaeffer, Frederick, - - - 50.00 

D. M'Conachy, Gettysburg, - - 50.00 

A. Reck, Middletown, Md., - - - 50.00 

B. Keller, Carlisle, - - - 50.00 
J. Sherer, North Carolina, _ _ - 50.00 

and a number of others, smaller sums. Rev. G. Shober, 
of North Carolina, donated 2,433 acres of land to the Sem- 
inary, but it seems, that very little benefit was ever realized 
from this munificent donation. 

* Formerly the students all ate at a large table in the basement in 
a large dining-room. The basement in the old Seminary building also 
contained a kitchen and several private rooms for the steward and his 
family. — Ed. 


The following manuscript in Dr. Schmucker's own 
hand writing explains the nature and condition of his 
donation. It may justly be regarded as the nucleus of the 
Parent Educational Society, which afterwards assisted so 
many young men in their preparation for the ministry, and 
became such a blessing to the church : 


" I. Feeling, as I trust, a sincere desire of promoting 
the kingdom of my divine and blessed Redeemer, not only 
by devoting to his service my time and personal efforts, but 
also by appropriating to the same purpose a portion of that 
earthly substance which God has entrusted to me ; and 
believing that no part of God's church stands in greater 
need than that with which I am now immediately connected, 
and believing that the assisting of pious young men of good 
talents in becoming qualified for the holy ministry is one of 
the most direct methods of promoting the kingdom of our 
blessed Redeemer : I hereby, as. a private offering to the 
Lord, obligate myself to pay to the Directors of the Theo- 
logical Seminary at Gettysburg and their successors, in 
annual payments of lOO dollars, for ten years (if my life is 
thus long spared) amounting to the sum of ;^i,ooo, the first 
of which is hereby paid, and each successive installment 
due at the spring meeting of the board, to be applied to aid 
young men of undoubted piety and good talents in prepar- 
ing for the gospel ministry in this institution, and with a 
view to laboring in the Lutheran Church. 

" II. The conditions on which this money is to be 
advanced to young men by the Directors, shall be as fol- 
lows : it is to be loaned upon the individual's giving to the 


treasurer of the Board his note with security, if he can con- 
veniently obtain it. The sums loaned to any one individual 
shall not exceed his actual necessities and in no case exceed 
60 dollars per annum. 

" III. The selection of beneficiaries I reserve to myself 
during my life, after which it shall forever be vested in the 
Board of Directors. 

" IV. The moneys lent to any individual shall not bear 
interest until the time when he has completed the regular 
course of theological studies, and shall be payable in annual 
gales of 100 dollars, the first due twelve months after the 
completion of his regular course of study. 

" V. If any beneficiary shall be unable to pay the whole 
of each gale as it becomes due, the Directors shall indulge 
him so long as they believe his inability to be unavoidable 
by him, and his conduct is that of a faithful minister of 

" VI. If any individual, who has received aid from this 
fund, shall not devote himself to the work, of the Gospel 
ministry, it shall be the duty of the Directors to require 
him, in a reasonable time, to refund all the money advanced 
to him with lawful interest from the time when it was lent. 

" VII. If at any future time (which may God in mercy 
prevent) this institution should become so perverted, that a 
belief that the doctrines of the eternal and real divinity of 
the Redeemer, the doctrine that the atonement is general 
and in its nature equally applicable and acceptable to all 
men, the universality of divine aid or grace sufficient for 
salvation, and the real willingness of God to save all men, 
should no longer be required, either professedly or in real- 
ity, of the Professor of this institution, I hereby authorize 
my lawful heirs in any future generation to recover the 
amount of this donation and all its increase by interest, for 
their own proper, private use. 

i88 board's resoi^ution of thanks. 

" VIII. I reserve the right of making any additional 
regulation or of changing any of these during my lifetime, 
but not of revoking the grant altogether or changing the 
object of it." 

The Board passed the following resolution: 

" Resolved, That the Board express their thanks to Prof 
Schmucker for his liberal donation in founding the first 
scholarship of this institution for the purpose ol aiding 
pious young men in preparing themselves for the Gospel 
ministry in the Seminary." 

At an early period an association was formed among 
the students, called, "The Mechanical Society." The 
object of this society was, to spend two or three hours 
every day in mechanical labor, "which, while it will invig- 
orate the body b^^ healthful exercise, will also contribute to 
the financial support of its members." 

The association was not of long continuance. The 
students now seek recreation by walking or athletic exer- 
cises. A gymnasium has lately been opened- in the new 
Seminary building. 

At a meeting of the West Pennsylvania Synod in York, 
a proposition was made, to raise a fund of ;^ 10,000 for the 
purpose of establishing a second professorship, by subscrip- 
tions of $100 each. Ten of these subscriptions were taken 
at once, and Professor Schmucker undertook a voluntary 
agency in New York and Philadelphia and obtained about 

In the Pastoral Address the Board also expresses its 
thanks for the continued liberality of our benefactos in Ger- 
many. Although several years had passed since Dr. 
Kurtz's return, the stream of German liberality still flowed. 
Several boxes of books were received, and the institution 
had then the largest theological library in this country — 
more than 6,000 volumes. 

DR. DIEHL'S testimony. 189 

Says Dr. Diehl : " Dr. Schmucker rendered important 
services to the institution, by procuring contributions. His 
extensive acquaintance with influential ministers of other 
denominations opened the door to large and wealthy con- 
gregations. He was so favorably known as an active par- 
ticipant, and warm friend of the great national religious 
societies, that he obtained funds from the American Educa- 
tion Society, for the support of Gettysburg beneficiary stu- 
dents. He visited Philadelphia, New York, and new Eng- 
land, and laid the wants of the Seminary before wealthy 
Presbyterian and Congregational churches, and obtained 
contributions amounting to ^15,000." 

In canvassing Philadelphia he wrote, " My solicitations 
have been directed chiefly to members of the Lutheran 
Church, whom I found to be wealthy, liberal and generous 

In 1826 Rev. Benjamin Kurtz was appointed by the 
Board to go to Germany and solicit donations and books 
for the Theological Seminary. He remained absent nearly 
two years, and brought home about ;^ 10,000 in money and 
a large number of books. While in Germany he received 
many courtesies from all classes of men, and secured 
extensive popularity as a plain and impressive preacher. 
Immense crowds everywhere attended the churches in 
which he officiated. 

Two German pamphlets were printed and extensively 
circulated in Germany in advocacy of Kurtz's agency. The 
one in Hamburg by Dr. Twesten, (Professor of Theology 
and Philosophy in the University of Kiel) of 72 pages, and 
the other in Berlin, of 40 pages, (author not given), which 
attained a second edition. In these pamphlets the claims 
of the American Lutheran Church and her Theological 
Seminary were most eloquently and earnestly pleaded. 

Dr. Twesten writes, " The General Synod could not 


have selected a more worthy agent than Rev. Benjamin 
Kurtz, \vhen true evangelical piety, an enlightened spirit, 
ardent enthusiasm for the church and unassuming humility 
characterize him, which must secure for him the kind 
reception, which we already owe to a sister church. These 
characteristics have won for him all- hearts, and no doubt 
they will produce the same effect upon every one who 
learns to know him on his travels." 

He then gives a brief biographical sketch of Dr. Kurtz. 

The two principal inducements which Twesten held 
out in his pamphlet were, that the Lutherans who had 
emigrated to America might be retained in the Lutheran 
Church, and he argues that this could not be done, if the 
German language was not retained among them. He fur- 
ther argues, that the German language could not be per- 
manently retained without a German theological seminary 
to train German ministers of the gospel. " Suppose for 
a moment, — which God forbid — that the Lutheran Church 
in America should die out what would be the con- 
sequence ? Would our Lutheran people go over to one of 
the English denominations, such as the Episcopalians, the 
Presbyterians, Unitarians or Methodists, and find among 
them a strengthening, wholesome spiritual food ? By no 
means ! The unavoidable difference in the languages 
would make this impossible with the most of them, and the 
others would lose the love of the divine word, if they must 
hear it proclaimed in a different language from their be- 
loved German The German language cannot be 

maintained (in America), without higher institutions of 
learning. Those, therefore, who love their mother tongue, 
and take an interest in maintaining and extending German 
art and culture, we hope will find an inducement to con- 
tribute liberally towards planting such a school in that dis- 
tant part of the world." 


So far Twesten. We see from the above, what mis- 
taken views our German brethren have had, and to a great 
extent still have, in regard to the necessity of the German 
language for the perpetuity of the Lutheran Church. That 
which Twesten declared impossible ; namely, that the 
youth of the church, as they become English, should go 
over to some English denomination, if they do not have 
the gospel preached in the language which they under- 
stand, has taken place in hundreds of thousands of cases. I 
have heard a German minister declare, " that in his opinion 
the distinctive doctrines of the Lutheran Church can be 
taught in their purity, only in the German language ; and 
yet we hear so much in our day, of the " Poly-glot Luth- 
eran Church." 

Dr. Twesten copied the entire constitution of the 
Seminary in his German pamphlet, and makes this remark- 
able comment upon it. " Every one will be impressed 
with the genuine religious and evangelical spirit that per- 
vades these statutes. One thing, however, might appear 
strange to us with our present prevailing views, and may 
even be objectionable to many ; namely, the almost 
anxious adhesion to the doctrines of the Augsburg Confes- 
sion. * It would not be the proper place here to enter 
into a general discussion of this subject. It is sufficient to 
remark, that in this respect also, that may be practicable 
and necessary in America, which would not be so with 
us." It will be remembered that this constitution was also 
composed by Dr. Schmucker. 

Dr. Kurtz took with him the very highest kind of 
credentials. Besides the Officers of the General Synod, 
Revs. Gottlieb Schober, and D. F. Schaeffer, the following 
names of distinguished officials were added : John Gill, 

*„T)k fail dngftltc^e giirfor^e fiir bit Sr&attun^ Ui in bcr 5(ufl^bur- 
gtfc^cn Sonfeffion nicbcrijelecjten i*e()rbegrijfei." 


Notary Public of Baltimore, Judge Jacob Bucher, Harris- 
burg, John Andrew Schulze, Governor of Pennsylvania, 
James Trimble, State Secretary of Pennsylvania, Honorable 
Henry Clay, Senator, Washington, D. C. Governor 
Schulze writes, that it affords him great pleasure to recom- 
mend Rev. Benjamin Kurtz, as a very worthy and deserv- 
ing minister, who deserves the friendly reception of all 
pious people. " I have known him," says the Governor, 
" almost from childhood, and can therefore testify, with a 
clear conscience, of his good character and conduct." 

In London he was kindly received by Rev. Dr. Stein- 
kopf, pastor of the German Lutheran Congregation in that 
city. This congregation donated ^75.00 to the Seminary, 
and from other persons he also received liberal contribu- 
tions. Then he passed by ship to Hamburg, where his ar- 
rival was announced in the newspapers. He then visited 
Bremen and Luebeck. The ministers of Hamburg and 
Luebeck appealed publicly to their people for liberal con- 
tributions. In the city of Kiel the students of the university 
made up a purse. In Kopenhagen, their Majesties, the 
king and queen of Denmark granted him an audience, gave 
a royal contribution, and permitted collections to be held 
in the churches. In Sweden also and in the Russian pro- 
vinces, as also in the cities of Petersburg, Riga and Dorpat, 
he received encouragement and contributions. 

In Berlin he remained a longer time and received the 
royal permission to solicit contributions, and also preached 
before the king, and in the principal churches of the cities 
which he visited. From Berlin he went to Wittenberg, 
then visited Dresden, Leipzig, Halle, Magdeburg. 
In the kingdom of Wurtemberg he was cordially received 
and financially encouraged. 

As stated above, the amount collected in money was 
;g 10,000, and about 6,000 books. Considering the length 


of time required, — nearly two years, — the extensive adver- 
tising by means of pamphlets and church papers, pastors, 
recommendations, royal patronage and general collections 
over the greater part of Germany and Scandinavia, this 
seems to be a very small amount for so worthy an object 
and protracted efforts made. The church in this country 
very properly expressed its gratitude to our brethren in the 
Fatherland for their sympathy and contributions. We 
must remember, those were the days of small things, both 
in Europe and in America. The books were the most 
valuable part of the contribution ; the most lasting also, for 
they occupy the larger part of space in the library even at 
the present time. Yet as regards money, Dr. Schmucker 
alone, during two or three vacations, collected more than 
two times as much from Lutherans in York and Philadel- 
phia, and from Presbyterians and Congregationalists in New 
York and New England. From this small beginning the 
institution has been progressing in endowments, usefulness 
and influence, until now it has an endowment of over $ioo, 
ooo, four professors, two magnificent buildings and four 
professor's residences. See what the Lord hath done! 
Other similar institutions have sprung up in different parts 
of the country, which are the direct offspring of the semi- 
nary and college at Gettysburg. We append here an ex- 
tract from 


Prepared by Dr. J. G. Morris, by request of the 
Semi Centennial Committee, and read in Gettysburg, June 
28th, 1876. 

"Though frequently the subject of conversation, noth- 
ing further was attempted towards the establishment of a 
Seminary until the meeting held at Hagerstown, Sept. 22d, 
1820, when the Constitution of the General Synod was 
adopted, at which time a Committee was appointed to draft 


a plan of such a school. This Committee was composed 
of Rev. Drs. Lochman, of Harrisburg, Endress, of Lan- 
caster, Pastors J. G. Schmucker, of York, F. W. Geisen- 
hainer, of the State of New York, and Muhlenberg, of 
Reading. The Committee reported at the session of the 
General Synod held in Frederick, Md., on the 2ist of 
October, 1821, that they could not devise a plan according 
to which a general theological seminary could be estab- 
lished, and recommended that the further consideration of 
this subject be postponed to an indefinite time. They were 
of opinion, however, that in the meantime preparations 
should be made, and suggested a mode of operation which 
was altogether impracticable, and which was adopted by no 
Synod in the whole church. 

"The resolutions offered by this committee amounted to 
a virtual abandonment of the enterprise. Nothing was done 
at the General Synod of 1823, held at Frederick, relative to 
the subject ; not even a resolution respecting it was passed. 
During this period, the brethren of the Synod of Maryland 
and Virginia held monthly conferences, at which interest- 
ing seasons the expediency of erecting an institution was 
frequently discussed, and in the interim a very extensive 
correspondence on the subject was carried on by the breth- 
ren. Various plans were suggested, but none finally 
adopted. It was within the bounds of this synod that the 
subject was revived after it had been virtually abandoned 
by the General Synod of 1821. From that time until 1824, 
the subject was the topic of frequent private conference, 
but the fii'st step publicly taken to revive it ivas by Rev. S. S. 
Schmucker, of New Market, Va., in a sermon delivered be- 
fore the Synod of Maryland and Virginia, held at Middle- 
town, Md., Oct. 17th, 1824, at which time he detailed the 
regulations of a private theological school he had opened 
at New Market, Va., and recommended the enlargement of 


that school into a general institution for the church. Two 
months afterwards, under date of January 5th, 1825, Rev. 
Mr. Kurtz, of Hagerstown, wrote to Rev. Mr. Schmucker 
of New Market, and informed him that Prof McClelland, of 
Dickinson College, had been in Hagerstown and told him 
that the trustees of that institution were anxious that the 
Lutheran Church should establish a Seminary at Carlisle, 
and would offer the same privileges which they had 
granted to the Reformed Church, except the use of a house 
for the professor. This plan he did not approve, but in the 
same letter proposed another, which had been laid before 
the monthly conference held at Martinsburg by the breth- 
ren on both sides of the Potomac, on Feb. 9th and lOth, 
1825. * The plan was as follows: He proposed that the 
Seminary should be located at Hagerstown,- -that he would 
make an arrangement with his congregations, that they 
should furnish their school house for a lecture room, and 
that the professor should preach for them occasionally and 
have charge of several country congregations. The Pastor 
loci was also to be professor. This plan was objected to on 
the ground that the synod alone was the proper body 
which should elect the professors, but that by this plan 
they would elect themselves. At this conference it was 
resolved, that President D. F. Schaeffer, of Frederick, and 
Mr. Schmucker, Secretary of the Synod, should be re- 
quested to call a special meeting of the Synod of Maryland 
and Virginia to consider this subject. Mr. Schaeffer, with 
great wisdom, as the sequel proved, refused to call a synod, 
and advised more deliberation in the matter. At the re- 
gular meeting in the fall, held at Hagerstown, Oct. 23, 
1825, Messrs. Schmucker, Krauth, of Martinsburg, and B. 

* This conference was composed of Rev. Messrs. Kurtz, Krauth, F. 
RuthrauflF and Winter— a collection taken up which amounted to six 
or seven dollars, was the first money ever contributed to this object. 


Kurtz, were appointed a committee to draft a plan for the 
immediate establishment of a Theological Seminary, and 
reported that which, with the additional articles, was sub- 
sequently adopted by the General Synod,* 

"On Nov. 7th, 1825, the General Synod convened at 
Frederick, Md., when it was resolved that the Revs. B. 
Kurtz, J. Herbst, S. S. Schmucker, B. Keller, and Messrs. 
Harry and Hauptman be a committee to prepare a plan for 
the establishment of a Theological Seminary, and that they 
govern themselves by the instructions which shall be given 
by this synod. On the following morning (Tuesday, Nov. 
8,) the committee reported a plan, which, having been dis- 
cussed and amended, was adopted. It was at the same 
time resolved ' that agents be sent throughout the United 
States by the officers of the General Synod, to solicit con- 
tributions for the support of the Seminary; that it be 
earnestly recommended to the ministers of our several 
synods to afford said agents every possible aid, and that 
the Board of Directors pay the necessary expenses of such 
agents.' The following agents were appointed by the 
synod : Rev. Dr. Lochman, Dr. Endress, Dr. Muhlenberg, 
and Rev. C. R. Demme, for the Synod of East Pennsyl- 
vania ; Rev. Dr. Schmucker, Rev. J. Herbst, and B. Keller, 
for West Pennsylvania ; Rev. Mr. Stauch, J. Steck, for 
Ohio and Indiana ; Rev. Dr. P. Mayer, Rev. Messrs. 
Geisenhainer, F. C. Schaeffer and Lintner, for the Synod of 
New York ; Rev. S. S. Schmucker, for Philadelphia and 
the Eastern States ; Rev. Messrs. A. Reck, Meyerhoefifer 
and Krauth, for Virginia ; Rev. Messrs. B. Kurtz, H. 
Graber, Ruthrauff, and Little, for Maryland ; Rev. W. 
Jenkins, for Tennesse ; Rev. Messrs. Sherer and J. Reck, 

* This plan, as also the additional articles, was drawn up by Rev. 
S. S. Schmucker. 


for North Carolina ; Rev. Messrs. Bachman and Dreher, 
lor South Carolina. 

" It was further resolved, 'that an agent, furnished with 
ample testimonials by the President and Secretary of the 
General Synod, be forthwith sent to Europe, to solicit con- 
tributions of money and books for the benefit of the Semi- 
nary, and that our beloved and reverend brother, Benjamin 
Kurtz, be this agent.' Mr. Kurtz accepted the appoint 
ment of agent to Europe, and the happy results of his 
operations in behalf of the Seminary among our transatlan- 
tic brethren, will be experienced as long as the institution 
exists. He was at the same time instructed to assure the 
brethren abroad, that their contributions should be appro- 
priated to the support of a German professorship. 

" The first Board of Directors was next elected, and the 
following persons chosen : From Pennsylvania, Dr. J. G. 
Schmucker, Rev. Messrs. J. Herbst and B. Keller, — Philip 
Smyser, of York, and Jacob Young, of Carlisle. From 
North Carolina, Rev. Messrs. Shober, Storch, and J. 
Walter, — Col. Barringer and Wm. Keck, Esq., of Guilford 
County. From Maryland, Dr. J. D. Kurtz, Rev. B. Kurtz, 
Rev. C. P. Krauth,— Mr. J. Harry and Mr. C. Mantz. 

" According to Article 6 of the plan which was adopted, 
the first professor was to be elected by the General Synod, 
after which the Board of Directors shall forever have the 
exclusive right of electing additional professors and filling 
up vacancies. Agreeably to this, the synod went into an 
election, when the Rev. Samuel S. Schmucker, of New 
Market, Va., was chosen Professor of Didactic Theology. 
A committee appointed to wait upon the professor elect 
and inform him of his election, reported that he had de- 
clared his acceptance of the office entrusted to him. The 
low salary of;^50o for the current year was voted the pro- 
fessor, but this was owing to the fact that there were as yet 


no funds in the treasury, and the whole scheme was only a 
doubtful experiment. Before the funds collectable were 
available, the several synods in connection with the Gen- 
eral Synod, contributed out of their own treasuries towards 
the support of the professor; the Synod of West Pennsyl- 
vania contributing $150, and the Synod of Maryland and 
Virginia an equal sum. So small, so inauspicious was the 
commencement of our Seminary. But the hand of an over- 
ruling and merciful Providence has conducted us hitherto, 
and smiled upon the efforts of his servants to rear a theo- 
logical school for his own glory and the welfare of men. 

" The wishes of the brethren had now been accom- 
plished — their ardent expectations were realized, — they had 
long sighed, and lamented and prayed and hesitated — now 
in the Providence of God an institution was founded, and 
every one rejoiced in the glorious prospect which the 
Church had before her. 

" On the 2nd of March, 1826, the Board of Directors 
met for the first time according to appointment, at Hagers- 
town, at which were present Dr. Schmucker, J. Herbst, B. 
Keller, B. Kurtz, C. P. Krauth, clerical, and Philip Smyser, 
Jacob Young, J. Harry and Cyrus Mantz, lay members. 
Dr. J. G. Schmucker was elected President, and C. P. 
Krauth, Secretary. 

" The attention of the board was called to the perfor- 
mance of a very serious and delicate duty, that of the loca- 
tion of the Seminary. In determining this difficult subject, 
they felt their high responsibility, well knowing that its 
favorable location would have a very important bearing 
upon its general utility. The following proposals were 
made : 

"i. Hagerstown offered ^6,635 in money, the payment 
of which was pledged. 

"2. Carlisle proposed to give ^2,000 in money, a 


house for the professor to reside in for five years, and 
^3,000 towards erecting a building for the Seminary. In 
addition to this they proposed to give a lot to the Semi- 
nary, — if a proposition of the Trustees of Dickinson Col- 
lege be not accepted. 

" The Trustees of Dickinson College offered the use of 
a room in the college edifice for the lectures of the profes- 
sor — a lot of ground one hundred feet square, convenient 
and eligible, situated in the college square — the use of the 
college library to the students — gratuitous access to the 
lectures of the Principal, and Professors of Moral Philo- 
sophy, Natural Theology, Political Economy and Neces- 
sity and Evidence of Divine Revelation — on condition that 
the Professor of the Theological Seminary should act as a 
member of the Faculty and as Professor of Hebrew and 
Oriental Literature in the college. 

" 3. Gettysburg offered ^7,000 in money, and the 
Trustees of the Academy guaranteed the use of that build- 
ing, until suitable edifices are erected for the Seminary. 

" These different propositions having been heard, the 
board proceeded to the location of the Seminary, it having 
been determined that a majority of the whole be necessary 
to a choice. 

" After a long and interesting debate on the relative ad- 
vantages of the places propsed, Ge/(ysdtirg; upon the second 
ballot was the place selected. Thus a most important 
question was decided. It had excited much interest, but 
the final decision was unanimous." 

" One consideration in locating the Seminary was its 
accessibility. It was desirable to have the institution 
located centrally in regard to the whole Lutheran Church, 
in a place that could be reached most conveniently by pub- 
lic highways. Gettysburg at that time exactly answered 
these conditions. It was the first and only theological 


seminary in the Lutheran Church in America, (Hartwick 
perhaps excepted,) and it was designed for the whole 
church north and south, east and west. There were no 
railroads in the country at that time, but the best con- 
structed turnpikes in the state centred in and passed 
through Gettysburg. These were the public thorough- 
fares from Baltimore and Philadelphia to Pittsburg. Daily 
stages ran on these roads and a large number of wagons 
transported goods and country produce from and to the 

After the railroads had been built through different 
parts of the state, objections were raised against our institu- 
tions on account of their inaccessibility,except by stagecoach. 
Efforts were therefore made and loudly advocated at differ- 
ent times for the removal of the College and Seminary to 
Harrisburg, Lebanon, Baltimore or Washington. But these 
efforts have thus far failed. At this time, however, Gettys- 
burg is amply accessible by railroad from every direction. 
The great and decisive battle between the Northern and 
Southeran Armies in Gettysburg during the late civil war, 
has given the place a world-wide reputation, and thous- 
ands of soldiers and citizens come every year to view the 
battlefield. The government also expends vast sums of 
money to lay out and beautify the grounds. At this time 
the general impression is, that the institutions are perma- 
nently located at Gettysburg. 

" It was resolved that the Seminary commence its 
operations on the first Tuesday in September 1826, and 
that on that day the professor elect be inaugurated. Dr. J. 
G. Schmucker was appointed to deliver a sermon on the 
occasion, and Dr. Daniel Kurtz, a charge in the German 
language. Rev. D. F. Schaefifer, of Frederick, was ap- 
pointed his alternate. 

" Agreeably to the resolution of the board, a meeting 

morris' history of the seminary. 201 

was held in Gettysburg on the first Tuesday of September, 
1826. In the meantime the collectors appointed had been 
diligently attending to the duties assigned them, Mr. Kurtz 
had sailed for Europe, and preparations generally were 
making for the formal opening of the institution. The in- 
stallation of Rev. S. S. Schmucker as professor of Christian 
Theology, took place according to appointment. An ap- 
propriate sermon was delivered on the occasion by Dr. 
Schmucker, Sen.; Rev. D. F, Schaeffer delivered the 
charge to the Professor after his solemn installation, which 
was immediately followed by the inaugural address of the 
Professor. All these exercises were performed in the pres- 
ence of a large assembly, much impressed with the 
solemnity of the occasion. The students present were also 
addressed by Rev. Mr. Schaeffer. This was an important 
day in the history of the institution, and the high expecta- 
tions which its feeble commencement permitted its founders 
to indulge, have never been disappointed. 

"This was a period of painful anxiety and apprehension. 
The brethren had commenced an enterprise in which they 
were far from having the co-operation of the whole church. 
It was comparatively a few who undertook it, and they 
almost single-handed. They encountered difficulties, but 
they were surmounted; they were opposed by prejudice, 
but it was subdued ; they had ignorance to contend against, 
but it was overcome. For a while the prospect was 
gloomy, — dark clouds, portentous of a direful storm, hung 
over them, but they were dispelled, and the sun of God's 
favor shone brilliantly upon them. They entered upon 
their labors, and pursued them with an untiring energy, 
and, at the end of eleven months, they had the satisfaction 
of seeing their first professor installed, a commencement 
made towards the establishment of a library, and the insti- 
tution in successful operation. They recognized the benev- 


olent hand of Providence in all these arrangements, and 
said with the Psalmist, ' The Lord has done great things 
for us, whereof we are glad.' 

"The institution having been now regularly organized, 
the Professor immediately commenced his lectures with 
great zeal and ability. The following are the names of the 
first students who connected themselves with the school 
the first session : Wm. Artz, David Jacobs, Jonathan 
Oswald, David P. Rosenmiller, J. Kaempffer, J. S. Galloway, 
Lewis Eichelberger, Henry Haverstick, Daniel Heilig, 
Benjamin Oehrle, N. R. Sharretts, George Yeager, S. D. 
Finckel, J. G. Morris. This number gradually increased, 
thus brightening the hopes of the directors. The exten- 
sive circulation of the addresses delivered at the inaugura- 
tion of the professor made a deep and favorable impression 
upon the Lutheran community, — public confidence was 
secured, and promises of support and encouragement given 
from various quarters. They introduced the institution to 
the notice of other respectable denominations of our 
country, who rejoiced at its establishment, and extended to 
us the right hand of Christian fellowship,* 

" It must, however, not be withheld that the Seminary 
did not find a friend and well-wisher in every man, and 
alas ! not in every one who called himself Lutheran. Every 
benevolent enterprise has its opponents, and this is perhaps 
wisely ordained, that its friends may be more active and 
kept constantly on their guard. There is good reason to 
believe that some of the clergy in the North Eastern 
section of Pennsylvania secretly opposed the Seminary, 
and a few openly avowed their enmity to it. But their op- 
position did not materially injure it, and the prophecy was 

* I heard Dr. Alexander, of Princeton, speak very favorably of it 
from his chair, and Dr. Green in his Review of Addresses, etc., men- 
tions it in most exalted terms. 


fulfilled, ' No weapon formed against Zion shall prosper, 
and every tongue that shall rise against her in judgment, 
shall be condemned.' Is, liv. 17. 

"This is perhaps the most proper place to mention the 
European agency of the Rev. Benjamin Kurtz. It was ob- 
served above, that he was appointed to proceed to Europe 
to solicit subscriptions in money and books in behalf of the 
Seminary. He cheerfully accepted the appointment, and 
on April ist, 1826, he embarked at New York for Liver- 
pool, where he arrived after a voyage of twenty-one days. 
He received some contributions in England, but soon after 
departed for the continent, which was to be the principal 
field of his labors. He was generally received with a 
cordial welcome by our transatlantic brethren, and was em- 
inently successful in the prosecution of his agency as 
viewed from the stand-point of that day. He visited 
almost every considerable Lutheran city, and won the 
esteem and gained the assistance of most of the church dig- 
nitaries, and other distinguished men. His preaching was 
attended by multitudes — he every where excited curiosity, 
and was treated with the most cordial respect. His agency 
was something so new and so interesting — his home was 
so distant, as it was then considered — his behavior so 
humble and conciliating — and his preaching so scriptural, 
that he attracted the favorable attention of thousands and 
left an impression which that generation will never forget. 
His representations of the church in America awakened an 
earnest zeal in the bosoms of the pious, and their benefac- 
tions towards her will be remembered as long as she exists. 
Too much cannot be said in praise of the generosity of our 
transatlantic brethren. Our mission to them was pro- 
ductive of many collateral advantages. The churches in 
America and Germany became acquainted with each other 
— the cords of fraternal affection were more tightly drawn 


— an extensive correspondence was established, and many- 
other advantages resulted from it, which are inestimable. 
Even after the return of Mr. Kurtz, they afforded joyful 
proof of their continued liberality. By their munificence 
the library was increased to four or five thousand volumes, 
and the funds received an addition of about ;^8 ooo. After 
an absence of twenty-two months, Mr. Kurtz returned to 
his native country. 

" The church rejoiced that so faithful a laborer was re- 
stored to her bosom in health, after having endured so 
many privations and exercised so much self-denial. It was 
not expected that all the professed friends of Zion and 
Lutheranism, either in America or Europe, would regard 
this mission in a favorable light. Several clergymen and 
laymen in this country openly censured the measure, but 
they had taken no part in the establishment and support of 
the Seminary. In Europe some opposed it, and the result 
of it was the appearance of a work, which was received in 
this country in 1829, purporting to be ' Directions to Emi- 
grants to the United States.' The author of this con- 
temptible publication was a certain Dr. Braunschweig, who 
had been in the United States and was admitted into the 
Synod of Pennsylvania. His unministerial behavior sub- 
jected him to the public censure of the president of that 
body. He soon after returned to Germany, and vented his 
spleen against the men upon whose hospitality he lived, 
but of whose confidence his subsequent immoral conduct 
proved him unworthy. In his book he labors hard to pre- 
judice his countrymen against the Seminary by misrepre- 
sentations and gross calumny. He makes certain state- 
ments part true, part false, which he never could have 
ascertained, but from the correspondence of certain oppon- 
ents of the institution on this side of the Atlantic. Appre- 
hending mischievous results to flow from this tissue of 


slanders, the board, in 1830, resolved to answer it. In 
April, 1 83 1, the reply, written by Dr. Hazelius, was sent to 

"At this meeting ot the board, i. e., September, 1826, a 
committee. Dr. Schmucker, Mr. Herbst and C. A. Barnitz, 
Esq., was appointed to petition the Legislature of Pennsyl- 
vania, to incorporate the Seminary. This was attended 
with much difficulty, inasmuch as that body was then op- 
posed to chartering religious institutions. It was, however, 
accomplished by the dexterity and influence of those 
representatives who felt an interest in the subject, and at 
the next meeting of the directors, the committee had the 
satisfaction of reporting the performance of their duty and 
of delivering the charter. 

" At this meeting of the board, which was the first held 
in Gettysburg, and only the second ever held, and but 
seven months after it was determined to locate the institu- 
tion at Gettysburg, a committee appointed to examine into 
the state of the funds, reported that ^17,513 had already 
been subscribed, of which only ^1,674 had been collected. 
Messrs. Herbst and Benjamin Keller were at this meeting 
appointed as general solicitors for the Seminary, and at the 
next meeting a vote of thanks to these gentlemen was 
passed for their important services in enlarging the funds 
of the Seminary." 

The following characterization of the course of study 
in the Seminary by Prof H. Jacobs in his history of the 
Lutheran Church in America, (page 370) will surprise 
many of our readers who studied in the College and Semi- 
nary at Gettysburg: 

" The Seminary course was very brief, and the teach- 
ing scarcely rose above, if it equalled, the standard of the 
better catechetical instruction. There was even a tendency 
to depreciate sacred learning, as relatively unimportant, and 


to throw all stress upon devotional exercises. The teach- 
ing was hortatory instead of doctrinal, and no longer 
covered the full extent of revelation." — Jacobs, p. jyo. 

This is certainly a very unjust and untruthful char- 
acterization of the teaching and course of study in the theo- 
logical Seminary at Gettysburg, and it must surprise any 
one acquainted with the facts to read such statements in a 
book that claims to be a veracious and impartial history. 
The professors in the seminary are acknowledged to have 
been learned and able teachers. For many years 
Schmucker, Hazelius, Krauth, Sr., and Hay, were the pro- 
fessors in the seminary, devoting their whole time to the 
duties of their profession. The assertion, therefore, that 
the combined labors of those three distinguished professors 
" scarcely rose above, if it equalled the standard of the bet- 
ter catechetical instruction," is an insult to those worthy 
men, and a slander on the institution. 

True, the seminary course at that time was brief, only 
two years, but a catechetical course for young and mostly 
uneducated people, usually lasts only about three months. 

That some of the instructions were hortatory and that 
stress was laid upon devotional exercises, is admitted ; Dr. 
Schmucker desired, above all things, to prepare a pious 
ministry for the church, but it is not true that he depre- 
ciated sacred learning. 

In this connection it may be in place to state, that 
there was a difference of opinion between Dr. Schmucker 
and the professors in college in regard to admitting stu- 
dents into the seminary. Dr. Schmucker favored the adrnis- 
sion of married men, and unmarried ones advanced in 
years, and whose means were limited, without having com- 
pleted their full course of college. The college professors, 
insisted on a full course in college without exception. This 
was one cause of antagonism against Dr. Schmucker, irom 


B. M. schmucker's testimony. 207 

the president and faculty in college. I distinctly remember 
hearing Professor Jacobs, Sen., vehemently claiming, that if 
a candidate for the ministry could not take a full course in 
both institutions, it would be preferable to take a full 
course in college and omit the seminary course entirely. 

The obstacles in the way of married men entering the 
seminary was one of the principal reasons, assigned by Dr. 
B. Kurtz, for the establishment of the Missionary Institute 
at Selin's Grove. 

It is also ungrateful in Dr. Jacobs to write thus about 
his Alma Mater, considering the intimate relations in which 
both he and his father have stood to the institutions at 
Gettysburg. Prof Michael Jacobs, the father, was a pro- 
fessor in Pennsylvania College from its very beginning, and 
when on account of infirmity he could no longer give in- 
structions, he was retained as Emeritus Professor until the 
day of his death. Then Dr. H. Jacobs, the son, graduated 
in both institutions, and for a while was professor of Greek 
in the college, until he accepted a call to a professorship in 
Mt. Airy Seminary. 

Dr. B. M. Schmucker, writes in quite a different spirit 
on this subject in the College Book : 

" From 1826 to 1846, when he went for a few months 
to Europe, he had never rested. One generation of stu- 
dents after another had come, received careful instructions, 
been objects of anxious solicitude, and gone out into the 
work of the church. Over four hundred ministers went 
out from the seminary in his time ; and a very large pro- 
portion of them had been moulded and taken shape under 
his training. More than any other man, he determined the 
position and influenced the activity of the ministers of the 
Synods, which are connected with Gettysburg. After 
nearly forty years of labor in the Seminary he resigned his 
professorship in 1864." 


As a fitting conclusion to this brief history of the 
founding of the Seminary, we append Rev. B. Kurtz's letter 
from London. It reads like a romance and we know our 
readers will appreciate it. During his stay in London he 
was painfully embarrassed, because his bill of exchange, 
owing to some informal item, could not be negotiated, and 
for some days he was without funds and much distressed. 
After describing his forlorn condition and deep despon- 
dency, he thus proceeds in a letter to the Lutheran Intelli- 
gencer, of June, 1826: 

" One morning, after having made my breakfast on a 
bowl of water and a small slice of dry bread, I took my hat 
and sallied forth into the street, and, without having any 
particular object in view, strolled about from street to street 
until I lost myself; but He who has numbered the hairs of 
our head directed my steps. I was wandering in Bishops- 
gate street when I observed crowds of people issuing from 
different quarters and entering a large building called the 
' City of London Tavern.' Perceiving a young gentleman 
and lady walking arm in-arm towards the tavern, I was em- 
boldened, by the mildness and sweetness of their counte- 
nances, to inquire into the cause of the meeting, and was 
told, in the most friendly manner, that the great ' Sunday- 
School Union ' was to hold its anniversary, and that there 
would be many interesting speeches delivered. My mind 
was for a moment diverted from the gloomy subject that 
had been harrassing it, and I immediately resolved to attend 
the meeting. But the house was crowded to overflowing, 
and I could get no farther than the door. After many 
fruitless attempts to gain admission, I resolved to withdraw, 
when that moment I espied a gentleman with a long staff 
in his hand and wearing a mark of authority upon his hat. 
I beckoned to him, and, telling him I was a minister of the 
gospel just arrived from North America, begged him to try 


and procure a seat for me. He kindly interfered, and 
obtained a place for me on the platform which had been 
prepared for the accommodation of those who were to 
address the assembly. 

" Here were about forty or fifty clergymen, a number 
of missionaries from different parts of the world, as well as 
nobility and members of the House of Parliament. I had 
not been here long before I was solicited to offer a resolu- 
tion and support it with a speech. I declined, upon the 
ground of being entirely unprepared, and having come only 
with a view of being a spectator, etc.; but it was all to no 
purpose. I must rise and say something, and if it were 
only a few words on the state of the church and of Sunday- 
schools in the United States. Finally, after much persua- 
sion, I consented, and, though I had not one distinct idea 
arranged in my mind when I rose to speak, yet my tongue 
seemed to be suddenly loosed, and I was blessed with a 
train of thought and flow of feeling and freedom of language 
which altogether astonished myself I had not spoken five 
minutes until an hundred voices exclaimed, hear him ! hear 
him ! hear him! and then again there was such a clapping 
of hands and stamping of feet that I was several times 
obliged to be silent until the bursts of applause had sub- 
sided. It is in this way that the British teach and constrain 
their citizens, especially those who are young and timid, to 
become public and extemporaneous speakers. If they hear 
a smgle good idea they will give the speaker credit for it 
the moment it is uttered by a loud expression of their appro- 
bation. If they perceive him to be embarrassed they will 
immediately come to his aid, and kindly relieve him by 
applauding his attempt. If he acquits himself well the very 
welkin re-echoes their shouts. This, indeed, renders their 
public meetings boisterous, but also more diversified and 
less tedious than ours. And hence a British audience will 


sit from 6 o'clock in the morning till 3 p. m., hearing and 
applauding public orators, without once manifesting a symp- 
tom of fatigue. And, whilst Americans would be gaping 
and yawning and sleeping, they will be acclaiming and 
cheering the orator ; so that if he have one solitary latent 
spark of eloquence in his soul it will thus be called into 
action. When the gospel, however, is preached, they do 
not allow themselves such liberties, but observe the most 
respectful silence and solemnity. But I must return to my 
narrative. After the meeting was over a gentleman of 
respectable appearance approached me, and, laying his hand 
on my shoulder, said, in a most friendly manner, ' My 
brother, will you have the goodness, in your way home, to 
call at the house of Mr. S., in Cheapside, No. 2 ? " "I pre- 
sume, sir," said I, " you are under a mistake. There is no 
acquaintance whatever between Mr. S. and myself I am a 
stranger and know nobody. Probably it is some other per- 
son whom Mr. S. is desirous to see." " Is your name Mr. 
Kurtz, and are you from the United States ? " " Yes, sir, 
you have mentioned my name and my country." " Then, 
sir," continued he, " you are the person whom Mr. S. is 
desirous to see." I immediately repaired to Cheapside, and 
entered the house of Mr. S. I was conducted up stairs into 
a splendid drawing room, where I beheld a gentleman 
seated on a magnificent sofa, and engaged in reading a book. 
Here the following dialogue ensued : 

" Myself. I have taken the liberty, sir, to call on you at 
the request of a gentleman who is a stranger to me. I am 
apprehensive there must be a mistake ; I beg you to pardon 
me if I am an intruder. 

" Mr. S. I am extremely happy to see you, sir ; my 
name is S. Will you do me the favor to be seated ? 

" Self. With pleasure, sir. It appears then my visit is 
not the result of a misunderstanding? 


" Mr. S. By no means. I was very anxious to torm 
an acquaintance with you ; I beg you to forgive me for pre- 
suming so much on your goodness as to ask the favor of a 
visit. I attended the anniversary of the ' Sunday-School 
Union ' to day, heard you deliver a speech there, and was 
delighted to find that you entertain the very same views 
on the subjects that I do. This was the more gratifying as 
we are inhabitants of different hemispheres, and live at least 
one thousand leagues from one another. If you had 
spoken from the very impressions resting on my mind you 
could not have more entirely given utterance to my ideas. 

" Self. Sir, it affords me much pleasure to learn that 
we coincide in the views which I endeavored to express at 
the meeting to-day. 

" Mr. S. I understood with the sincerest regret that 
your bill of exchange has been protested, and I can well 
imagine how unpleasant the situation of a gentleman in a 
strange land, and in an expensive city, under such circum- 
stances, must be. I beg you to do me the favor of accept- 
ing this (holding out to me a handful of gold) as a small 
evidence of my gratitude for the delight your excellent 
speech afforded me. 

" Se//. My dear sir, you are too kind. My bill has 
indeed been protested, but I still indulge the hope that it 
may yet be redeemed ; and, in such an event, I should have 
to reproach myself for having received a present upon the 
mere supposition that my money had been lost. 

" Mr. S. I wish most ardently you may not be disap- 
pointed in your hope ; the times, however, are precarious, 
the issue is doubtful, and I entreat you to accept this small 
sum not as a present, but as a well merited reward, 

" Se/f. Your disinterested benevolence quite over- 
comes me, yet it would not consist with my principles, 
under existing circumstances, to take advantage of it. But, 


as I am almost out of money, I would thankfully accept of 
your offer as a loan, and will pledge you my word as a 
Christian that it shall be honestly refunded to you. 

" Mr. S. I cannot lend you this money ; but as I have 
also been informed that the object of your tour is to solicit 
donations for a Theological Seminary, and as I cordially 
approve of such institutions, and consider it the solemn 
duty of every Christian to support them to the utmost of 
his ability, you surely cannot object to receiving this trifling 
sum as my contribution. 

" Self. Sir, I receive it with gratitude, and tender you 
the thanks of the church, whose agent I am. 

" In the mean time a neatly dressed little man had 
made his appearance, and commenced taking my measure 
for a suit of clothes. Mr. S. hoped I would not object to 
this measure, and insisted on my submitting without saying 
a word. Having received an invitation to dine with Mr 
S. next day, I departed, praising God and rejoicing on my 

" The next day I dined with him, and was treated by his 
pious and amiable family with every mark of attention and 
affection. In the course of the same day he sent me a fine 
and full suit of black clothes, which at that time my ward- 
robe loudly called for. During the residue of my stay in 
London I often visited and dined at the house of this gen- 
tleman, and spent some of my happiest hours with his 

" My purse being now replenished, I immediately set- 
tled my account at my boarding house and paid off several 
other small debts I had contracted, and still had six or 
seven guineas * left. I now bade adieu to the dismal gar- 
ret, and took boarding in a more comfortable house. Not 

A guinea is worth about five dollars of our currencj', 



long afterwards Dr. Steinkopff returned rather unexpectedly, 
and from this time forward my prospects became brighter 
from day to day. But I have carried out my letter to a 
tedious length, and I will, therefore, forbear for the present. 
" I will only yet add, that when in Kiel, about six 
weeks afterwards, I received a letter from the excellent and 
amiable Mr. Jackson, Secretary of the British and Foreign 
Bible Society, communicating the agreeable intelligence 
that my bill of exchange had been honored, and that the 
money was in his hands, subject to my order?." 



pennsylvania college. 

Origin of the college — no Lutheran college at that 
time — lutheran majority in the board of trustees 
not sectarian, but under lutheran control — ger- 
man professorship — thaddeus stevens — donations 




The origin of the Pennsylvania College is marked by a 
relation very peculiar. Among the educational institutions 
of our country, there are numerous instances in which the 
work of a college has led to the organization of a theologi- 
cal seminary. But the cases are very few, if this does not 
stand absolutely alone, in which the order has been reversed, 
and a theological school has led to the founding of a col- 
lege. However distinctly separate they became in their 
corporate capacity, the two institutions sprang up on the 
same spot, the instruction and exercises of the Seminary 
and the Gymnasium being conducted in the same building, 
till the lormer moved into its new edifice in the fall of 1832. 
But both the Preparatory School and the College arose 
out of the operations of the Seminary, and the leading en- 
terprise and purpose of those who were working in it, or 
with it. 

At the time of the organization of this institution there 
was no college in the state of Pennsylvania, — nor in the 

. College Church. 2. Astronomical Observatory. 3. Dormitory. 
4. Gymnasium. 5. Preparatory Department. 


United States of North America — under the auspices of the 
Lutheran Church. There was a wide field for the work 
of an institution for the higher education in this connection, 
and the organization of Pennsylvania College was called for 
by a large need, and the most inviting prospect of success. 
The prospect seemed at that time so encouraging as to 
induce the editor of the Lutheran Observer, Dr. B. Kurtz, to 
exclaim, " We expect in a very short time to see Gettys- 
burg the Cambridge of Pennsylvania, with its academic 
halls crowded with orderly and diligent students." As was 
natural under the circumstances, and included in its design, 
the control or management of it was given to a Board of 
Trustees, a majority of whom were Lutherans. But though 
the institution was established under the auspices of the 
Lutheran Church, no religious condition is connected with 
the position of Patron or Trustee, the charter declaring, 
" At elections for patrons or trustees, or other officers, and 
in the reception of pupils, no person shall be rejected on 
account of his conscientious persuasion in matters of relig- 
ion, provided he shall demean himself in a sober manner, 
and conform to the rules and regulations of the College." 
The institution is therefore non-sectarian, as are most 
American colleges, established under church auspices, the 
denominational relation expressing only the fact, that the col- 
lege has been organized and is carried on under the special 
patronage of the Lutheran Church, and for the purpose of 
bearing part in the work of the higher Christian education. 

No restriction is imposed by the charter in any v/ay 
limiting the selection of Trustees to residents of the State, 
and from the first a considerable number have been from 
beyond its bounds. No control of the institution is in any 
way exercised by the State, or by any authority outside of 
the Board of Trustees. 

As to instruction in particular studies, the act of incor- 


poration contains but a single special requirement. This is,, 
that in addition to the customary professorships in other 
colleges, " there shall be in this institution a German Pro- 
fessorship, the incumbent of which shall, in addition to such 
other duties as may be assigned him by the Board, instruct 
such young men as may resort to the institution for the 
purpose of becoming qualified to be teachers of those 
schools in which both German and English are to be 

Pennsylvania College was founded without any public 
grants of money, lands, or other property, depending on 
the personal contributions of its patrons and friends, and 
the encouragement and aid expected from the Church 
under whose auspices it was established. Subsequently, 
however, on application of the Board of Trustees, and 
chiefly through the disinterested and earnest exertions of 
Hon. Thaddeus Stevens, then a representative of Adams 
County in the State legislature, with the co operation of 
other friends of education, an appropriation of ^18,000 was 
obtained for the institution from the State. The act of 
appropriation, bearing the signature of Governor Wolfe, 
Feb. 6, 1834, granted the College ^$3,000 in June, 1834, and 
^3,000 annually thereafter for five years — on several condi- 
tions : /7rj/, that the first ;^3,ooo should be applied exclu- 
sively to the purchase of a site and the erection of a build- 
ing ; Second, that the Trustees should cause gratuitous 
instruction to be given to fifteen young men annually, (if that 
number should apply from this commonwealth,) in the ele- 
mentary branches of an English education, in such manner 
as the Trustees should deem best calculated to qualify them 
for teachers of common schools ; and Third, that the Trus- 
tees should, on or before the first Monday of the following 
June, give security to the commonwealth, to the satisfaction 
of the Governor, to raise and appropriate a like sum to the 


same object from other sources. The conditions were com- 
plied with. 

By this aid and under an economical and vigorous 
management by the Board, as well as through the careful 
and thorough educational work of the faculty, the institu- 
tion rapidly attained prosperity and honorable standing 
among the colleges of the State. Later additional aid was 
received from the State under the provisions of an act of the 
legislature, approved April 12, 1838. " To encourage the 
arts and sciences, promote the teaching of useful knowl- 
edge, and support the Colleges, Academies and Female 
Seminaries " within the Commonwealth, an appropriation of 
;^ 1,000 annually, for ten years, was made to each of the 
Colleges and Universities, and smaller sums to institutions 
of inferior grade. This yearly grant was enjoyed by the 
College, in common with others of the State, for seven 
years, the last annual appropriation being reduced one- 
half by the act which repealed the law. 

The following account of the founding of Pennsylvania 
College was recently found in manuscript in the Historical 
Library of the Theological Seminary. It appears to have 
been composed by Dr. Schmucker, and used in a lecture on 
the History of Pennsylvania College, by Leigh Baugher, 
brother of Prof. H. L. Baugher, D. D., and Principal of a 
classical school in Hanover, Pa. It gives the most detailed , 
and yet precise history of the College and will be interest- 
ing to the readers, although it contains some repetitions of 
what has already been written above. It was furnished by 
Prof. Richard to the College Mercury, from which we copy : 


" This institution grew out of the Gymnasium, and 
that out of the Classical Department of the Theological 
Seminary at Gettysburg. This Seminary was established 


by resolutions of the General Synod of the Lutheran 
Church in the United States, convened at Fredericktown, 
Md., Nov. 8, 1825, at which time Dr. S. S. Schmucker was 
elected its first professor. It went into operation Sept. 5, 
1826. From the commencement of its operations the pro- 
fessors found the classical attainments of some of the stu- 
dents inadequate, as a necessary preparation for an elevated 
course of theological study. Accordingly, at the close of 
the first session, May 15, 1827, the professor called the 
attention of the Board of the Seminary to this fact, and 
made such statements as induced them to * resolve them- 
selves into an association to establish a classical school, as 
highly conducive to the welfare of the Seminary,' and to 
provide ' that their successors in the Theological Board 
should be their successors in the management of said Clas- 
sical School.' 

" They also ' appointed Professor Schmucker and Rev. 
Herbst, as a committee to make the necessary arrange- 
ments ; and if it shall appear that the income of such a 
school would defray the attendant expenses, to carry these 
resolutions into effect.* Accordingly this committee ap- 
pointed Mr. David Jacobs, A. B., one of the students of the 
Seminary, as teacher of the Classical School, and it went 
into operation with gradually improving prospects. Soon 
after, the County Academy, in which the instructions of the 
Seminary and Classical School were conducted, was to be 
sold by the sheriff for debt. Prof. Schmucker, regarding 
this as a suitable opportunity of procuring at a cheap rate a 
permanent building for the Classical School, consulted with 
the principal citizens of the place, and proposed, that as a 
good classical school is an object of importance to the liter- 
ary and pecuniary interests of the town, to buy the Aca- 
demy at the amount of the debt, if they would not bid it up, 
and obligated himself to apply it only to literary purposes, 


and if the school should be abandoned, to give them the 
offer of the property again. To this they assented, and the 
parties entered into a written contract, dated Aug. 14, 1829. 
Accordingly, Prof Schmucker bought the building on his 
own responsibility, at ^1,100. 

"Desirous of enlisting the interest of Lutheran minis- 
ters generally, and of affording them some advantages in 
the education of their sons, Prof Schmucker resolved to 
form a distinct association, and divide the price of the build- 
ing, ^1,100, into stock of $50 per share, and sell it to his 
ministerial brethren. By the articles of association, the 
election of teachers and regulation of the plan of studies 
and discipline were confided to the professors and directors 
of the Theological Seminary, and the fiscal concerns of the 
association, the price of tuition, rent of rooms to the Theo- 
logical Seminary ; declaring dividends, if any, on the stock, 
were confided to a Board of Trustees elected by the stock- 
holders from among their own number. 

" After the adoption of this plan, Prof Schmucker, on 
behalf of the trustees of this association, which he termed 
Gettysburg Gymnasium, prepared and published a circular, 
over his own signature, describing and recommending the 
school, and stating, ' It is under the immediate care of sev- 
eral very excellent and well qualified teachers, and under 
the general superintendence of Professor Schmucker.' The 
teachers ar this time were Rev. David Jacobs, A. M., and 
Mr. M. Jacobs, A. B., who was appointed in April, 1829. 
The stockholders, who were all Lutheran ministers from 
three or four States, had the privilege of gratuious tuition 
for their sons. The results of this arrangement were very 
favorable. The number of students rapidly increased. In 
the fall of 1830, Nov. 4, the older teacher, Rev. D. Jacobs, 
departed this life, much regretted by all who knew him, 
and especially by the friends of the school. The Rev, 


Henry L. Baugher, A. M., was selected to supply his place 
in April, 1831. From that time these two gentlemen, Drs. 
Baugher and Jacobs, have devoted themselves to the inter- 
ests of this institution with the most gratifying success. 

'■' As the number of students had rapidly increased, and 
it had long been the desire of Prof Schmucker and of many 
other friends of the Lutheran Church, to have not only a 
Theological Seminary, but also a literary institution of the 
highest class, he resolved on making the effort to elevate 
the Gymnasium into a College by legislative action. Ac- 
cordingly, he called a meeting of a half-dozen of the princi- 
pal citizens of different denominations at the Bank in town, 
and invited their co-operation in the effort to obtain a char- 
ter from the Legislature for a college. He informed them 
that the college he aimed at tvas to be un-sectarian in its 
instructions, but at the same time to be prevailingly under 
Lutheran influence and control. The proposition of Dr. 
Schmucker was cordially received, and General T. C. Mil- 
ler was appointed to accompany him to Harrisburg for the 
proposed purpose. Here Dr. Schmucker spent several 
weeks, on his own expense, in bringing the merits of the 
case before the individual members of the Legislature. By 
the aid of Gov. Wolfe, the distinguished friend of popular 
education, he also obtained permission of the House to 
address them in the Representative Hall, on the claims of 
the Germans in Pennsylvania to legislative sanction in the 
establishment of a college for the education of their Angli- 
cised descendants. The earlier history of the Germanic 
nations in Europe was briefly sketched, and the patriotism, 
the integrity and industry of the Germans in our own State 
was presented in detail. The Hall was crowded by the 
members of Legislature, the Governor, and the heads of 
departments, as well as others of the most intelligent citi- 
zens of Harrisburg. 

FACUIvTY completed. 221 

" Dr. Schmucker also had petitions in behalf of his 
object printed at his own expense and addressed to some 
influential Lutheran minister or other friend, in about thirty 
counties of the State, requesting them to procure signatures 
belonging to both parties, and forward the petitions to the 
representatives of their county in the Legislature. He then 
drew up a charter for the new college, which was reported 
in the House, and in due time enacted into a law. Accord- 
ingly a charter was obtained in April. 1832, erecting Get- 
tysburg Gymnasium into a College, under the style and 
title of " Pennsylvania College at Gettysburg," with all the 
powers and immunities usually conferred on similar insti- 
tutions. As the funds were utterly inadequate to support 
a full faculty, being nothing more than the proceeds of tui- 
tion, the Trustees requested Drs. Schmucker and Hazelius 
to give some instruction gratuitously for one year in addi- 
tion to their duties in the Theological Seminary, to which 
they consented. The Rev. J. H. Marsden, principal of the 
Female Seminary of the town, was engaged to devote a few 
hours in College to Mineralogy and Botany, and Professors 
Baugher and Jacobs devoted their entire time to the Col- 
lege. Thus organized, the Faculty stood thus : Dr. 
Schmucker, Intellectual and Moral Science ; Dr. Hazelius, 
Latin Language and German Literature ; Prof Baugher, 
A. M., Greek Language and Belles Lettres ; Prof Jacobs, 
A. M., Natural Philosophy, Chemistry and Mathematics ; 
Prof Marsden, A. M., Mineralogy and Botany. 

"The prospects of our College were now decidedly 
encouraging. What was most needed was funds, to enable 
the Trustees to erect a comfortable edifice, and to employ 
the entire time of additional professors, the chief burden of 
instruction having rested on Professors Baugher and Jacobs, 
both well quahfied for their positions. At the request of a 
number of the friends of the College, Dr. Schmucker again 

OPPOSITION overcome;. 

repaired to Harrisburg in 1833-4 for the purpose of obtain- 
ing an appropriation. In all their efforts to promote the 
establishment of this College, the friends of the institution 
had to contend against a strong and influential party at 
home, whose organ was the Compiler, one of the county 
papers. Even one of our own Representatives in the Leg- 
islature (Mr. Patterson) spoke and voted against our appli- 
cation on the ground of opposition to all legislative aid to 
Colleges. Dr. Schmucker therefore drew up an ' Address 
to the Citizens of Adams Co.,' and in conjunction with the 
signatures of seven other resident Trustees, published it in 
the other papers of the County, Nov, 8, 1833. Its object is 
to demonstrate that the College is not only a literary bene- 
fit to the County, but especially a source of large pecuniary 
gain to the citizens of all professions and that all should 
therefore favor an application to the Legislature for pecun- 
iary aid. In the Legislature itself our cause was most ably 
advocated by our other Representative, Thaddeus Stevens^ 
Esq., the distinguished champion of the free school system 
of Pennsylvania, and of education in every form. 

" The funds for the Franklin Professorship were 
obtained with considerable difificulty. When Dr. Schmucker 
and Rev. B. Keller arrived at Lancaster in 185 1 to attend 
as Lutheran Trustees the meeting of the Board, it was 
found that our Reformed brethren had been actively 
engaged through their agent. Rev. Bucher, Sen., in persuad- 
ing the Lutheran Trustees of Lancaster City to assent to an- 
arrangement by which the entire funds of Franklin College 
should be united with those of Marshall College and be 
controlled by that corporation, there being one Lutheran 
Professorship established in the institution. To this all the 
Trustees had assented except Dr. Baker. And it was only 
after much effort that Dr. Schmucker and Rev. Keller per- 
suaded the Lutheran Trustees to abandon that plan and 


agree to the transfer of the Lutheran Professorship to Penn- 
sylvania College in Gettysburg, by giving us one-third of 
the funds of Franklin College. Dr. Schmucker drew up 
the articles of agreement which, being sanctioned by legis- 
lative action, effected this desirable end." 

Rev. B. M. Schmucker, D. D,, concludes a short 
sketch on " The Beginning of the College," from which we 
copy the following : " Until this time the Institution had 
depended on its tuition fees for support, and its income was 
very limited. The salaries in the time of the Academy and 
Gymnasium were but ^400, ' if the income allowed.' The 
increase of students made enlarged buildings necessary. It 
was decided to seek aid from the Legislature. Prof. 
Schmucker again went to Harrisburg, and entered with 
vigor into the contest before the Legislature, Other col- 
leges were pressing their claims, Dickinson, which had 
already received over $60,000, Washington, which had got- 
ten ^16,500, and 5000 acres of land, Jefferson with $20,000 
before, Allegheny with $9,000 before, and especially 
Lafayette, which had receivad nothing as yet, were urging 
their claims. It was a stirring contest, and the representa- 
tives of Pennsylvania College did not allow its interest to 
suffer. By the aid of many friends, prominently Hon. 
Thaddeus Stevens, an appropriation of $3,000 a year for 
five years, was granted to begin with June 1834. It was 
decided, with the encouragement this aid afforded, to en- 
large the faculty, and give form to the Institution by the 
election of a president. Professor C. P. Krauth was chosen 
at the spring meeting of the trustees in 1834. Thus ended 
the unofficial, but real presidency of Prof S. S. Schmucker, 
and Pennsylvania College entered on the ever-widening 
sphere of honorable and useful work, for which he had 
done so much to prepare the way." 



Wednesday, Sept. 17, 1834. 

Music By the Euterpian Band. 

Prayer By President Krauth, 

Latin Salutatory . By William Smith of Georgetown, D. C. 
Oration on Greek Language and Literature , . 

By J. B. Bacon, of York, Pa. 


Oration on " The Spirit of the Age " 

By E. Keller, of Middletown, Md. 

Oration, " Pleasures of Science " 

By Theophilus Stork, of Salisbury, N. C. 


Oration, " Fictitious Writings " 

By M. G. Dale, of Lancaster, Pa. 

Valedictory By D. G. Barnitz, of York, Pa. 

Solo By Mr. Heerbrueger. 

Conferring of Degrees and Baccalaureate Address 

By The President. 

Dr. Diehl writes the following eulogy on Dr. 
Schmucker's work in establishing the Seminary and Col- 

" Thus we see that in many ways, did Dr. Schmucker 
aid in establishing and building up the institutions, by giving 
his time, talents, money and counsel ; by teaching, by travel- 
ing, by pleading the cause before legislative bodies, by meeting 
another board, and the Synod of another denomination ; by 
visiting cities and delivering persuasive discourses before 
rich Presbyterians and Congregationalists ; by securing 

Keller, Stork and Dale, were Juniors at this time. 


students ; by organizing various projects; using all his 
power and influence to secure their prosperity. Forty 
years of his active life were' given to the Seminary. And 
when he retired from the chair he had filled so long and so 
well, his heart lost none of its devotion to her welfare. No 
truerfriend to the Lutheran Church, and her first Seminary, 
than Dr. Schmucker, will ever rise up. No more untiring 
and self-sacrificing labors will ever be given to them. 
Those institutions may grow, and attain the highest pros- 
perity. Noble architectural structures may rise around the 
substantial, plain buildings, he, more than any others, 
helped to rear. Opulent friends may contribute their 
hundreds of thousands. Faculties and students, ten times 
in number of what he saw, may fill thoce halls. But the 
name of Samuel S. Schmucker will ever stand first, and 
bright as any other, on the roll of the friends of those 

The latter part of the above paragraph sounds almost 
like an inspired prophecy, which has been literally fulfilled. 
Noble structures have been reared ; opulent friends have 
contributed hundreds of thousands, faculties and students, 
tentimcsthenumberarefilHngthosehalls. In addition to the 
first Seminary building, four professors' dwelling houses have 
been erected, a splendid new Seminary building has been con- 
structed and the old building renovated and reconstructed 
and an endowment fund of over ^100,000 secured. The 
same course of development has also taken place in the 
history of the College. In addition to the old College build- 
ing the following structures have been erected, Linean 
Hall, preparatory building, a gymnasium, an observatory, 
a magnificent new college building, a magnificent chapel 
or church building, a president's dwelling and two profes- 
sors' houses, with an endowment fund of about ^100,000. 
The value of the real estate and endowments which the 

226 of agreement. 

Lutheran Church of the General Synod controls in Gettys- 
burg cannot be short of half a million dollars. Truly the 
Lord hath done great things for Zion. To him be all the 
glory ! 

All this wonderful work was inaugurated and organ- 
ized by one man. Not that he did all the work and 
achieved the success single handed and alone. No, he had 
faithful and true men who stood by him, and liberal hearted 
and wealthy men who contributed of their means to carry 
out his plans. It is like a great general, who has organized 
his army, laid out the plan of his campaign, and leads his 
soldiers on to victory. 


Subservient to the objects of the Theological Seminary 
at Gettysburg, and for the establishment of a fund for the 
purchase of the Adams County Academy : 

I. The original stock of the Association is to be 

II. Each share shall be $50.00. 

III. The stock holders shall elect at their first meeting 
five of their number as trustees, who shall have the man- 
agement of all the concerns of the school, with the build- 
ings hereafter mentioned. 

IV. Three members of the Board of Trustees shall con- 
stitute a quorum. 

The professor and directors of the Theological Semi- 
nary at Gettysburg shall ex-ofifico, constitute a committee 
to be styled " the School Committee." 

The committee shall appoint all the teachers of the 
institution (including also the English teacher, if one be 
employed.) They shall prescribe the course of study, dis- 
cipline and examination to be pursued. 


There may be semi-annual meetings of the committee; 
viz.; Immediately after the time appointed for the Spring 
and Fall meetings of the Board of Trustees. 

V. If at any time in the interim of the regular meet- 
ings of the committee any measures relating to the instruc- 
tion or discipline of the institution should be necessary, the 
professors of the Seminary shall have power to act alone ; 
but all such acts shall be subject to revision and amend- 
ment at a regular meeting of the School Committee. 

VI. So soon as the salary of any one teacher shall 
amount to more than ^400, he may be taxed by the trus- 
tees for the use of the room occupied by him to such 
amount as they may deem necessary, and consistent with 
the welfare of the school, not exceeding one half of the 
surplus of ^400. 

VII. The edifice purchased by the Trustees and any 
others, hereafter acquired by them, shall in no instance be 
used for any purpose not subservient to the interest of the 

VIII. All repairs of the edifice and school furniture for 
the rooms, judged necessary by the Trustees, shall be pro- 
vided by them at their expense. 

IX. All the monies received by the Trustees, shall, 
after defraying the necessary repairs and furniture, be 
divided equally between the stockholders. 

X. Yet not more than an average of 6 per cent per 
annum, shall at any time be divided, and if the proceeds 
exceed that amount, they shall be appropriated by the 
Trustees to the enlargement of the edifice and accommoda- 
tions or operations of the institution. 

XI. The children of original stockholders shall be 
taught gratuitously by the teachers of the classical and 
scientific department, so long as they retain the stock ; but 


should the Trustees have an elementary English school in 
its building, the privilege shall not extend to it. 

XII. At all elections each stockholder shall be entitled 
to as many votes as he holds shares. 

XIII. There may annually be two general meetings of 
the stockholders, on the evening after the close of the 
regular seminarian examination of the students of the theo- 
logical seminary. At these meetings seven stockholders 
shall constitute a quorum. 

XIV. The term of service of the Trustees shall be one 
year, and they shall be always re-eligible, and if for any 
reason whatever, there is no election held at the expiration 
of their term, they shall continue in office until successors 
are elected. And if at any time the seat of any one or 
more Trustees should be vacated by death, or voluntary 
resignation, the existing members of the Board may elect 
some stockholder as a successor, who shall continue in 
office until another is elected in his place at a general meet- 
ing of the stockholders. 

XV. The Board of Trustees shall elect a President, 
Secretary and Treasurer, who shall hold their offices on the 
conditions mentioned in Section XIV. 

XVI. Every stockholder shall have a right to transfer 
or sell his stock by an entry made on the book, and such 
transfer shall confer on the purchaser all the privileges of 
the regular stockholder ; provided always, that no transfer 
shall give the privilege of gratuitous tuition to another 
person in less than six years from the time ol the com- 
mencement of this association, and so ever after no trans- 
fer of the privilege (gratuitous tuition) can take place 
oftener than once in six years. 

XVII. At elections for Trustees any stockholder may 
send his vote or votes by proxy ; but on no other occasion, 
and for no other purpose shall votes by proxy be received. 





XVIII. Any alterations in these articles must be pro- 
posed at our general meeting, and cannot be acted on until 
the next regular general meeting, and any such alteration 
shall require a majority of three fourths of the votes of all 
the existing stockholders. 

XIX. This association may at any time be dissolved by 
a majority of three fourths of all the votes of all the stock- 
holders, who may sell the property, and divide the proceeds 
equally according to the number of shares held by each 
stockholder. Signed by 

Samuel S. Schmucker, 
John Herbst, 
Henry G. Stecker, 
J. G. Schmucker, 
J. F. Heyer, 
Jonathan Ruthrauff, 
Jacob Crigler, 
Emanuel Keller, 
Jacob Martin, 

J. M. Heim, 

Benjamin Kurtz, 

David F. Schaffer, 

John G. Morris, 

John Reck, 

Dr. Schaeffer, Philadelphia, 

C. P. Krauth, 

Henry Stecker. 





Mother synod abandons her child — movement for reun- 
ion IN 1839 FAILED reunion IN 1 85 3 — STRONG OPPO- 







Dr. Schmucker had been associated with and most 
deeply interested in the General Synod for over half a cen- 
tury. From its very inception at Baltimore in 1819, until 
the year of his death in 1874, he was present at every 
one of its meetings, either as a delegate or as a visitor. 
During about fifty years he devoted his time, his talents, 
and his means to the promotion of the interests of the Gen- 
eral Synod and the theological Seminary. After the 
Mother Synod had abandoned the General Synod — the 
child which she had brought into being,— and it was generally 

re-un:on of pa. synod with gen. synod. 23 r 

supposed it must inevitably go into callapse, he by almost 
superhuman effort rescued it from destruction. The orig- 
inal design of the General Synod was the union of all the 
Lutheran district synods in North America into one organ- 
ized ecclesiastical confederation for the promotion of her 
common interests and for the extension of missions and edu- 
cational work. 

After the recession of the Pennsylvania Ministerium 
the hope of realizing the union of the Lutheran Church in 
this country was not abandoned. Continued efforts were 
made to induce the Ministerium to return, and other synods 
to connect themselves with the General Synod. 

In 1839 a movement was made in the Pennsylvania 
Synod for a reunion. In the Lutheran Church at Reading, 
Pa., the pastor, Rev. Dr. Miller, was opposed to a reunion, 
and the vote of his congregation was unanimously against 
it. At a subsequent meeting of the Ministerium the reso- 
lution for a reunion was not adopted by a vote of 33 to 28, 
a majority of only 5. But the subject continued to be 
agitated until the year 1853. In that year the Ministerium 
met in Reading, and after a prolonged and heated discus- 
sion, resolved to re-enter the General Synod. The vote 
was not unanimous ; it stood 52 for union and 28 against 
— some of the members were excused from voting. It was 
my privilege to be present at that meeting of the Minister- 
ium, Dr. Schmucker was present also, and I distinctly recall 
a scene which was exhibited immediately after the vote was 
taken and the result announced. The Dr. walked over to 
the other side of the church and grasped the hand of the 
most violent opponent of the reunion ; but his friendly over- 
ture was met by an insult. Peixoto, that was his name, 
told him in effect that he could not enter into union with a 
Rationalist ! The Dr. did not resent the insult, nor make 
any reply, but he must have been amazed, after having all 


his lifetime contended against Rationalism, to be himself 
publicly called a Rationalist ! Pastor Peixoto was a Ger- 
man immigrant, if I remember correctly, a proselyte from 
the Romish Church. He was a very excitable man, singu- 
lar in his personal appearance, tall and slender, with a very 
long neck. 

Accordingly, when the General Synod met that year 
in Winchester, Va., the Ministerium was represented by its 
delegates, and was unanimously received into membership. 
At the same meeting the Synod of Northern Illinois, 
the Pittsburg Synod, and the Synod of Texas applied for 
admission, and were also received. The latter three synods 
presented no extra conditions on which they wished to be 
received, so far as I can find, but the Ministerium presented 
a series of resolutions, stating its doctrinal basis and special 
conditions on which it demanded to be received. The most 
important item in these resolutions, which eleven years 
later became very troublesome, is the following : 


" We neither intend nor ever expect, that the princi- 
ples which have hitherto governed our synod in respect to 
church doctrine and church life shall suffer any change 
whatever by our connection with the General Synod ; but 
that, should the General Synod violate its constitution, and 
require of our Synod, as a condition of admission, or con- 
tinuance of membership, assent to anything conflicting with 
the old and long established faith of the Evangelical 
Lutheran Church, then our delegates are hereby required 
to protest against such action, to withdraw from its sessions, 
and to report to this body." 

There was no open protest against this extraordinary 
conditional reunion with the General Synod, because there 
was a general desire for union in the Lutheran Church, and 


a rejoicing over the fact that the Pennsylvania Min- 
isterium had returned. The return of the Ministerium, 
together with the addition of three other smaller synods, 
greatly increased the numerical strength of the body. Yet 
many members felt that this was not the proper or 
courteous way of renewing the union. It implied a want of 
confidence, held out a threat, and manifested a domineering 
spirit over their brethren, and was uncalled for and super- 
fluous. The proper way would have been, simply to sub- 
scribe the constitution of the General Synod, like the other 
district synods had done, and if at any future time they 
should have been dissatisfied with its constitution, doc- 
trinal basis, or decision of the majority on any point of doc- 
trine or usage, they could have withdrawn, if they saw fit to 
do so, without any such conditional entrance. Any district 
synod even now has a perfect right to withdraw whenever it 
pleases to do so. 

But the opposition to the General Synod and the Sem- 
inary did not stop with the reunion of the Pennsylvania 
Ministerium. The leaders of the minority kept up a con- 
stant tirade against the General Synod and the Seminary ; 
against the former on account of the so-called " New Meas- 
ures," and " revivals of religion," and its inadequate confes- 
sional standpoint, and against the latter on account of its 
alleged neglect of the German language. The opposition 
found expression in the columns of the " Jugend Freund," 
Pastor Brobst, of Allentown, editor, and sometimes in 
speeches during synodical sessions. 

This opposition culminated finally in the meeting of 
the General Synod in 1864, at York, Pa. The occasion 
was the admission of the Franckean Synod, of New York. 
This Synod had never formally adopted the Augsburg 
Confession, just as the Pennsylvania Synod had for many 
years previously never adopted it. Objection was 'made to 


the reception of the Franckean Synod on this ground. The 
delegates declared, that in adopting the constitution of the 
General Synod, the Franckean Synod understood that they 
were adopting the doctrinal position of the General Synod, 
viz : " That the fundamental truths of the Word of God are 
taught in a manner substantially correct in the Augsburg 
Confession." The Synod was admitted " with the under- 
standing, that at its next meeting it declare in an official 
manner, its adoption of the doctrinal articles of the Augs- 
burg Confession as a substantially correct exhibition of the 
fundamental doctrines of the Word of God." Carried by a 
vote of 97 to 40. 

The Pennsylvania delegation of the Ministerium 
declared this action unconstitutional. But it was answered, 
that the Franckean Synod " has really, although not offi- 
cially, complied, and the constitution of the General 
Synod is indefinite in its requirement on this point." 

The Franckean Synod did at its next meeting officially 
adopt the doctrinal platform of the General Synod, as its 
delegates had promised to do. But the delegates of the 
Pennsylvania Synod were not satisfied with this, but with- 
drew, in accordance, as they said, with their instructions. 
It was a portentous movement, followed by momentous 

The sessions of the General Synod were held in Christ 
Lutheran Church, previous to its present remodeled state. 
I can yet see the procession, headed by the tall form of Dr. 
C. W. Schaeffer, slowly and solemnly marching down the 
long aisle in single file, amid profound silence. They 
entered the Oswald book-store, next door to the church, 
now occupied by the Drovers' Bank, to consult, and then 
returned to their homes. Dr. Schmucker was present at 
the sessions, but I think he was not a delegate, and was not 
allowed to take part in the discussions. 


This withdrawal of the delegates was generally 
regarded as a virtual recession of the Synod itself, especially 
as their action was endorsed by the Synod. Had they 
contented themselves with simply protesting, and then 
retained their seats and participated in the proceedings of 
the General Synod until the close, no one would have 
thought of disputing their right to membership. But when 
in the midst of the session they withdrew in a body, without 
leave or license, the conclusion was inevitable, that they 
had voluntarily and actually severed their connection. 

But it seems the Pennsylvania Ministerium did not 
regard its action in that light ; for at the next meeting of 
the General Synod in Fort Wayne, 1866, the Ministerium 
sent its full number of delegates, who expected to occupy 
their seats and take part in the elections and proceedings, 
as though nothing had happend to interfere with its rela- 
tions to that body. But the president (Rev. S. Sprecher, 
D. D.,) decided, that the Synod " was out of practical union 
with the General Synod up to the time of the adjournment 
of the last convention," and could not be received until it 
applied for re-admission. 

The General Synod sustained the president in this 
decision. After a long and animated discussion the Penn- 
sylvania delegation withdrew again. A few weeks after- 
wards the Ministerium of Pennsylvania, at its 119th conven- 
tion, in Lancaster, declared its connection with the General 
Synod dissolved, on account of the " unjust deprival of 
rights, and the conviction, that the task of uniting the con- 
flicting elements in the General Synod has become hope- 

Thus the Ministerium went out ostensibly on a mere 
technicality ; but it has been denied that this was the real 
cause of the withdrawal. Professor Jacobs acknowledges 
as much, when he says, in his " History of the Lutheran 


Church in America," p. 468 : " Looking back at the con- 
test at Fort Wayne .... it seems at first sight to have 
been one mainly of parhamentary fencing. But back of this 
there were certain principles at stake." 

One of the principles objected to was the " centraliza- 
tion of power in the General Synod." " As the ultimate 
court of appeal, its decision was to be final, and to this the 
district synods were to submit." " The lessons of the war 
were fresh. The increased centralization of power in the 
national government gained in that conflict, and the weak- 
ening of the theory of states' rights seemed to give encour- 
agement to an application of the principles within the 
ecclesiastical sphere. The Ministerium of Pennsylvania, 
always jealous of its rights, would have speedily reversed 
the concessions of its delegates on this point. The life of 
the old Synod could not be merged or lost in that of any 
general organization." 

The Southern States undertook to secede from the 
United States on the theory of States' Rights, and accord- 
ing to Dr. Jacobs, the Ministerium seceded from the Gen- 
eral Synod on the theory of the rights of district synods. 

Another principle to which the Ministerium objected 
was the inequality of representation. It was by far the 
largest district synod in the General Synod, and yet 
according to the constitution it could never have more than 
18 delegates, — 9 ministerial and 9 lay, — while the smallest 
synod had two delegates, one ministerial and one lay, 
which it is claimed was out of proportion according to the 
number of communicants and ministers. If this rule had 
been changed in accordance with the demand, then of 
course it would have given the Ministerium the dominant 
power in the General Synod. The same disproportion in 
representation prevails also in the Congress of the United 
States ; for example, Rhode Island, the smallest state in 


the Union, is entitled to two senators, and New York, the 
largest state, is entitled by the constitution to only two sen- 
ators. I do not remember of ever having heard this urged 
as an objection to the constitution of the United States, 

It was also understood that the Ministerium would not 
be received again with the condition attached to its applica- 
tion with which it had entered in 1853; namely, that its 
delegates should withdraw and report, whenever they 
thought a violation of the constitution had been committed. 
The determination seems to have been reached, that there 
must be no more distinction in the admission of district 
synods, and if the Ministerium would apply for re-admis- 
sion, it must be received like any other district synod that 

But perhaps the principal motive for withdrawing was 
the hope of forining a new general body by uniting all the 
other Lutheran Synods, hitherto outside of the General 
Synod into another general organization. In the resolu- 
tion of withdrawal the Ministerium expresses its " convic- 
tion, that the task of uniting the conflicting elements in the 
General Synod has become hopeless." Individual mem- 
bers gave utterance to the expression, that, as the General 
Synod had failed to effect the union of the Lutheran 
Church in this country, they would undertake the work of 
organizing a general body, in which all the other synods 
could be united. In accordance with this object, therefore, 
the General Council was formed. In how far it has suc- 
ceeded in uniting the church, time has now sufficiently 
shown. Already in Fort Wayne the delegates courted the 
favor of the Missourians. Instead of partaking of the 
Lord's Supper with their brethren in the General Synod 
during its sessions, a number of them received the com- 
munion from Dr. Sihler of the Missouri Synod. " There 
was doubtless," says Dr. Jacobs, " an earnest, but at the 


same time a vague desire for the union of all who were 
clear in the confession of the distinctively Lutheran faith." 
— Jacobs' History, page ^ji. 

Accordingly a correspondence was entered into by the 
Ministerium with other Lutheran Synods with reference to 
the calling of a convention for the organization of a general 
ecclesiastical body, " on a truly Lutheran basis," and an in- 
vitation sent " to all Evangelical Lutheran Synods, minis- 
ters and congregations of the United States and Canada, 
which confess the Unaltered Augsburg Confession." 

In response to this invitation a convention assembled 
in Trinity Church, Reading, Pa., December 12-14, 1866. 
"Thirteen synods were represented. Parts of five had been 
in the General Synod; namely, Pennsylvania, English 
Ohio, New York, Pittsburg and Minnesota; the Joint Synod 
of Ohio, as well as its English District Synod, the Wiscon- 
sin, Michigan, German Iowa, Canada, Norwegian, and the 
Missouri Synod, had sent delegates; Drs.Walther and Sihler 
sent friendly communications." The first meeting of the 
General Council took place in Fort Wayne, on November 
20th, in the very church where the division had taken place 
the year before. But the Missouri and Ohio Synods and 
the German Iowa Synod never connected themselves 
formally with the General Council, and since then the 
Michigan and Texas Synods have withdrawn. 

The refusal to unite with the Council by the Missouri, 
Ohio, and German Iowa Synods, and the subsequent with- 
drawal of other synods, was caused by the so-called " Four 
Points," Chiliasm, Secret Societies, Exchange of Pulpits 
and Close Communion. The two latter points found ex- 
pression in the motto ; 

" Lutheran Pulpits for Lutheran Ministers Only, and 
Lutheran Altars for Lutheran Members Only." 

For the last thii ty years from 1 866 to 1 896, the Gen- 


eral Synod and General Council have existed as rival 
bodies, occupying the same territory side by side, often in- 
terfering with each other's congregational and missionary 
work. During all this time efforts have been made to bring 
about a reunion, notably by colloquiums, uniform order of 
worship by the " Common Service," and Luther League. 
Last year, 1895, the first exchange of friendly " visitors," 
was agreed upon by both bodies. What these efforts will 
result in, and when this hoped for union shall be con- 
sumated, time only can tell, and God only knows. 

In the conclusion of this chapter it will be refreshing 
to our readers to see what Dr. Jacobs in his " History of 
the Lutheran Church in America," and Dr. Krauth, Jr., in 
a series ot articles in the " Missionary " paper, have written 
in praise of the General Synod. Dr. Jacobs says, " The 
General Synod must be regarded as a very important for- 
ward movement. . . . The General Synod was a protest 
against the socinianizing tendency in New York, (and in 
Pennsylvania also — Ed}), and the schemes of a union with 
the Reformed in Pennsylvania, and the Episcopalians in 
North Carolina. It stood for the independent existence of 
the Lutheran Church in America, and a clear and unequiv- 
ocal confession of a positive faith. . . . Lament defects as 
we may, the General Synod saved the church, as it became 
anglicised from the calamity of the type of doctrine which 
within the New York Ministerium had been introduced 
into the English language. It had an outlook that in- 
cluded in its sweep the entire church in all its interests, as 
the reports on the state of the Lutheran Church in the 
various synods in this country and throughout the world, 
appended to its minutes show." 

Here is Dr. Krauth's eulogy. " Never," says Dr. 
Jacobs, " was the cause of the General Synod pleaded with 
more eloquence." 

240 krauth's eulogy. 

DR. C. p. krauth's eulogy OF THE GENERAL SYNOD. 

In 1857, Dr. C. P. Krauth, Jr., published a series of 
articles in the Missionary paper, in which he asserted, that 
the General Synod was the " hope of the Lutheran Church 
in this country, * the offspring of a reviving Lutheranism, 
born in the dawn that followed the night which fell upon 
oiir church in this land, when the patriarchal luminaries of 
her early history had set on earth to rise in heaven.' Its 
formation was a great act of faith. When it became com- 
pletely organized, ' it was the only voluntary body on 
earth pretending to embrace a nation as its territory, and 
bearing a Lutheran name, in which the fundamental 
doctrines of Lutheranism were the basis of union.' 
* Heaven pity the fate of the man who looks upon the Gen 
eral Synod as having been a curse to the Church, or an 
inefficient worker in it, who imagines that the Lutheran 
Church would be stronger, if the General Synod were 
weaker.' " — Jacobs' History, pages ^28 -g. 












In the year 1846 Dr. Schmucker, in company with 
Drs. Kurtz and Morris, took a tour to Europe. As he 
expected to be absent about six months, it was necessary 
that he should have the consent of the Board of Directors, 
and, also, that provision should be made to fill his chair in 
the Seminary during the interim. Considerable corre- 
spondence was kept up for a while till satisfactory arrange- 
ments could be completed. We will copy two of the 
letters, one from Dr. J. G. Morris and the other from his 
brother, Mr. C. A. Morris, which show what different plans 
were suggested. So far as we can find, no outsiders were 
called into service, but Professors Krauth and Hay devoted 
extra time in teaching Dr. Schmucker's classes during his 


Baltimore, y<3;«. 75, 184.6. 
Rev. Dr. Schmucker, 

Dear Sir : — Dr. Baird has shown me your letter 
in which you express an inclination to attend the conven- 
tion in London, and if you have not yet determined finally, 
allow me to suggest the following considerations as addi- 
tional inducements : 

Our Church on this side of the Atlantic ought to be 
represented ; indeed, such a convention would be incom- 
plete without it. You are the proper person to represent 
us, because you have taken a prominent, I might say, a 
leading stand in the great measure contemplated. Your 
name is closely associated with it on both sides of the 
ocean ; you have written one of the best books on the sub- 
ject ; your familiar acquaintance with all the kindred sub- 
jects ; all these and some others which need not be 
mentioned, should induce you to determine at once. I am 
satisfied that the universal voice of the brethren would 
select you to this post, if it were left to their election. 

The Board (of the Seminary) would, of course, con- 
tinue your salary, and give you leave of absence for six 
months. Provision would be made for continuing the 
instruction of your classes, and every other arrangement 
necessary, would be liberally entered into. If Drs Krauth 
and Hay will consent to give extra lessons, they could not 
be expected to labor gratuitously, and the next question is, 
whence shall the compensation be derived ? I have 
thought of several plans : 

1. You will, of course, go to the continent, and 
might apply for aid, receive some donations in money — 
appropriate ^400 to their remuneration. 

2. Probably the General Synod might be prevailed on, 
at its next session, to appropriate so much. But this is the 
most inexpedient plan. 

3. If those gentlemen found the additional labor too 
severe, might not an arrangement be made with some three 
or four ministers to spend each a month at Gettysburg and 
teach such branches as they were able in the other depart- 
ments, and let Krauth and Hay divide yours between 
them ? 


4. An extra subscription might be gotten up to pay 
these gentlemen — but it matters not — yoii should go to 

I asked Dr. Kurtz whether he would like to go ? 
After a few moments reflection, he stated, that if he could 
make satisfactory arrangements about his paper and the 
establishment, he would accompany you. He would be a 
desirable companion dii voyage, for he has been there, and 
knows a thing or two about it. — Go, by all means, go ! For 
the glory of God — the honor of our church — the welfare 
of the General Synod — the influence of your own name — 
go. Yours, etc., 

J. G. Morris. 

Here is a letter on the same subject from C. A. Morris, 
brother of Dr. J. G. Morris. 

YoRK,y««. 26, 1846. 

Dear Sir : — 

Your letter per Mr. Smyser has duly come to 
hand. The Protestant Convention to be held in London is 
certainly one of the most interesting subjects for the church, 
which has engaged her attention for centuries. I hope that 
our church, which, I think, has been the first to move in 
this business, will be represented there. As a member of 
the Union, I hereby not only express my wish that you 
might be present, but request you to do so. If anything 
more formal would be deemed necessary, perhaps it would 
be well enough to draw up a little paper and have all the 
committee to sign it. 

I hope Mr. Kurtz will accompany you, and my brother 
John has always said, that he would at some convenient 
season visit Europe. I would be glad if he could go this 
time. It would be desirable on account of the friends he 
would have for company. I hope something on this sub- 
ject will appear in the Obser%>er. 

Yours, etc., 

C. A. Morris. 
Rev. S. S. Schniucker, D, D. 

244 • B. M. schmucker's account. 

We copy the following account of Dr. Schmucker's 
tour to Europe, from the excellent biographical sketch of 
Dr. Diehl, in the Evangelical Revieiv : 


" The writer is indebted to Dr. B. M. Schmucker, of 
Reading, Pa., for the following facts and extracts, taken 
from Dr. S. S. Schmucker's notes of his travels in Europe. 
In 1846, he, in company with Drs. B. Kurtz and J. G. Mor- 
ris, made a visit to Europe, the immediate object of which 
was the meeting of the Evangelical Alliance, in London, in 
the summer of that year, to which they were accredited, as 
representatives of the Lutheran Church, in the United 
States. They started, however, some months earlier than 
was necessary for that purpose, in order to make an ex- 
tended tour through Germany. The chief object proposed 
to be gained was to establish some communication between 
the church in Germany, and the Lutherans in this country. 
A circular letter was prepared and sent to Germany, in ad- 
vance of their departure, and was more widely distributed 
by them during their tour. Conferences were held by 
them, with groups of clergymen, in Berlin, Frankfort, Basel, 
and divers centres of influence in Europe, and much sym- 
pathy and interest were shown toward their brethren in 
America, by many eminent men, especially by those con- 
nected with the United Church. Dr. Schmucker proposed, 
also, personally to apply to authors and publishers for con- 
tributions of books for the Library of the Theological 
Seminary. The applications were eminently successful, 
and large, valuable additions to the library, resulted from 
them. Among the most friendly ot the publishers were, 
Perthes, Besser and Mauke, of Hamburg, and Gotha, 
Tauchnitz, of Leipzig, Heyder & Zimmer, of Frankfort, 
Leisching, of Stuttgart, and the Orphan House, at Halle. 


The Seminary is indebted for its extensive and very valu- 
able library to Rev. Dr. B. Kurtz, first of all, and after him, 
to Dr. Schmucker. 

" This tour afforded Dr. Schmucker an opportunity of 
gratifying the desire, which almost every man of scholarly 
culture feels, of viewing the scenes of their action, and the 
memorials of the great men, of the V/orld's and the 
church's past history. It gave him great delight at the 
time, and pleasant reminiscences afterward. He made ex- 
tended notes throughout the whole journey, from day to 
day, entering matters of interest in general, and the sub- 
stance of conversations with eminent men. The Universi- 
ties had for him special interest, and at Leipzig, Halle, Ber- 
lin, Basel, Tubingen and Heidelberg, he attended the 
lectures of the professors, and gives an account of them, 
and his intercourse with these distinguished men. The 
Libraries had a great attraction for him. At Wolffenbuttel, 
he first met a collection, rich in antiquities, MSS. relics of 
Luther, and other things rare and curious. At Leipzig, 
the librarian, Gersdorf, was especially kind to him, and pre- 
sented him with a number of first editions of treatises of 
the Reformation times, most of which unfortunately disap- 
peared from his library, during the battle of Gettysburg. 

"The route pursued by the party, was from Baltimore, 
by sailing vessel thirty-three days to Bremen, Hamburg, 
Marburg, Brunswick, Wolffenbuttel, Magdeburg, Halle, 
Leipzig, Wittenberg, Berlin, Dresden, Prague, Vienna, up 
the Danube, Munich, Augsburg, Constance, Zurich, Basel, 
Strasburg, Baden, Tubingen, Stuttgart, Darmstadt, Frank- 
fort, Bonn, Cologne, Brussels, Paris to London, Liverpool 
by steamer, Great Western to New York. During the re 
turn voyage, a violent storm was encountered, in which the 
lives of all were imperilled, and indeed, for several days, 
death seemed inevitable. The steamer was so disabled 


that she reached New York, making only four knots per 
hour, and never crossed the ocean again, having been put 
in the West India route. 

" Dr. Schmucker's notes cover a great variety of sub- 
jects, old and new churches, church services, rites and 
ceremonies, book trade, publishers, intercourse with 
pastors, temperance, wine and beer drinking, keeping the 
Lord's day, missionary societies, etc. It is difficult to de- 
cide what to select. I will turn to Berlin. 

" ' Berlin, Rheinische Hof. May 15, 1846. 

" 'By the invitation of Dr. Twesten and his lady, we 
accompanied them to their pew in the church in which 
Rev. Arndt preaches. The house was very crowded, the 
seats being almost entirely occupied by the ladies, and the 
broad aisles being filled with gentlemen, who had to stand 
during the entire service. There were probably six thous- 
and persons in the church. Rev. Arndt is the most popular 
evangelical preacher in Berlin. There was nothing ex- 
traordinary, however, in his performance. His style was 
good, abounding in antithesis. His matter sound, but 
rather common ; and his delivery and general abilities as an 
orator not above mediocrity in our country. His text was, 
' Come unto me all ye that labor, etc' which he said was 
the last text on which Luther had preached. The edifice 
bears some resemblance to the Tabernacle of New York, 
only that it is a compound oval, instead of a simple one. 
There are four galleries, one in each oval projection. A 
cross and two candlesticks were on the altar. 

" ' After sermon we went to the Domkirche, the one in 
which the King usually worshipped, when in the city. We 
heard a good, pious, orthodox sermon, preached in a good, 
yet common way, by Rev. Heydenreich. The choir, to 
which the King pays 20,000 thaler annually, was absent 
to-day. The Dome church is a very large and elegant. 

DR. neander's i,ecture. 247 

though rather plain one, about 200x80 feet. It consists of 
three arches running along the length of the church, and 
sustained by twelve columns or pillars on each side, and 
four at each end. There is no canopy, and the pulpit is 
fixed between two pillars. The pulpit is at one side of the 
church, at the middle. The organ, baptismal vase and 
altar, are at one end of the building, whilst at the other is a 
music gallery. The King was absent, and the church 
about one-fifth filled,' 


" ' Monday. This morning I attended the lecture of 
this truly learned and celebrated historian. He is small of 
stature, of a dark complexion, black bushy hair, and ot a 
Jewish physiognomy. He entered the room, as is usual 
with a majority of the German professors whom I have 
heard, in rather a hurried manner, mounted the rostrum, 
and instantly without ceremony of any kind, began his 
lecture. He appears to be very near-sighted, and puts his 
eyes so close to the paper, that his nose almost touches it. 
Part of his MS. seemed to be in detached pieces ; or more 
probably he had written some later additions on small 
loose papers, which he occasionally turned over and over, 
as if he had lost his place. He lectured standing, or rather 
leaning on the desk, which was loose, and which he moved 
to and fro, to the manifest danger of those students imme- 
diately before it, and behind which he almost entirely con- 
cealed his face. He was in constant motion, and as awk- 
ward as he could well be. At one moment, he would 
glance at his MS,, then turn about almost with his back to 
his hearers, putting his hands near his eyes, picking his 
hands in a most ungraceful way. Then he would turn to 
his MS. again, putting his eyes almost on it ; afterward he 
would go through all the same antique operations again. 

248 DR. RANKE. 

The most homely portrait I have seen of him is still flatter- 
ing. The students seem to be amused at the singularity of 
his movements, and occasionally some would laugh, cast- 
ing a glance at the professor and then at the other students. 
He reads slowly and does not repeat, as the Halle profes- 
sors do. He had about one hundred hearers, and stopped 
abruptly when the clock struck the hour.' 


" ' From 5 to 6, I had an opportunity of hearing the 
celebrated author of the history of the Popes and of the 
Reformation, Dr. Ranke. This gentleman, who meets us 
at a dinner party at Dr. Twesten's, is much more polished 
and interesting in his manner than Dr. Neander. He de- 
livered his instructions sitting. He lectures very much in 
that animated, affable manner which characterizes him in 
the social circle. He glances at his MS. for an instant ; 
then looking up apparently at the ceiling, and sometimes at 
the students, he talks awhile ; then glances at his MS. 
again, and again raises his head and talks. Sometimes he 
talks rapidly, and makes some grimaces with his face. His 
articulation is not very distinct ; yet, he, also, does not re- 
peat as the Halle professors do. Nor did the students hiss, 
in order to make him go more slowly. His head is in 
almost constant motion, and often he makes gestures with 
his hands. His lecture consisted of speculations on the 
origin of the Mexicans and other aborigenes. He gave a 
brief review ot the principal literary helps, and then a 
regular history of Cortes and the Mexicans. 

"' Neither of these professors recommended any books, 
and I have learned that the plan of the professors of the 
institution is to make their lectures answer every purpose 
to the student, especially to the poor ones. The library is 
thus used chiefly by the professors, and by students in Ber- 


lin in after life. When we recollect the great poverty of 
many students, and the fact that books on all subjects of the 
lectures would cost much, their plan seems natural and 
leaves the students to value the notes, which they take,and 
to take them as full as possible.' 


" ' We went at three o'clock, because the consecration 
of the new church had delayed Dr. Twestens', who as Con- 
sistorialrath had necessarily to be present. We spent a 
very pleasant afternoon, indeed, and no one can call to see 
the excellent and pious Twesten, and his truly polite and 
accomplished wife and daughter, without being pleased. 
Dr. Twesten is orthodox in his dogmatic views, and very 
highly respected. He lectures in the University every day 
from 9 to ii, i. e., twice; each lecture, according to the Ger- 
man custom, being exactly three quarters of an hour long. 
His works stand in high repute. He is a modest, com- 
municative, and able man in conversation, and when Dr. 
Ranke remarked, that no one believes the doctrine of 
original sin, as taught in the Augsburg Confession, Dr. 
Twesten meekly, but firmly, remarked : ' Das wiiste ich 
dock nicht. Meine Wenigkeit glaubt es dock! 

" ' Dr. Ranke is small of stature, having a good, yet not 
extraordinary head, exceedingly talkative, fond of laughter, 
and almost boisterous. Judging from his judicious, grave 
and far-sighted work, on Popery and the Reformation, I 
had expected to find him grave and dignified, and there- 
fore found myself somewhat mistaken. Yet there is a great 
deal of benevolence, sociability and intelligence in his con- 
versation. Dr. Ranke expressed the opinion, that the 
Romish church is gaining ground in some places, and 
losing in others ; but that the light and spirit of the present 
age are making steady inroads on her fastnesses, and that 


she is on the whole losing ground. He also expressed the 
opinion that the German Catholic Church would not^con- 
tinue to grow and the adherents of Ronge, having set-up 
no positive creed, could not rttain their hold on the popular 
feeling, i. e., the confidence of their laity. He thought the 
Augsburg Confession as near to the doctrinal views of 
Romanism as any system could be, to be tenable ; and that 
it will be very difficult for the German Catholics to deVise 
a system, that shall hold a middle ground between the 
Augsburg Confession and Tridentine Romanism, which 
will be consequent and capable of successful defense ; or 
which will commend itself to the understanding of intel- 
ligent Catholics. 

"• There was also present Rev. Krummacher, of Elber- 
feld. This is the gentleman who was elected by the Ger- 
man Reformed Church, as their professor. He is here at 
present on a visit as applicant for the station of pastor in a 
vacant church. His merits as a preacher are admitted by 
all. But as he is an orthodox and evangelical preacher, 
and the magistrates have the appointment of the pastor to 
this church, his success is doubtful, as the magistracy are 
decidedly neological. Mr. Krummacher very soon began 
to speak of the church in America, in which he felt a deep 
interest, especially were his inquiries minute in regard to 
the disputes in the Reformed Church, caused by the work 
of Dr. Schaff. * * ' 


'" We called to see the distinguished Mr. Gossner, who 
about twenty years ago, was the most popular minister in 
Berlin, but now lives in a small house outside the 
Potsdamer Thor, and has charge of a hospital. His time is 
chiefly devoted to Missionary matters. Gossner was once 
a Romish priest, but seeing the errors of Romanism, 

gossner's missionaries. 251 

renounced them and joined the Protestant Church. For 
many years he was a popular preacher. His Hauspostille 
afifords evidence of his homiletic talent, and his power to 
influence the people. He told me that he stands connected 
with no missionary society. His missionaries, (of whom 
several are educated men, some had been school teachers 
here, the majority, however, are ignorant of anything more 
than what the common schools teach), number about 
twenty-five preachers, and about three times that number 
of mechanics, farmers, etc., and their families ; amounting, 
in all, to one hundred souls, chiefly located in India. He 
gives his missionaries no salary at all. They receive an 
outfit of clothing and get to the place of destination, he did 
not say how, but, when there, support themselves, only 
receiving occasional supplies of clothing, an abundance of 
which is presented to him by friends of the cause.' " 

" The notes of his visit to Berlin are quite extended. In 
addition to the portions above given, they record his visits 
to the Kunst Cabinet, the New Museum, a visit to Dr. 
Draeseke, an evening spent with Revs. Arndt, Ziehe, Drs. 
Krummacher and Strauss, and Candidat Schroeder, at the 
house of Rev. Mr. Wise, a full account of the Cursefahrt, 
which he witnessed, visits to Dr. Eilert and Court Preacher, 
Snethlage. He also gives an account of a pastoral confer- 
ence, at which were present Revs. Kober, Bachman, 
Conard, Arndt, Pischon, Buchsel, each of whom he 
describes. Of the proceedings of the Evangelical Alliance, 
in London, no account is found in his notes."* 

The circular letter, of which Dr. B. M. Schmucker 
speaks, and which was prepared and sent to Germany in 

* We made earnest efforts to obtain the whole of Dr. Schmucker 's 
notes of his journey and observations, but could get no more than 
what Dr. Diehl has furnished in his biographical sketch in the Ev. 
Review. — Ed. 


advance of their departure, was more widely distributed by 
them during their tour. It was addressed to the United 
Church of Prussia, and indicated the points of similarity 
between our General Synod and the Prussian Union, It 
was signed by Drs. Schmucker, Kurtz, Morris, Pohlman 
and Schmidt as follows : 

Dr. S. S. Schmucker, Professor of Theology in the 
Seminary of the General Synod of the Lutheran Church in 
America, at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. 

Dr. B. Kurtz, Editor of the " Lutheran Observer " at 
Baltimore, Md. 

Dr. H. N. Pohlman, Pastor of the Lutheran Church in 
Albany, New York. 

Dr. J. G. Morris, Pastor of the first Lutheran Church 
in Baltimore, Md. 

Rev. H. I. Schmidt, Professor in the Seminary at 
Hartwick, in the state of New York. 

Dr. Morris speaks very harshly of this circular letter, 
which bears his own signature and of which he was himself 
one of the bearers. He says, among other hard things, 
" Never was a more senseless blunder committed ; while 
the appeal may have been in conformity to the theological 
opinions of some in the United Church of Prussia, yet 
thousands of Lutherans would not sanction its theology." 

To which it may be replied, There are even now thou- 
sands of Lutherans in Germany and America, who do not 
sanction the theology of the General Synod. ■ 

" The result was, to my certain knowledge, that when 
Drs. Schmucker and Kurtz went to Europe in 1846, not 
one of them was invited to preach in any pulpit on the con- 
tinent ! This I know to be true, for I was with them. They 
were treated courteously enough, but neither Lutheran, nor 
Reformed, nor United invited them into their pulpits." 


To this I remark : The Dr. should have written, Did 
not invite " us " into their pulpits, for he " was with them," 
and had also signed the letter ; hence the slight was equally 
to him as well as to Drs. Schmucker and Kurtz, if it was a 
slight at all. But really, it was not intended as a slight. 
It is not customary, nor even lawful, to invite strangers to 
preach in the pulpits of the churches in Germany. When 
Dr. Kurtz was in Germany, twenty years before, he preached 
in many of the German churches, even before the king of 
Prussia, but it was by special appointment of the authori- 
ties, and he had come on an ecclesiastical mission. But 
Schmucker, Kurtz, and Morris came on a pleasure or sight- 
seeing excursion. The pastors of the churches in Germany 
are appointed by the state, the same as civil officers, and 
their duty is to preach at the appointed times, in the pul- 
pits assigned them, and they have no right to assign this 
duty to any one else, without permission from higher 
authority. Dr. Enders relates his experience on this point 
as follows : " During a tour to Germany I visited my 
mother's birth place. I called on the pastor of the church 
and was kindly received by him. My relatives requested 
him to invite their friend from America to preach on Sun- 
day ; but he declined, saying it was against the rules. The 
next Sunday I spent in my own birth place, where some 
more of my relatives lived. They also told the pastor, 
they would like to hear me preach, and he consented. When 
I said to him, ' But, Mr. Pastor, is it not against the rules of 
order, to have a stranger preach in your pulpit?' His 
reply was, ' IVo kein Klaeger ist, da ist aiich kein Richter' 
(Where there is no accuser there is no judge)." 

A still more striking case of this kind occurred a few 
years ago. There is an institution in the northern part of 
Germany by the name of Kropp, in which students are 
trained for the ministry, to be sent to America. The Min- 


isterium of Pennsylvania had contributed funds to the sup- 
port of this institution, and a number of ministers had 
already been received and were appointed to pastorates in 
this country. Dr. Spaeth, a prominent minister in the Min- 
isterium of Pennsylvania, and professor of theology in Mt. 
Airy Seminary, during a tour to Germany paid a visit to 
Kropp, and as he remained there over Sunday, he expected 
to preach in the chapel of the institution, but was not 
invited to do so. 

Hence we must see, that it was not because Schmucker, 
Kurtz and Morris had signed and carried a circular letter 
to Germany, that they were not invited to preach, but 
because such a practice was contrary to the ecclesiastical 
rules and customs of Germany. 

The Dr. goes on further to say : " This appeal had 
been sent before them (us), and had been extensively pub- 
lished. Tholuck and I had a conversation about it, and the 
worst thing he said of it was, that before it was published 
in Germany, he and some others re-wrote it in pure and 
classic German. Dr. Schmucker was aware of this, and 
said to me, * that he never in his life tried harder to write 
good German ; ' but after all, it sounded very much like a 
translation from English into German, which I presume it 
was, and it abounded in American Saxonisms." 

It was certainly unkind, if not cruel, thus to expose 
the deficiency of his venerable preceptor and pastor, in his 
German style, and then publish it to the world in his 
" Fifty Years in the Ministry." It is not claimed that Dr. 
Schmucker spoke and wrote what is called the classic Ger- 
man, with its involved sentences and high sounding phrases^ 
but his German will compare favorably with that of any 
American born Pennsylvanian of that or the present time. 
He had enjoyed peculiar advantages for acquiring a knowl- 
edge of the German language. His father was an eloquent 


German preacher, and also published a number of German 
books, written in a correct, though plain style. He studied 
theology first with his father, and afterwards with Drs. Hel- 
muth and Schmidt in Philadelphia, and, no doubt, imitated 
their style, of which we have samples in the Halle Annals, 
written by Muhlenberg and his co-laborers. Ihen he read 
many German books and translated some of them into 
English. In the early part of his ministry he also fre- 
quently preached in the German language, but in maturer 
age his preaching, writing, lectures, conversations in the 
family, and intercourse with friends was principally in the 
English language. By such means a man's thinking will 
gradually be done in English, and his German writing will 
become simply a transferring of English thoughts and con- 
struction into German words. 

Dr. Tholuck is universally acknowledged to have 
been a highly learned and devotedly pious man. We have 
frequently heard Prof. Charles Hay speak of him in the very 
highest terms of respect and admiration. He was one of 
his students at Halle, and accompanied him one summer on 
a pedestrian tour to Switzerland. His commentary on the 
gospel according to St. John is one of the very best ever 
published ; Dr. C. P. Krauth, Jr., translated it into English. 
Now, Tholuck "and some others" must have highly 
approved the tenor and object of the appeal, or they would 
not have re-written it, to form it into " pure and classic 
German," and then had it printed and sent out to the Ger- 
man pastors and people, no doubt at their own expense, 
even before the noble trio, Schmucker, Kurtz and Morris, 
had set foot on German soil. 

As stated elsewhere, the three friends did not remain 
together in their travels on the continent of Europe. 
Schmucker spent most of his time in the universities and 
Hbraries and pubhshing houses, and in the society of dis- 


tinguishcd professors and theologians ; Kurtz, we presume, 
took most interest in the religious affairs of Germany and 
in church papers ; and Morris searched among the memori- 
als and relics of Luther and his times, and also climbed 
some of the Alpine mountains. On his return to America 
he gave some very interesting and amusing lectures — 
" Alpenstock " in hand — of his observations and experience 
in SA^itzerland. We give herewith an interesting letter 
from Morris and Kurtz, written to Schmucker, while they 
were waiting for him in Paris : 

Dear Dr. — We have been anxiously looking for you 
every day. But we hope that your long absence is owing 
to your success in receiving donations for the Seminary. 
Dr. Kurtz, has been here twelve days, and waited three or 
four for Morris. The latter arrived here last Saturday, and 
we have both been on the go ever since. We have resolved 
to leave for London to-morrow, via Ostende. There we 
shall, of course, see you, D. V. We advise you to take rooms at 
Meurice's Hotel, where they speak English, you may dine 
at Table-de-Hote, if you please, at 6 p. m., but we dined 
every day at the corner of Rue Rivole and Place de Rivole, 
where they speak English and German, for 2 Franks per 
day, but you can suit yourself We would also advise you 
to employ as a valet, an Englishman named Barrett, for 
whom you can inquire of the porter's wife at the office, hire 
a carriage, also, and you will thus save time and money. 

Ebenezer is to be seen at the Boulevard de la Made- 
line, No. 13, who may be of some service to you. 

The letter from Mr. Crellenberg, of Bremen, you will 
percieve, I had opened, but as it was intended for you, I, of 
course, did not read it. 

We also received letters from home, containing news 
both pleasant and sad. Dr. K. has a young son. 

Dr. Muller of Washington, has behaved badly and has 
been suspended by our synod. Yeager of Kentucky has 
been excommunicated by the Synod of the West. You 
will see from Hay's letter that Seminary affairs look rather 
squally, while the College seems to be going ahead. Pohl- 



man embarked for Europe 6 weeks ago, and has doubtless 
arrived. M'Cron embarked, also, and Passavant is coming. 

We are told that the British ministers intended to in- 
troduce a resolution about slavery into the convention, 
which will be a sort of test of membership ; this will create 
confusion at once. Mason will tell you all about this. We 
fear the convention will not accomplish much. 

In London inquire for us of Dr. Steinkop, Little 
Savoy, on the Strand, if he lives where he did 20 years ago, 
which is very probable ; or at the American Consul's. We 
shall travel in England before the Convention and shall not 
remain in London longer than next Monday, until our re- 
turn, so you will not meet us for two weeks at least. 

Kurtz and Morris. 



dr. schmucker as an author. 

Popular theology and psychology obtain large circu- 
lation— dr. diehl's estimate of him as an author — 






In addition to his labors as Professor in the Seminary, 
Dr. Schmucker was also a prolific author. He published 
many books and pamphlets, some of which, especially Slorr 
and Flatt, and the Popular Theology, had an extensive cir- 
culation. The latter reached eight, and his Psychology 
three editions. Dr. Diehl gives the following statement 
of his published works : 

" Of his writings, probably the ablest and most valua- 
ble were those published within the first twenty years of his 
ministry, — his Formula, his Popular Theology, and some of 
the occasional addresses, sermons and discourses. Of his 
new system of mental philosophy, the writer is not pre- 
pared to express an opinion, not having heard his lectures 


on the subject in the Seminary, and never having carefully 
examined his book. With his other works he has consid- 
erable acquaintance. Most of his books were written to 
meet particular wants, for particular occasions; or to accom- 
plish a particular purpose at the time of their publication. 
They were not written for immortality. They had, there- 
fore, a greater interest when first issued, than they can ever 
have afterward. They are not the products of a mind 
devoted to the profound and protracted study of one sub- 
ject, or one branch of learning exclusively. They cannot 
have, therefore, that highest excellence which is reached 
only in this way. Dr. Schmucker's multifarious labors 
during the first twenty years after his ordination, precluded 
the possibility of exclusive devotion to one line of study. 
Probably very few of these books will hereafter appear in 
new editions. Books of this class are rarely called for after 
the death of their author. Yet his ability as a writer is 
conceded by all. He never published anything that was a 
failure. They are all creditable productions. Some of 
them were universally regarded as works of decided ability. 
He had less talent for the production of a liturgy, than any- 
thing in the way of literary labor he ever attempted. As to 
his general merits as an author, the best evidence of his 
ability is found in the extent of the circulation of his books. 
More volumes and copies of Dr. Schmucker's works have 
been purchased and read, than of the productions of any 
Lutheran writer of this country. Up to the time of his 
retirement from active labor, he was more widely and favor- 
ably known as an author, than any of his brethren. Among 
other denominations he was regarded as the great repre- 
sentative of the Lutheran Church of America." 

His son. Rev. B. M. Schmucker, D. D., gives the fol- 
lowing statement in the College Book : 

"He displayed much activity as an author, having 

26o schmucker's views on uturgies. 

published forty-four works, most of which were synodical 
and occasional discourses. Many of them are controversial, 
in maintenance of his theological position, and of the Gen 
eral Synod as he understood it. His Popular Theology, 
which grew out of his work in the Seminary, must have 
met a want, as it passed through eight editions. His Psy- 
chology reached a third edition. The Definite Platform, 
prepared by him and Dr. B. Kurtz, was the most unaccept- 
able of his publications. His attempts to produce a liturgy 
were the most unsuccessful of his literary endeavors ; the 
whole cast of his mind, his aversion to a liturgical service, 
his rejection of all right of past usage to influence the pres- 
ent, especially unfitted him for such work." 

It will be noticed that both Drs. Diehl and B. M. 
Schmucker declare that he was less successful in prepar- 
ing a liturgy than he was in any other of his literary works. 
Both these men were advocates of extended liturgical ser- 
vices, but Dr. Schmucker never favored lengthy liturgical 
services, and laid most stress on the preaching of the Gos- 
pel as the principal part of public worship. He was not 
averse to liturgical services, but he wanted them to be brief 
and subservient to the main object, the preaching of the 
Word. The preparation of a liturgy was one of the first 
subjects that claimed his attention after his entrance into 
the ministry, and he prepared the first English liturgy in 
the Lutheran Church of the General Synod, founded on the 
German liturgy prepared by Muhlenberg. But these litur- 
gical forms were brief and simple, hence Dr. B. M. 
Schmucker, the author of the " Common Service," who had 
devoted a great part of his life to liturgical studies, pro- 
nounced his father's attempt to produce a liturgy " the most 
unsuccessful of his literary endeavors." 

His Psychology, or Mental Philosophy, was also 
regarded a successful work ; it reached three editions and 


was translated into German. We studied it in the Semi- 
nary, and heard additional lectures from the Dr. on the sub- 
ject. He told us, among other things, that after he had 
formed the intention of preparing a system of Mental Phi- 
losophy, he spent much time in studying his own mental 
faculties, and for ten years did not look into a book on that 
subject, in order that he might prepare his work from prac- 
tical observation and study, unbiased by the opinions or the- 
ories of other authors. A certain Dr. Bronson, editor of a 
literary journal, reviewed this book, and among other criti- 
cisms ridiculed the idea of Dr. Schmucker setting himself 
up as " The Model Man." Dr. Morris relates the following 
interesting anecdote in relation to this book : 

" On one occasion, during a visit of Dr. S. to Balti- 
more, he and I were sitting m Dr. Kurtz's study, when the 
physician of our State Insane Asylum entered. He was 
introduced to Dr. S., but did not hear his name distinctly, 
and said to Dr. K., ' I have come to inquire about a book 
on Psychology, by one of your ministers named Schmucker. 
I should like to see it, and I presumed you had it.' I im- 
mediately said, ' Dr. Fonerden, you have just been intro- 
duced to the author of it.' Of course there was surprise 
and mutual gratification. Dr. S. was naturally much 
pleased, and from that time these two students of Mental 
Philosophy became good friends." 

The translation of Storr and Flatt reached a second 
edition and was used as a text book in the Seminary as 
long as Dr. Schmucker was Professor, and was also used as 
a text book for some time in a New England seminary. 

The Popular Theology obtained the largest circula 
tion of any of his publications and was used as a text book 
in Seminary during the whole of his professorship. So 
great was the demand for this work on its first appearance, 
that before the first edition was finished, the printers had to 


begin on the second edition. It was written in a popular 
style and intended not only for the use of theological 
students and ministers of the gospel, but also for intelligent 
laymen, many of whom have studied it with deep interest 
and profit. 

The Popular Theology is based on the doctrinal 
articles of the Augsburg Confession. But as the Augustana 
was not designed as a complete system of Dogmatic 
Theology, but rather to indicate wherein the Protestants 
agreed with or differed from the Roman Catholics, the 
book could not well be arranged as a complete system of 
Dogmatic Theology. This want was however supplied 
during the Seminary course by Prof Schmucker's excellent 
dogmatic lectures. 

Dr. Schmucker commenced authorship when yet 
young. His first literary labor was probably given to a 
translation of Storr and Flatt's Theology, as he may have 
commenced this before he wrote the Formula, although 
published several years later. We give herewith 


1. Formula of Government and Discipline, for Con- 
gregations and Synods. Published by the Synod of Mary- 
land and Virginia, in 1823, and by the General Synod, in 
1829. Hagerstown : U. G. Bell. 1823. 8vo. 

2. Intellectual and Moral Glories of the Christian 
Temple Illustrated. From the History of the Evangelical 
Lutheran Church. Synodical Discourse. 1824. 8vo. 

3. Inaugural Address, at his Induction into the Pro- 
fessorship of Christian Theology, at Gettysburg, Carlisle : 
1826. 8vo. 

4. Biblical Theology, of Storr and Flatt. Translated 
from the German. Andover : Hagg & Gould. 1826.2 
vol. 8vo. Second Edition, somewhat abridged. An- 


dover : Gould & Neuman. 1836. i vol. 8vo. Re-printed 
in England, 1845. 

5. Hymn Book of the General Synod. First Edition. 


6. Formula of Gov. and Dis., Ev. Luth. Church, in 
West Pennsylvania, an enlargement of the General Synod's. 
20 pages. Gettysburg. 1828. 

7. Constitution of the Theological Seminary of the 
General Synod, at Gettysburg. Philadelphia : W. Brown. 

8. Evangelical Magazine. 1830. Gettysburg. 

9. Plea for the Sabbath- School system. Gettysburg. 

1830. 8vo. 

10. Kurtz-gefasste Geschichte der Chris. Kirche auf 
Grundlage des Busch 'schen Werkes. 352 pages. Gettys- 
burg. 1834. 8vo. 

11. Elements of Popular Theology. First Edition. 
Andover. Eight Editions, with numerous additions. 512 

pages. Philadelphia. 1845. 

12. Discourse in Commemoration of the Glorious 
Reformation. Before the West Pennsylvania Synod, 142 
pages. Gould & Newman. 1838. 

13. Fraternal Appeal to. the American Churches on 
Christian Union. 149 pages. New York. 1838. 8vo, 

14. Wants of our Country. Delivered at the Request 
of the Board of Managers, of the Am. Sunday-School 
Union. Philadelphia. 1839. 

15. Oration on the Anniversary of Washington's 
Birthday. Gettysburg. 1839. 8vo. 

16. Portraiture ol American Lutheranism. Before 
the Synod of West Pa. 1840. 89 pages. 8vo. 

^ 17. Retrospect of Lutheranism. Before the General 

Synod. 1841. 

18. Preliminary Discourse to Luther's Commentary 

on Galatians. 1840. 8vo. 


19. Psychology, or Elements of New System of 
Mental Philosophy. 329 pages. New York : Harpers. 
1842. 8 vo. Third edition. 

20. Appeal on behalf of the Christian Sabbath. Am. 
Tract Society. 

21. Dissertation on Capital Punishment. Philadel- 
phia. Third edition. 1845. 

22. Patriarchs of American Lutheranism. Before 
Lutheran Historical Society. 1845. 

23. Papal Hierarchy Viewed in the Light of Pro- 
phecy and History. 39 pages. Gettysburg. 1845, 8vo. 

24. The Christian Pulpit, the Rightful Guardian of 
Morals in Political and Private Life. Gettysburg. 1846. 
8vo. , 

25. Church Development on Apostolic Principles. 
Gettysburg. 1850. 8vo. 

26. Nature of the Savior's Presence in the Eucharist, 
185 1. 8vo. 

27. The Am. Lutheran Church, Historically, Doc- 
trinally and Practically Delineated. 286 pages. Philadel- 
phia: Miller. 185 1. i2mo. 

28. Elemental Contrast between the Religion of 
Forms and of the Spirit. 56 pages. Gettysburg. 1852. 

29. The Peace of Zion. Discourse before the Gen- 
eral Synod. 1853. ^^o. 

30. Address at the Laying of the Corner Stone of 
the Shamokin Literary Institute. Pottsville. 1854. 

31. The Lutheran Manual on Scriptural Principles. 
Or the Augsburg Confession, Illustrated and Sustained by 
Scripture, and Lutheran Theologians. Philadelphia: Lind- 
say & Blackiston. 1855. 12 mo. 

32. The Lutheran Symbols, or Vindication of Am. 
Lutheranism. 192 pages. Baltimore. 1856. 8vo. 


33. Definite Platform, Doctrinal and Disciplinarian, 
for Ev. Luth. Synods. 42 pages. Philadelphia: Miller & 
Burlack. 1856. i2mo. 

34. Rev. J, A. Brown's New Theology Examined. 
16 pages. Gettysburg. 1857. 8vo. 

35. The Baptism of Children whose Parents are not 
connected with the Church. Report to Synod of West 
Pennsylvania, 1 1 pages. 1859. i6mo. 

36. The Spiritual Worship of God. Its Nature, 
Auxiliaries and Impediments. Before the Synod of West 
Pennsylvania. Philadelphia, i860. 

"ijj. Evan. Lutheran Catechism. 170 pages. Balti- 
more : Kurtz. 1859. 1 6mo. Tenth Edition. 1871. 

38. Sermon on the Work of Grace, or Revival of Re- 
ligion, at Antioch. 27 pages. Preached at Hanover. 
York. 1862. 

39. Proposed Liturgy of the General Synod. Pre- 
sented at York. 1864. 12 mo. 

40. Discourse on Human Depravity. Gettysburg. 
1865. i2mo. 

41. The Church of the Redeemer, as Developed 
within the General Synod of the Ev. Luth. Church. Balti- 
more : T.N.Kurtz. 1867. i2mo. 

42. True Unity of Christ's Church. New York : 
Randolph. 1870. i2mo. 



















Of his studious habits Dr. Morris has the following to 
say, which is probably somewhat overdrawn : 

" I never knew a man who needed and took less re- 
laxation from severe mental toil than he. He never laid 
aside a subject he was working at because he had grown 


weary of it. He seemed not to require that variety or 
change of subject that so many other head-workers find 
necessary to quicken their brain or give it a pause. It is 
true that in later life he sometimes went to * the Springs,' 
but he took his work with him and labored as hard as 
ever. One of our divines told me that he once met Dr. 
Schmucker at Bedford. He was tinkering at the ' inter- 
minable ' Liturgy or some other Synodical machine, and 
insisted upon my friend hearing it read and helping him to 
' fix the thing up.' He would annoy him by questions 
and bother him with difficulties, all the while as calm as an 
August morning ; upon which my friend lost his patience 
and curtly said, ' Dr. Schmucker, I have come here for re- 
laxation. I want to lay aside all perplexing subjects, and I 
won't listen to you any longer.' Now this was a state of 
mind of which Dr. Schmucker had no conception, because 
he had no experience of it. With him it was work, work, 
all the time, without rest or cessation. 

" I once crossed the Atlantic with him, and I can 
safely affirm that not a day passed on which the everlasting 
theme was not introduced. Even when he was suffering 
from sea-sickness, it seemed to be a relief to him to talk 
about General Synod, Liturgy, Constitution, Seminary and 
certain men. It was not only talk, for that might have 
been endured, but it was discussion, controversy, scrutiny, 
which required tension of thought to follow, and being at 
sea is not the place, nor time for prolonged and logical 
thinking. I used to get rid of what really was an annoy- 
ance by looking out of the cabin window, and exclaiming, 
* Whale ! ' ' Whale ! ' and rush up on deck to find my 
whale was nothing but a dark wave or a floating mast of 
some wrecked vessel, but it answered my purpose for the 

This is what Dr. Jacobs testifies : " He threw all the 


energy of his life into the General Synod and the institu- 
tions at Gettysburg, withholding from them no amount of 
personal sacrifice or toil. Perfectly imperturbable, he 
moved forward toward the end in view, without regard to 
obstacles. Never have higher executive abilities been at 

the service of the church The effect of the later 

Pietism was, however, clearly discernable in the standard of 
theological education presented in his inaugural." * 
On the same subject Dr. Diehl writes as follows : 
" Arduous as his labors had been at New Market, at 
Gettysburg he was called to bear a yet heavier burden of 
toil. At that day, at least two professors were deemed 
necessary in a Theogical Seminary. The utmost labors of 
two men could not do more than teach three classes, in the 
studies laid down in the Seminary course. In our day, no 
Seminary is thought to be properly manned with less than 
three or four professors. Mr. Schmucker was required to 
do the work of at least two men in the way of instruction. 
Besides this, he had the labor of raising the requisite funds. 
He visited the cities to collect money. He traveled 
through the Church, preaching, and soliciting funds. His 
vacations were spent in this work. During the sessions, in 
addition to the instruction of the classes, he was employed 
in compiling the Hymn Book and other works. 

" And yet, the young men that left the Seminary and 
applied for license at the Synods, seemed to be well quali- 
fied for the gospel ministry. Calls came to them from 
vacant churches. In their pulpit and pastoral work they 
were successful. Within a few years the graduates of the 
Seminary were in demand. Everywhere they were received 
with favor. They were soon found occupying important 
pulpits. The first who left Prof Schmucker's lecture room, 

* Jacobs' History, page 366. 


at Gettysburg, was called to the first English Lutheran 
Church, of one of our eastern cities." 

" The best standard of a man's workmanship is the 
character and quality of the products of his labor. Judged 
by this rule, the Gettysburg Professor must have been a 
skillful teacher. He trained men well for the sacred work. 
The Church soon endorsed his efficiency, by sending pres- 
sing calls to his pupils. 

" When one man was required to teach Greek and 
Hebrew Philology, Sacred Geography, Sacred Chronology, 
Biblical and Profane History, Biblical Antiquities, Mental 
Philosophy, Natural Theology, Evidences of Christianity, 
Biblical Criticism, Exegetical and Biblical Theology, Syste- 
matic Divinity, Ecclesiastical History, Pastoral and Polemic 
Theology, Church Government, the Composition and De- 
livery of Sermons, the instruction may not have been as 
thorough in any one branch as . that afforded by the theo- 
logical chairs of our best schools at this day. Under such 
circumstances, a man must be judged by the general results 
and character of his work. Did he send forth good preach- 
ers and pastors? Did he inspire them with the right 
spirit ? Did he give them back to the church, intelligent, 
godly, self-denying, laborious young ministers ? Were 
they adapted to the wants of the Lutheran Church ? 

" In all these particulars, the results of the theological 
training, at Gettysburg, when Mr. Schmucker was the only 
teacher in the Seminary were highly satisfactory. The 
best, the most active and the most intelligent ministers ex- 
pressed themselves highly pleased with the qualifications 
displayed by the young men, who were trained by him. 
The students themselves, had an exalted opinion of his 
abilities, his attainments, and his fidelity." — Diehl. 


Professor Schmucker was one of the best teachers and 
disciplinarians, at whose feet it was ever my privilege 
to sit. 


He dictated his lectures, and usually gave us sufficient 
time to commit them to paper. At the beginning of the 
course, he also gave us a plain and simple system of short- 
hand and abbreviations to facilitate rapidity in taking down 
the lectures. His enunciation was slow and clear, so that 
not a word or a syllable was lost or misunderstood. 

I do not remember of any kind of levity having ever 
been indulged in by any of the students in his class, much 
less by himself, although a good natured smile at a ludi- 
crous mistake of a fellow student, a striking illustration, or 
pleasant anecdote told by himself, was not unusual. 

He insisted on close attention, perfect order, faithful 
study of the lessons, and close observance of the rules of 
the institution. 

On certain occasions the students had debates on 
some theological subjects, assigned by the Professor ; the 
debaters were appointed on opposite sides of the question 
in dispute. The Doctor himself presided and at the end of 
the debate he would compliment or criticise the respective 
speakers, and then give his own opinion or decision. Dur- 
ing one of these debates we had considerable excitement in- 
side and outside of the class room. The subject was that 
abstruse question, which I learn has since been debated by 
the students in the Seminary ; namely, whether the soul is 
imparted immediately by God, or inherited from the par- 
ents. The respective intellectual combatants had studied 
hard and made ample research and preparations to get 
down to the bottom of this deep question. The rule in 
these debates was, that no manuscript should be read, the 
object being to train the students in extemporaneous speak- 
ing. The sainted W. H. H. however, came in with a long, 
elaborate essay, which he wished to read in support of his 
side of the question, and plead that the rule might be 
suspended in this important case. But the Doctor was in- 


exorable, the rule was not set aside and poor H. had to 
stumble through his argument the best way he could. At 
the end of the debate, the Professor gave his decision which 
was in opposition to Brother H. This increased the excite- 
ment and the disappointment of the good brother ; he as- 
sembled a number of the students outside of study hours, 
read his essay to us, boasted that he had totally demolished 
the Doctor's argument, and offered to meet him in public 
debate before all the students and the faculty. But with 
all his bluster, I believe the students all agreed with the 
Doctor, except perhaps the sainted Brother C. 

His criticisnis of our essays, abstracts, and sermons 
were generally faithful and correct, in pointing out errors 
in the logic, rhetoric, scriptural proof-texts, historical 
dates or facts. 

I remember also that he criticised the expressions of 
some of us in our prayers. For example, expressions like 
these were sometimes used by students in the class-room : 

" Forgive us of our sins." 

" Grant to give us." 

The too frequent and inappropriate, or irreverent repe- 
tition of the name of the De'ty. 

Tautology and redundancy of expression, etc., etc. 

These, and other inaccuracies in grammar, he taught us 
to avoid in our prayers. How far his instructions were 
heeded by all of his students I am not prepared to say, but 
I have heard the above and similar faulty language from 
pulpits of different denominations very frequently since. 

We were also required at stated times to read essays 
on given subjects, and write sermons and skeletons on 
selected texts. These were read in the presence of the 
class, the Professor presiding. The students would first be 
asked to express their criticism, and then the Professor 
would commend, correct, or censure, according to his 


views. An incident in these exercises I still remember 
very well. It was made my duty to write and read an 
essay on African Slavery in the South. Remember this 
was long before the war, while slavery was yet in full force 
in the Southern States. I gave expression to some very 
strong anti-slavery sentiments, and a Southern Brother 
took offense. But the Doctor sustained me in my position. 

The most searching criticisms were made by the 
Doctor on our sermons and skeletons. It is true, he would 
commend everything in them that he thought commend- 
able, but we could seldom present a skeleton in which he 
did not find a flaw in the introduction, divisions, or applica- 
tion. Especially in funeral sermons were we cautioned to 
be careful in the selection of the texts, and the treatment of 
the subject in relation to the dead. He also pointed out 
texts which were not appropriate, one of which I will relate 
from memory, an anecdote told in class. At the funeral of 
a notably wicked man, who had opposed the church, and 
had caused the minister much trouble, the preacher took 
this text, "Bind him hand and foot, and cast him into outer 
darkness, where shall be weeping and gnashing of teeth." 

The relatives, of course, were very angry, and con- 
sulted a lawyer, with a view of prosecuting the preacher. 
They were told, however, that if the preacher had taken his 
text out of the Bible, they could do nothing by law against 
him. This was given as certainly one of the most objec- 
tionable kind of funeral texts. 

The Doctor frequently admonished us to be always 
consistent, as christian young men, in our deportment, not 
only m our intercourse with each other in the Seminary, 
but also before other professing christians and before the 

He had also a peculiar faculty of quieting any disturb- 
ance or dissatisfaction among the students. A notable 


instance occurred during my student years. At that time 
we boarded in common in the basement of the Seminary. 
The steward supplied the boarding at a very moderate rate; 
and all the students were seated at meals around a large 
table. On one occassion there was a general complaint as 
to the quality of the boarding. It consisted very frequently 
of what was called " Pot-pie." Passavant called it " Death 
in the Pot." A general rebellion was inaugurated. A state- 
ment of our grievances was written out, and sent to the 
faculty with an appeal for better fare. In answer to our 
humble petition the Doctor called a meeting of the students 
in the chapel. There he very solemnly admonished us to 
the exercise of christian patience, moderation and forbear- 
ance. He reminded us, that the steward could not afford 
to give us many luxuries for the low price we paid him, 
but that he would speak with the steward, and admonish 
him to give us wholesome food, which he hoped would be 
conducive to our bodily health and vigor of our mental 
faculties. This was good advice, and satisfactory ; the 
quality and variety of our diet was also visibly improved, 
and we considered the strike a success. 

Muhlenberg's and schmucker's pietism. 

In a previous part of this book (page 47) we quoted 
an extract from an article of R.W., (Reuben Weiser,) declar- 
ing that his father, Dr. J. G. Schmucker, was a " Pietist of 
the Spenerian school ; " and adding, this was, perhaps a 
misfortune for one who was to have the training of not less 
than five hundred ministers in his hands." 

We certainly do not regard Schmucker's Pietism as a 
misfortune, but on the contrary as a gracious superintend- 
ing providence. There were some other learned and good 
men living at that time, but we can think of no one among 
them, who was in every respect so well qualified for this 


work, and so intensely and unselfishly devoted to it during 
half a century as Dr. Schmucker. We are not alone in this 
opinion of his usefulness and devotion to the church. Dr. 
Morris gives the following testimony : 

" It cannot be doubted that to Dr. Schmucker the 
church is much indebted for the respectable position it as- 
sumed and the progress it made during the early part of 
his career. He had a noble ambition to elevate its char- 
acter by the development of its resources, and he succeeded. 
He was indefatigable in his labors to promote what he con- 
sidered to be its best interests. I never knew a man more 
wholly given up to the prosecution of his plans. He read 
none of the popular books on science or literature, which 
most cultivated clergymen indulge in for recreation from 
more severe studies, and to keep abreast of the progress of 
mind ; but his entire time, day and night, at home and 
elsewhere, was devoted to his favorite pursuits of writing, 
planning, begging and talking for the church." 

Dr. Schmucker was violently opposed by certain ultra 
confessionalists, who accused him of heterodoxy and dis- 
loyalty to the Lutheran Church, for whose welfare he had 
labored and sacrificed his time and money. But Dr. 
Henry Melchior Muhlenberg, the patriarch of the American 
Lutheran Church, passed through precisely the same ex- 
perience. Dr. Wolf in his " Lutherans in America," (pages 
252 3,) writes thus of Muhlenberg: 

" They assailed him with poisoned shafts of calumny 
and malice to counteract his usefulness and prevent the 

progress of Christ's Kingdom Berkemeier and 

Knoll entertained strong prejudice against Muhlenberg's 
Pietism, and persistently sought to undermine his influence 
by impugning his orthodoxy and his loyalty to the 
Lutheran Church. Berkemeier claimed for himself and the 
men from Hamburg a more positive Lutheran orthodoxy. 


than he conceded to Hartwig and Muhlenberg and others 
trained in Halle, He earnestly warned the congregations 
against them." 

Nothing could more accurately describe the treatment 
which Dr. Schmucker received from his opponents. The 
same violent persecution was also carried on against 
Spener, the father of Pietism, as also against those godly 
men, Francke, the founder of the great orphan house at 
Halle, and Arndt, the author of the " True Christianity.** 
Prayer meetings were introduced by Spener, and became 
the salt of the earth, even to the present day. Albert 
Bengel, the learned Lutheran Commentator, was especially 
the hand of the Lord by which this salt was cast abroad. 
On one occasion he expressed himself as follows : " I do 
not understand why there should be opposition to prayer- 
meetings. Why should each one be pious and remain by 
himself? It is just as if people were going on a journey^ 
and I should advise them, * Don't go together in company^ 
but let each remain about a gunshot behind the other.' " 

The accusation is often made, that Pietism was the 
forerunner of Rationalism, and consequently led to and is 
responsible for Rationalism. But this is a false assumption^ 
as Dr. Sprecher has shown in his learned book, the 
" Groundwork." Auberlen put the matter correctly, when 
he said, that " there was a two-fold opposition, side by side, 
to the dead orthodoxy of the seventeenth century, one intel- 
lectual, the other spiritual, or in other words, the one 
rationalistic, the other pietistic." Auberlen even says, 
" Humanism was older than the Reformation, and Ration- 
alism was older than Pietism." 

The question might be asked. How did Rationalism 
get into the other universities of Germany, where the so- 
called " dead orthodoxy " prevailed ? Is the orthodoxy,, 
that once prevailed in those schools, responsible for the 



Rationalism that has succeeded and abounded in them for, 
lo, these many years ? 

From all accounts Rationalism predominates at the 
present time, not only in Halle, but also in all the other 
German universities.* 

As the " dead orthodoxy " was also the forerunner in 
these institutions, we might with equal propriety hold it 
responsible for the Rationalism now taught in their halls. 

The truth is, there can be no perfect security, that a 
theological seminary shall for all time maintain the 
doctrinal position of its founders, either in Germany or in 
America. The Seminary at Gettysburg was founded by 
Dr. S. S. Schmucker, Wittenberg College and Seminary 
were founded by Drs. Ezra Keller and Samuel Sprecher, 
and the Missionary Institute at Selin's Grove was founded 
by Dr. Benjamin Kurtz ; but what assurance have we, that 
the doctrinal status and religious tendency of their founders 
shall remain unchanged for all time to come? In Germany, 
where the church and her institutions are under the control 
of the state, where the professors are not obligated to teach 
according to the Augsburg Confession, the change from 
Orthodoxy to Heterodoxy is made very easy.f 

* I see statements in the German papers that it is urgently pro- 
posed to found a new University from which Rationalism shall be ex- 
cluded, only orthodox professors be appointed, and the pure Scrip- 
tural doctrines only shall be taught. 

t This reminds of a striking analogy in nature. When the winter 
is past, and the spring time has come, the voice of the Cuckoo is 
heard in the land. This singular bird builds no nest of its own, but 
lays its eggsin the nests of some other bird?, that they may hatch them 
along with their own, and feed the young both alike. But the young 
Cuckoos are larger than the other birdies, and have bigger mouths; so 
they get most of the food, starve out the original heirs, and at last 
crowd them out of the nest altogether. 



" About seventy-five years ago Drs. Schmucker and 
Kurtz were regarded as the two ablest English Lutheran 
preachers in America. They differed very widely, however, 
in their style of oratory. When Schmucker entered the 
ministry, Kurtz was already attracting notice as a rising 
young man in the church. 

" Though Mr. S. delivered his sermons without manu- 
script, he was not an extemporaneous preacher. He made 
full preparation, writing his sermons with great care. Such, 
however, was his facility in memorizing his own composi- 
tions, that three readings would often be sufficient to trans- 
fer an entire sermon from the manuscript to his memory. 
His sermons were framed after the models of the best 
authorities of that time. Going to the root of his subject, 
analyzing it carefully, arranging his matter systematically, 
clothing his thoughts in a clear, Addisonian style, instruct- 
ive and practical at the same time, an occasional flower of 
rhetoric, appeals to the conscience, as well as to reason, 
touching at times the fountain of emotions, always solemn 
in aspect and dignified in manner, distinct in his enuncia- 
tion, clear in voice and loud enough to be easily heard by 
all, he was such a preacher in 1822, as all classes delighted 
to hear." 

The foregoing eulogy is given by Dr. Diehl ; my own 
estimate corresponds with it entirely. Having often heard 
him preach, his sermons made a deep impression on my 
mind, and many important truths have been indelibly fixed 
in my memory. He did not use many illustrations ; if he 
had, it would have made his sermons more popular ; but 
when he did use one, it was always striking and appro- 

I select the following as a sample from his sermon, 
preached in Middletown, Md., before the Synod of Mary- 


land in the year 1824. It is said, that this sermon pro- 
duced the final determination in the minds of the members 
of this Synod to establish a theological seminary : 

" An American Indian gave the following advice to a 
Moravian missionary, by one of whom he was led to Christ 
and converted : 

" ' Brethren,' said he, ' I have grown old among the 
heathen ; therefore I know how the heathen think. Once 
a preacher came and began to explain to us that there is a 
God. We answered, ' Dost thou think us so ignorant as 
not to know that ? Go back to the place whence thou 

" ' Then again another preacher came and began to 
teach us, and to say, ' You must not steal, nor lie, nor get 
drunk.' We answered, ' Thou fool ! dost thou think we 
don't know that ? Learn first thyself, and then teach the 
people to whom thou belongest, to leave off these things ; 
for who steals, or lies, or is more drunken than thine own 
people ? * And thus we dismissed him. 

"'After some time Brother Christian Henry Rauch 
came into my hut and sat down by me. He spoke to me 
nearly as follows : ' I come to you in the name of the God 
of heaven and earth. He wants to let you know that he 
will make you happy, and deliver you from the misery in 
"which you lie at present. To this end he became 
a man, gave his life a ransom for man, and 
shed his blood for him on the cross ! ' When he 
had finished his discourse, he lay down upon a board, 
fatigued by the journey, and fell into a sound sleep. I then 
thought : * See how he lies and sleeps ! I might kill him 
and throw him out into the woods, and who would regard 
it ? But this gives him no concern.' 

" ' However, I could not forget his words. They con- 
stantly recurred to my mind. Even when I was asleep, 


I dreamed of the blood of Christ shed for us. I found this 
to be different from what I had ever heard, and I inter- 
preted Christian Henry's words to the other Indians. Thus, 
through the grace of God, an awakening took place 
among us.' 

" I say, therefore, brethren, preach Christ, our Savior, 
and his sufferings and death, if you would have your words 
gain entrance among the heathen." 

schmucker's views on revivals of religion. 

Dr. Schmucker advocated genuine revivals of religion. 
He was in favor of protracted efforts for the conversion of 
sinners and the edification of believers. He was not, how- 
ever, in favor of unnecessary noise and confusion ; he 
wanted the meetings to be conducted decently and in 
order. I never knew a man who was more orderly in all 
his conduct, walk and conversation. 

His views may be gathered from his account of the 
evangelistic labors of Muhlenberg and his co-laborers and 
successors in the early history of the American Lutheran 
Church. In his discourse entitled, " Retrospect of Luther- 
anism," he gives the following account of the work of 
Muhlenberg and his fellow-laborers in promoting genuine 
revivals of religion : 

" Muhlenberg and his early fellow-laborers had been 
trained by the Spirit of God as worthy disciples of the 
Frankean School. The period of their education was the 
age of revivals in Germany, and succeeded the era of pietis- 
tic controversies, which grew out of them, and enlisted on 
the one side or the other, the entire theological intellect of 
the country. Their own views were decidedly orthodox 
and evangelical, and they were careful to require evidences 
of genuine piety from applicants for the ministerial office. 
Among the questions they were required to answer were 


the folio iving : How do you know that Christ was not 
only a teacher, but also that he has made atonement for the 
sins of men ? What is meant by the influence and bless- 
ings of the Holy Spirit ? What are the evidences of con- 
version ? 

" Their preaching was most evangelical and edifying, 
and their journals show that they earnestly looked for the 
divine blessing. Muhlenberg states that he sometimes, 
after a sermon, added a brief paraphrase or exhortation on 
the closing hymn, and described the case of a young man 
who attributed his conversion to this practice. All that 
they have written and all that is on record of their sermons 
prove that they were anxious mainly for the glory of their 
Savior and the salvation of souls committed to their care. 
It was in this spirit that they plainly assailed the prevailing 
views of the land, and often incurred the displeasure of the 

" Thus for his faithfulness toward Sabbatli-breakers in 
Philadelphia, Dr. Kunze, in 1784, was attacked in the news- 
papers of the day. Soon after his settlement in New York, 
Dr. Kunze remarks: 'Several individuals have come to me, 
and with tears besought me to teach them what they must 
do to be saved.' The reports which they statedly sent to 
Halle abounded in individual narratives of conversions, and 
demonstrate that they watched for souls as those that must 
give account. 

" They encouraged prayer-meetings among their 
church members, and often conducted them themselves. 
Nor did they deem it necessary to forbid these meetings, 
although formalists within the church opposed them, and 
the ungodly world without sometimes disturbed the meet- 
ings, as was the case at Lancaster in 1773, in the pastoral 
charge of Dr. Helmuth. Speaking of a revival of religion 
then in progress, he says : 


" ' Twice or thrice a week meetings were held in the 
evening at different places by the subjects of this work of 
grace, and the time spent in singing, praying and reading 
a chapter in the Word of God, or in Arndt's True Chris- 
tianity, and if no prayer-meeting was held in church on 
Sabbath evening, the substance of the morning sermon was 
discussed. In some houses the number was rather large, 
there being sometimes as many as forty persons assembled 
at one place. The children of the world several times at- 
tempted to disturb their worship by standing at the win- 
dows listening, and by throwing stones against the doors. 
But by grace they were enabled to bear it without any re- 
sistance, and even when on their way home they were as- 
sailed on the streets with various nicknames, and stigma- 
tized as hypocrites, pietists, etc., yet they answered not a 
word. Some of these persecutors also, when they heard 
these men sing and pray with fervor and sincerity, not only 
ceased their opposition, but induced others to do the 

" The labors of the greater number of these men were 
extensively blessed. Speaking of a visit to Tulpehocken, 
Father Muhlenberg says that he found many souls who 
professed the Rev. Mr. M. Kurtz to be their spiritual 
father; and his own labors were crowned with very exten- 
sive success. In 1782 there was also a season of revival of 
great interest in the church in Philadelphia. ' Particularly 
among the young," says Dr. Kunze, " there has been a fire 
kindled, which continued to burn, to our great joy, about a 
year.' " 

schmucker's view of the christian sabbath. 

Dr. Schmucker taught the divine obligation to keep 

the Christian Sabbath or Lord's Day, as a day of sacred 

rest. He regarded it as a Christian's bounden duty to 

abstain from all unnecessary secular labor on the first 

282 schmucker's tract on the sabbath. 

day in every week, and devote that day to religious duties 
in the family or the public worship of God. 

On this subject he wrote a tract which was published 
in English by the American Tract Society, and was also 
translated into the German language. In this tract he very 
clearly shows, that in the beginning the Sabbath was insti- 
tuted for the whole human race, and not for the Jews alone; 
that in the Christian dispensation it was changed from the 
seventh to the first day of the week, which day has con- 
tinued to be observed from the earliest time of the christian 
church to the present day ; that it is also regarded neces- 
sary by the secular governments ; that the Sabbath is one 
of the safeguards against crime ; that it is necessary for our 
physical, intellectual, moral and spiritual welfare ; that the 
French infidels committed a fatal error, when they under- 
took to make the tenth instead of the seventh a day of rest. 
He laments the fact that so many people in this favored 
land desecrate the Christian Sabbath, and our railroads, 
canals and many public works disregard their obligation to 
keep the Lord's Day holy. 

There are now some theologians who maintain, that 
the Sabbath was only a ceremonial regulation for the Jews, 
and was abrogated after the advent of Christ, so that we 
are under no moral obligation to keep it holy, and that it 
has not been changed from the seventh to the first day of 
the week, but that we keep this day merely as a human regula- 
tion for convenience sake, in order that we may have an 
appointed time for public worship. We copy the following 
selection from Schmucker's tract, in which he proves, that 
the Sabbath was instituted for the whole human race, 
proves that it was properly changed by the early Christian 
Church from the seventh to the first day of the week : 

" The word of God, we believe, inculcates the divine 
obligation to consecrate one day in seven to rest from 


secular toil, and to exercises of religious devotion. This 
was enacted at the end of the creative week, for reasons 
equally applicable to all nations and all generations : ' Be- 
cause in six days the Lord created the heavens and the 
earth, and rested on the seventh from all the works which 
he had made.' And as he created the heavens and the 
earth, not for the Jews only, -but for all nations, so the ex- 
ample of his resting and sanctifying the seventh day, must 
also have been designed for all. Here we find the original 
and formal institution of the Sabbath. In Exod. xx. 8-11, 
it is evidently spoken of as already existing and known. 
The language, ' Remember the Sabbath day,' etc., implies a 
previous acquaintance with it. The same is true of Exod. 
xvi. Moreover, the declaration of the Savior, that the Sab- 
bath was made for man, forbids the idea of its restriction to 
the Israelites alone, and implies that it was intended for all 
mankind, and therefore appropriately instituted at that 
early day. That the Sabbath was appointed at the time 
just stated, is moreover sustained by the fact, that the divis- 
ion of time into weeks was found among the most ancient 
nations, as far back as history and tradition extend. It was 
found among the Egyptians, Assyrians, Phoenicians, 
Ancient Chinese, Indians, Arabians, and others. No other 
rational account of the general prevalence of the hebdoma- 
dal division of time in the earliest ages of antiquity can be 
given, than that it was spread by tradition from the family 
of Noah, who had derived it from our first parents. 

" We claim not that the identical hours must be ob- 
served over the whole earth ; for, unless the night were 
employed, this would be physically impossible. Had the 
popular theory of antiquity proved true, that the earth is an 
extended plain, the same twelve hours might have been 
observed for the active duties of the Sabbath by all men. 
But how can the inhabitants of a revolving sphere, illumi- 


nated from one fixed point, all have their Sabbath day, or 
any other day, at the same time ? We need scarcely remind 
any of you, that if colonies had simultaneously emigrated 
from Eden, and proceeded half round the globe, they 
would have been involved in midnight, whilst the meridian 
sun illumined their starting point : and if they continued 
their progress till they completed the circuit, each having 
faithfully kept the seventh day as Sabbath, they would find 
themselves observing different days. But though the simul- 
taneousness of sabbatic observance will be conceded as un- 
necessary, it is evident, that whilst these divergent colonies 
might both regularly observe the seventh day, counting 
from the time they started, yet when they met, as they 
would be observing different days, they must either have 
two conflicting Sabbaths, or one of them must change its 
day and adopt that of the other. Since the Creator has 
made it physically impossible to observe the same hours, 
or even, in some cases, the same day ; does he not thus 
evidently teach us, that it was not unalterably the seventh 
day of the week, but the religious observance of the seventh 
portiofi oi time which essentially constitutes his Sabbath ? 
while, in the Old Testament dispensation, the seventh day 
was confessedly appointed. During the Mosaic dispensa- 
tion, the same proportion of time was reiterated, with var- 
ious ceremonial injunctions, and the Sabbath, like the rain- 
bow of old, employed as a type or sign to the Israelites, 
without altering its primitive relation to other nations. 
This ceremonial character and its appendages, which were 
peculiar to the Mosaic economy, and ' were shadows of 
things to come, of which Christ is the body,' Paul tells the 
Colossians (ii. 16) were abolished in the New testament, 
with the other types and shadows of the old ; but the 
primitive design and obligation remained to sanctify the 
seventh portion of time. The inspired apostles, doubtless 


for wise reasons, selected the day of our Lord's resurrec- 
tion, the first day of the week, for their stated seventh-day 
religious services, perhaps to connect the Savior's triumph 
over death and the powers of hell, with the perpetual pub- 
lic devotions of Christians, and possibly to prevent the 
ceremonial aspects of the Jewish Sabbath from becoming 
connected with that of Christians, to which there would 
have been a constant tendency, if the same day had been 

" That the inspired apostles, and primitive Christians 
under their guidance, selected the first day for their regular 
weekly public exercises, we think, needs no labored argu- 
ment. Luke the evangelist, not only tells us, that the dis- 
ciples came together on the first day to break bread, that 
is, to celebrate the communion, but he says, on the first 
day of the week, zvhen they came together for this purpose, 
Paul preached to them ; implying that it was their custom 
so to convene. Paul also directs the Christians of Corinth 
and Galatia to hold their charitable collections on the first, 
or, as St. John calls it, ' The Lord's Day,' for the obvious 
reason, that then they were assembled, i Cor. xvi. i, 2. 
Indeed, the resurrection of Christ was so decidedly the 
culminating and crowning scene in the work of redemption, 
it was so obviously the day of triumph for Christ, for Chris- 
tianity, and for Christians, that the disciples from the begin- 
ning very naturally regarded it as the day most closely" 
connected with their religion and worship, and observed it 
as such. And the divine Savior himself seems to have 
evinced his approbation of the practice. We have no ac- 
count of his having met with them after his resurrection on 
the Jewish Sabbath ; but every instance of his appearance 
to them was on the first day of the week, on the Lord's 
Day. . It was on this day that he favored their assembly 
with his presence, and pronounced his benediction, ' Peace 


be with you.' It was on this day that he poured out his 
Spirit upon them, and bestowed the gift of tongues ; and it 
was on this day, also, that he revealed himself and the pro- 
phetic history of his church to St. John at Patmos. Luke 
xxiv. 36. Levit. xxiii. 15, 16. Acts ii. i. 

" That this day was religiously observed by Christians, 
in regular succession during the first three centuries, is evi- 
dent from the testimony of Ignatius, Justin Martyr, Tertul- 
lian, Clement of Alexandria, and Cyprian. Eusebius, of the 
fourth century, tells us that Christians were so well known 
by the fact of their observing the Lord's day, that the hea- 
then, when wishing to know whether any person was a dis- 
ciple ot Christ, decided by his answer to the inquiry. Dost 
thou observe the Lord's day ? In the fourth century, Con- 
stantine, the first Christian emperor, enacted civil laws, re- 
quiring abstinence from secular labor on the Lord's day ; 
and from that time to the present, similar prohibitions, 
more or less stringent, are embodied in the code of every 
Christian nation." 

On the question of the divine obligation of the Lord's 
Day, Dr. Schmucker stood squarely on the basis of the 
General Synod. This will appear evident from its action at 
York in May 1864. A number of preambles and a resolu- 
tion, read and moved by Dr. Passavant, were adopted. We 
copy the resolution which reads as follows : 

" Resolved, That while this Synod, resting on the word 
of God as the sole authority in matters of faith on its infal- 
lible warrant, rejects the Romish doctrine of the real pres- 
ence or Transubstantiation, and with it the doctrine of Con- 
substantiation ; rejects the Romish mass, and all the cere- 
monies distinctive of the mass ; denies any power in the 
sacraments, as an opus operatum, or that the blessings of 
Baptism and the Lord's Supper can be received without 
faith ; rejects auricular confession and priestly absolution ; 
holds that there is no priesthood on earth, but that of all 


believers, and that God only can forgive sins ; and main- 
tains the Divine obligation of the Sabbath!' * 

Dr. C. P. Krauth, Sr., his colleague in the Seminary, 
published a treatise on the Sabbath, in which he maintained 
the Divine obligation of the Lord's Day. 1856, page 53. 

* The divine appointment of the Lord's Day is also taught in the 
Provisional Catechism adopted by the General Synod. Under ques- 
tion 58, " Why do we now keep the first day of the week, or Sun- 
day ? " the fourth reason assigned is, " Because the apostles kept this 
day for religious worship and being inspired, they must have known 
their Lord's will. " 

Under question sixty, "What is meant by keeping the Sabbath 
holy?" the answer is, " We keep the Sabbath holy, when we give 
the day to the word and worship of God, and Christian service of our 
fellow men, resting from worldly labor." 

In Luther's Larger Catechism also we find these words : "Since 
. then so much depends upon God's Word, that without it no Sabbath 
can be kept holy, we ought to know, that God will insist upon a 
strict observance of the commandment, and will punish all who de- 
spise his Word, and are not willing to hear and learn it, especially at 
the times appointed for the purpose. ' ' 

Dr. Conrad's Catechism teaches as follows on the Sabbath 
question : 

"62 When was the Sabbath instituted ? Immediately after. the 
work of creation was finished. 

" 66 How do we remember the Sabbath day ? By observing it 

for rest and worship. 

" 67 What is meant by God's hallowing the Sabbath ? The set- 
ting apart of the seventh day from common to sacred purposes. 

"68 How is the Sabbath kept holy? By abstaining from all 
worldly pursuits, and regulating our thoughts, words and actions 
according to its sacred character. 

"70 How may its spiritual blessings be secured? By prayer 
and meditation at home, by worshiping in the house of God, and by 

doing good. 

" 71 How is the Sabbath profaned ? By spending it in secular 
pursuit?, by visiting and travel, by recreation and pleasure, as if it 
were an ordinary, and not a holy day. 

"78 By whom was the change from the seventh to the first day 
of the week made ? By the apostles, with the approbation of Jesus 
Christ, the Lord of the Sabbath." 

288 kbauth's view. 

The following by Dr. C. P. Krauth, Jr., late Professor of 
Theology in Mt. Airy Seminary, and author of the " Con- 
servative Reformation," is taken from his treatise on the 
Augsburg Confession, 1868, pages 81-83. ^^ i^ very 
positive on the Divine obligation of the Lord's Day, and 
sustains Dr. Schmucker's position very decidedly : 

" The Confessors maintained that the Jeivis/i Sabbath 
is abrogated, but that so far as its ends and obligations 

Dr. Morris teaches in his Catechism as follows: 

" 7 On -what day do Christians keep the Sabbath ? On the first 
day of the week, because on that day the Savior rose from the dead. 

" 8 Who first changed the day? The holy apostles who knew 
the Lord's will, and were directed by the Holy Ghost. They set apart 
the first day in thankful remembrance of Christ's resurrection, for the 
out-pouring of the Holy Spirit, and for the time of public worship 
among Christians." 

Dr. Ziegler in his Catechetics teaches as follows: "94 Why do 
we now keep the first day of the week, or Sunday ? Because his dis- 
ciples kept it by frequently meeting on it for religious worship; and 
being inspired, they must have known the Lord's will." 

He also recommendslhis students to read " the Sabbath Manual " 
by Edwards, published by the American Tract Society, Nos. 1-4. 

■ The fathers of the American Luth. Church inculcated the strict 
observance of the Lord's Day, as may be seen from the following ex- 
tract from the Halle Annals: " So faithfully did Dr. Kunze direct the 
artillery of the pulpit against the vice of Sabbath breaking, then as 
now prevalent among European Germans, that they became greatly 
excited, and published some abusive articles against him in the 
English newspapers; the German editor wisely declined to insert 
such articles." 

Dr. Mann, member of the Ministerium of Pennsylvania, in his 
" Plea for the Augsburg Confession," writes as follows: " Luther and 
Melancthon had received from the older church, the doctrine and 
practice of the Christian Sabbath, as a holy day, as a divine institu- 
tion and obligation, and they had not a word to say against this view 
of the Sabbath. But they had a great deal to say against the abuses, 
by which the bishops n^ade the Sabbath a day of sin and dishonor to 
God and his church, instead of making it a day devoted to his glory." 
— Page 28. 

krauth's statements. 289 

were original and generic they are unchangeable, and that 
to meet these ends and obligations the Christian Church, 
through the Apostles, had appointed the first day of the 
week, or Lord's Day, In what they here say they mean to 
confute two Romish errors. The first was that of the " ob- 
servatioti " of days, that is, of suc/i a keeping as was Judaiz- 
ing in its spirit, and opposed to the grace of the Gospel, 
such as St. Paul expressly condemned when he says : * Ye 
observe days. ... I am afraid lest I have bestowed labor 
upon you in vain.' Galat. iv. 10. Secondly, the idea that 
such outward observation was in itself meritoriously neces- 
sary to salvation. This the Confession denied, and shows 
that there is a necessity for the Lord's Day, but not of the 
kind Romanism had invented. 

" A systematic statement of the predominant doctrine 
of the Sabbath involved in the views of the greatest writers 
of our Church, may be presented in the following pro- 
positions : 

" I. The law that one day in seven shall be set apart 
for the service of God, has existed by Divine command, 
from the foundation of the world, and its obligation is a 
part of the original law of nature. 

" 2. The command was repeated in the Decalogue 
and in the Mosaic law, with specific ceremoftial characteris- 
tics adapting it to the Jewish nation. 

" 3. The law itself, generically considered, is of per- 
petual and universal obligation ; its specific ceremonial 
characteristics pertain only to the Jews. 

" 4. The law itself has never been abrogated ; the 
specific ceremonial characteristics have been. 

" 5. To keep one day in seven holy to God, to ab- 
stain from all that may conflict with its sanctification, is ge- 
neric, not specific ; moral, not ceremonial. 

290 krauth's statements. 

" 6. The obligation to keep holy the seventh day, or 
Saturday, is ceremonial, and not binding on Christians. 

" 7. The resurrection of Christ, his successive appear- 
ings, the Pentecostal effusion of his Spirit, on the first day 
of the week, together with the example of the Apostles, 
and of the Apostolic Church, have shown to the Church 
what day in the seven may, under the New Dispensation, 
most fitly be kept holy, and have led to the substitution of 
the first day of the week for the seventh, as the Christian 

" 8. To keep holy the first day of the week, to conse- 
crate it to God, and to this end to abstain upon it from all 
works except those of necessity, mercy, and the service of 
God, is obligatory on all men. 

" No Church can show a purer record than the 
Lutheran Church, on this very question of sound doctrine 
in regard to the moral and Divine obligation to consecrate 
one day in every seven to God, and to repose from toil. 
The greatest leaders of theology in our church, considered 
a denial of the Divine obligation to keep one day in seven 
as Socinian. The Sabbatarians, harmonizing with the Jews, 
considered even the determinative part of the fourth com- 
mand as perpetual, and contended that Saturday should be 
kept. Our fathers rejected this error. The Anabaptists 
and Socinians contended that no part of the fourth com- 
mand is of Divine obligation — that all is ceremonial. Our 
fathers rejected this error, and rested on this point as in 
others, on the truth removed from each extreme — that the 
generic Sabbath is primitive and has never been abrogated 
— that only what is ceremonial in the Jewish Sabbath is 
abrogated — that the Christian Sabbath is a glorious bond 
of the sovereignty of God in the law, and of the freedom of 
the church under the gospel ; Divine in its generic origin 
and obligation y and apostolic in its specific determination y 



On the subject of Temperance, Dr. Schmucker was 
half a century in advance of his contemporaries. He was a 
tee-total abstainer from intoxicants as a beverage, while the 
temperance people advocated moderate drinking ; he advo- 
cated legislation to prevent the sale of alcoholic liquors^ 
while others pleaded only for moral suasion; he was a 
Prohibitionist, long before Local Option was thought of, or 
the Prohibition Party had an existence. I shall never for- 
get a speech which I heard him make while I was a 
student in Pennsylvania College (1841-44). A public meet- 
ing was called to assemble in the old Gettysburg court 
house, which stood in the centre of the square. The meet- 
ing was addressed by Dr. Schmucker. He then and there 
contended that temperance could never become prevalent in 
this country by means of moral suasion, but that the whole 
liquor traffic should be suppressed by law. " For," said 
the Doctor, " so long as liquor is publicly sold in taverns, 
(there were then no lager beer saloons) there will 
always be boys and men unprincipled enough to drink 
it," This declaration has been literally verified, as the ex- 
perience of half a century has now clearly demonstrated. 

The Doctor took occasion frequently to speak on the 
subject to the students in the class room, exhorting them 
to total abstinence from mtoxicating liquors as a beverage, 
and to advocate temperance principles from the pulpit. 
Morris says of him ; " He never drank a glass of strong 
liquor as a beverage in his life." The drinking of wine and 
whiskey was customary and even fashionable in the early 
period of his ministry, among ministers as well as laymen. 
There was, it is said, in those days a stillhouse on almost 
every farm in York County. The farmers would distill 
their grain into whiskey, which they would send by wagon 
to Baltimore, being far less bulky and weighty in that 


shape than corn or rye. It was a great grief to him to see 
some of his own ministerial brethren fall victims to the vice 
of intemperance. Even some of the ministers who partici- 
pated in the organization of th General Synod, and the 
establishment of the Seminary became inebriates. He told 
us in class to what peculiar temptations the ministers of 
that day were exposed. It was at that time regarded as a 
duty required by hospitality to set out a bottle to every 
visitor as soon as he entered the house. When a minister 
paid a pastoral visit in one of the families of his congrega- 
tion the inevitable bottle of wine or whiskey was set before 
him. It was regarded as a slight if he declined to drink 
But by the time a minister had made half a dozen or more 
pastoral visits and drank more or less at every house, he 
would hardly get home a sober man. Now, if this course 
was continued for any length of time, a taste for ardent 
spirits would be formed, which he could no longer resist, 
and he would become a confirmed drunkard, disgrace his 
calling and would have to retire from the ministry or be 
deposed from his office. 


Dr. Schm.ucker was an avowed enemy of the slavery 
system. He made no secret of his views, but expressed 
them in public and in private. Also in his lectures in the 
seminary he frequently expressed his aversion to the Negro 
slavery as it existed in the Southern States, and not un- 
frequently to the ill-suppressed opposition of students from 
the South. 

The following statements from his youngest son, 
Samuel D. Schmucker, Esq., will give some insight into 
the Doctor's relation to slavery and his views upon the 

" We had two old Negro servants in my early life, who 
had been slaves in my mother's family, and were manumit- 


ted, but I am not familiar with the details of their history. 
They were freed before I was born. I know that after these 
servants became superannuated, they were supported by 
father, as long as they lived. A modest legacy, left by my 
maternal grandmother for that purpose, assisted, in part, I 
believe, to support them, 

" Your reference to the manumitted Negro servants 
reminds me of the circumstance, that in my early life run- 
away slaves would occasionally come to our house. Father 
would allow any such to sleep in his barn by day, and I 
am sure, assisted them, at least to the extent of supplying 
them with food. After the decision of the Dred Scott 
case, I once asked him, what he would do, if a fugitive 
slave were to approach him personally for aid ? He re- 
plied, that he would never assist in returning a fellow 
being into bondage, and would succor any such that were 
in distress, and that if he was prosecuted for it, he would 
admit the fact, and pay the penalty for which the law might 
make him liable. 

" He always iavored the gradual abolition of slavery, 
and insisted, that it should be accomplished by law, even 
if the slave holder had such a standing before the law, as to 
entitle him to compensation for the manumitted slave at the 
public expense." 

The following is contributed by Dr. Diehl on this sub- 
ject in the Quarterly Reviezv : 

"At the Synod of Maryland and Virginia, 1824, he 
pleaded earnestly the cause of African Colonization. Born 
in Maryland, and settled as pastor for five years in Virginia, 
he was familiar with slavery in all its phases and relations. 
He understood the condition and moral character of the 
colored population in the slave states. When colonization 
iailed to accomplish what its early advocates had ardently 
hoped, and emancipation societies were organized, Dr 


Schmucker gave the subject much attention. He adopted 
moderate abolition sentiments. These sentiments he did 
not conceal, but stated them frankly in his lecture room to 
the students. In his Popular Theology, 1834, he gave his 
views to the public advocating still African Colonization as 
the means of evangelizing Africa, and giving freedom to a 
small number, but urging gradual emancipation as the only 
remedy to our great political evil. As his Theology was 
extensively circulated in the Southern States, and many of 
his pupils were scattered all over the South, his sentiments 
were known. Hence, when the war broke out, and the 
southern people were intensely embittered against all eman- 
cipationists, he was the object of no small amount of bitter 
feeling. And when Lee's army invaded Maryland on their 
way to Pennsylvania, 1863, they declared their purpose to 
arrest Dr. Schmucker. A week before the battle of Gettys- 
burg, he received a communication from a Lutheran minis- 
ter in Maryland, making known to him their avowed pur- 
pose to arrest him, and advising him, by all means, to leave 
Gettysburg, should the confederates move in that direction. 
When they took possession of Seminary Hill, they oc- 
cupied his house for three days, July, i, 2, 3. His house 
was pierced by thirteen cannon balls. His fine 
library was shamefully abused, and some of his furniture 

" Having noticed the poverty and wretchedness of the 
free colored population of Pennsylvania, and attributing 
their sad condition, largely, to their exclusion from me- 
chanical and other lucrative employments, he went to Har- 
risburg, 1842, and laid before the Legislature of the State, 
a petition tor the passage of a law for the melioration of the 
colored people. He drew up a bill, which provided that 
colored girls over 13 and boys over 14 years, should all be 
registered by .the assessors, and if idle, or neglected by their 


parents, should be brought before Justices of the peace, and 
by them bound, while minors, to respectable white people, 
to be brought up to trades or other industrial pursuits. 
This bill was moved by a member and passed the first and 
second reading. But before the final reading and vote, 
some of the demagogues determined to defeat it, by stig- 
matizing it as an abolition measure. They gained their 
point. But the following year, Dr. Schmucker introduced 
the same bill through a member. It was received with 
general favor. But then a quarrel sprang up about the 
State election. So violent was the commotion that the 
m.ilitary were called out. In the turmoil the bill was lost 
sight of. Had the salutary law passed, no doubt the 
colored people of Pennsylvania would have been in a 
better moral and physical condition, than they were at the 
breaking out of the war." 





The necessity of union in the Lutheran church — evil 
effects of disunion — evils of separation among 
protestants — his appeal for christian union — com- 
parison of creeds — the origin of the evangelical 



^ " About the time of his entering the ministry, the 
organization of the General Synod directed his attention to 
the evils which our church suffered from the want of union. 
Five synods with no bond of union between them, the 
church was in danger of becoming heterogeneous. Each 
synod would probably adopt its own doctrinal standard, 
and church government and discipHne. Each would prob- 
ably publish its own hymn-book and catechism. Each 
would regulate the order of its services. Mr. Schmucker 
saw that if no bond of union were formed, Lutheranism in 
Tennessee would be one thing ; in Ohio another ; in Penn- 
sylvania another, and in New York another. There could 


be no efficiency in a church so disjointed and divergent. 
There could be no missionary efforts ; no great institutions 
of learning ; and no church-love among the people. He 
expressed, in one of his earnest and heartfelt appeals, made 
to a Conference in 1823, his apprehension that if the Gen- 
eral Synod could not survive the death-blow aimed at her, 
at the time, so gloomy and discouraging would be the as- 
pect of affairs, that no educated young men, of talents and 
piety, would enter her ministry. The best sons of the 
church would leave her ; for no young man of high aims 
would be willing to devote his life to a field of labor so ut- 
terly hopeless of fruits. His heart was evidently bleeding 
over the lamentable state of things, when he wrote that 
long letter in German to the York Conference, the manu- 
script of which is preserved among his papers. 

" When by his wonderful labors, he had succeeded in 
averting the annihilation of the General Synod, he imme- 
diately began measures to form a bond of union between 
the Lutheran Church of the United States, and the 
Lutheran Church of Europe. Hence his resolutions intro- 
duced into the Maryland and Virginia Synod, and after- 
ward into the General Synod, for a committee on Foreign 

" Having seen so clearly, and felt so deeply, the evils 
resulting from the want of union and compact organization 
in his own church, his mind was led to consider the evils 
resulting from the separation from each other, of the several 
protestant churches. If some general bond of union could 
bind together all the forces of Protestantism, the Evangel- 
ical Churches would become mighty for the overthrow of 
the Papacy, and the pulling down the strongholds of 
Satan. He pondered the subject deeply and long, and in 
1838 he gave his views to the public, in his fraternal ap- 
peal to the American churches. 


" His hope then was the formation of an alliance be- 
tween the several Protestant Churches, that would not at 
all disturb their denominational organizations, but bring 
them to co-operate on a well-defined common platform, 
adopting a statement of fundamental doctrines, which all 
could subscribe — a statement, the language of which was 
taken from the several creeds, or confessions of faith, of the 
leading denominations. His book produced a marked im- 
pression. Eminent men were led to consider the subject. 
Many of Dr. Schmucker's statements were unquestionably 
true. Protestantism had long been taunted for its divisions. 
If some general union could be formed, the cause of Evan- 
gelical religion would be strengthened. 

" Prominent men, in different churches, read the Ap- 
peal, and expressed their assent to the general principles 
laid down. In the correspondence to which his book gave 
rise, the idea of an Evangelical Alliance was suggested. 
The representatives of the great churches of Europe and 
America might hold a convention, it was suggested, say in 
London, lay down a basis on which all could stand, form a 
plan by which all could work together for the general ad- 
vancement of Christianity, and thus hold forth the great 
truth, that the true followers of Christ are one. The result 
was the holding of the first World's Christian Alliance, in 
London, in the summer of 1846. Some of the speakers at 
the recent Alliance, in New York, accorded to Dr. 
Schmucker the honor of having done more than any other 
man for the Christian union developed in that great 

" Dr. Schmucker was always tolerant. He knew well 
that great diversity existed in his own church, when he 
labored so earnestly to bring all the synods together in a 
general body. Yet he believed that the spirit of toleration 
would enable them to bear with each other, and diverse as 


their sentiments on non-essential points might be, they 
could harmoniously co-operate as members of the mother 
church of the Reformation. When he wrote his appeal, 
and made the subsequent efforts, to bring the leading men 
of all evangelical churches together in a world's alliance, he 
never lost sight of the difference of opinion between the 
Baptist and the Episcopalian, and the Lutheran, and the 
Reformed, and the Presbyterian, and the Methodist, and 
the Congregationalist. But he took their several creeds 
and compared them. He found them harmonious on the 
grand fundamental truths of the Christian system, and 
formed, from these several confessions, a symmetrical 
creed." — Diehl. 

" The following tribute to the memory of S. S. 
Schmucker, D, D., as an enlightened and consistent advo- 
cate of Christian Union among Protestants, constitutes the 
introduction of the address delivered by Dr. F. W. Conrad 
before the Evangelical Alliance on Interchange of Pulpits : 

" Dr. Schmucker commenced the study of the subject 
of Christian union more than half a century ago. The 
matured results of these studies were given to the world in 
his ' Fraternal Appeal ' to the American churches, which 
was first published in 1838, and subsequently passed 
through several editions in a revised and enlarged form. It 
was extensively circulated in England and America, awak- 
ened a deep interest in the subject, received favorable 
notice from the religious press, and numerous testimonials 
from many of the most distinguished divines of the differ- 
ent Protestant denominations. It is an admitted fact that 
the ' Appeal ' of Dr. Schmucker bore a prominent part in 
preparing the way for the organization of the Evangelical 
Alliance in 1846. He was present at its first meeting, and 
was even then designated as 'the father of the Alliance,' 
by Dr. King, of Ireland, in a public address delivered in 


London at that time. It was he also who moved already, 
at that first meeting of the Alliance, that its second meeting 
should be held in New York ; and, although his motion 
was not adopted at that time, nevertheless it was carried 
out practically twenty-seven years later, as the present sixth 
conference of the Alliance here happily attests. 

" Dr. Schmucker took special interest in the subject of 
Christian union, and labored for its promotion, through the 
Evangelical Alliance, during the greater portion of his 
ministerial and professional life. As he approached the 
portals of eternity during his declining years his mind and 
heart were more and more absorbed by it, and he prepared 
a plan for the confederation of all Protestant denominations 
in an Evangelical Alliance of the entire Christian world. 
This plan was published, and favorably noticed by a num- 
ber of religious journals of different denominations in this 
country during the past year, and a copy of it has been 
laid before the committee of the Alliance for their con- 
sideration. He looked forward to this meeting with ardent 
solicitude, and expected to be present to submit his plan of 
confederation before the Alliance in person. 

" The last letter I received from him had reference to 
the subject of Christian union, and contained a request 
that the speaker should, in his absence, take charge of his 
plan for the confederation of the churches of Protestant 
Christendom, and present it for consideration at the meet- 
ing of the General Synod of the Lutheran Church. But 
God, in his all-wise providence, so ordered that his strong 
desire to take part in this conference could not be gratified. 
On the 26th of July last, after entertaining friends at his 
house in the evening, he was suddenly seized with heart 
disease, and before midnight, died, in the conscious hope of 
a blissful immortality. His last words were : ' I have lived 
and am dying in the faith of Jesus.' " 


We find among his papers the evidence of an exten- 
sive correspondence with the leading members and friends 
of the Alliance. The following letter from Dr. Schafif, 
though written mainly as an introduction to prominent 
theologians in Germany, will be interesting to our readers. 
We translate it from the German : 

Mercersburg, Pa., March i6, 184.6. 
Respected Friend and Brother in the Lord : 

I am just now quite tired by writing letters, yet I will 
send you my hearty congratulations on your appointment 
as delegate to the convention in London, and my best 
wishes for your safe journey into the never-to-be-forgotten 
land of our fathers. Herewith I send a few hints in re- 
gard to the inclosed introductions. The circular addresses 
I have left open, those addressed to individual pastors I 
have closed. But you can open these also, in case you 
should have any difficulty at the custom house. These 
contain nothing important in addition to your introduction. 
I did not wish to burden you with bulky, and extensive 

When you come to Berlin do not forget to call very 
soon on Candidate Schroeder,to whom I have addressed one 
of the accompanying letters. He is a very friendly young 
man ; and will be of great assistance to you. You must 
call on Pastor Souchon and hear him preach. He is one 
of the most distinguished and earnest pulpit orators of Ger- 
many, of tremendous power and effect. Convey to this 
dear friend my most hearty salutation. Pastor Weise lives 
quite near to Berlin. Schroeder can accompany you out 
to him. You will find in him a very upright and cordial 
country pastor. In case you get to Italy, of course you 
will visit Rome. There you will find the chaplain of the 
Russian Embassy, Thiele, residing probably on the 
Capitol, and in Naples the chaplain of the Prussian Embassy, 


Remy. Both of them are my dear friends, especially the 
latter. They will certainly receive you very hospitably on 
account of my salutations. In Geneva, I am acquamted 
with Merle D'Aubigne, Gansen, Pilete and Malan. I do not 
wish to trouble you with orders, as you are doubtless suffi- 
ciently burdened with them already. Perhaps I may send 
you a small package yet, if I find time to write a few more 
letters, which, however, is doubtful. 

If you should wish a special introduction to some 
other person, you will please to write to me. I could, for 
instance, give you an introduction to the minister of eccle- 
siastical affairs, Eichhorn, and other high officials in differ- 
ent parts of Germany. But I think you have enough with 
the accompanying documents. The Licentiate Erbkam, is 
a nephew of Eichhorn, and can more properly introduce 
you to him than I can. Again I wish you from my whole 
whole heart {von ganzem Herzen) a safe and pleasant 
journey. Give my kind regards to Prof Hay and Mrs. 
Schmucker. Your friend and brother in the Lord. 

Phillip Schaff. 
anti slavery in the alliance. 

As it was intimated in the letter of Kurtz and Morris 
from Paris, resolutions were drawn up in the Alliance in 
London, by which ministers from America, and especially 
those from the slave-holding states could not be admitted 
to membership. Slavery at that time existed in full force 
in the Southern States, and anti-slavery feeling ran very 
high among the English people. Dr. Schmucker himself 
was most earnestly opposed to slavery, but technically the 
resolution would have excluded him also. For although 
the slaves, which he had inherited by his second wife, were 
all emancipated or set free, except the very aged ones, who 
could not support themselves, and for whose comfortable 
maintenance provision had been made, yet he could still be 


regarded, as in the legal sense, a slave holder. The Ameri- 
can brethren therefore drew up the following protest 
against the resolution, which we find among the Doctor's 
papers, no doubt composed by himself, and which will be 
very interesting reading : 

"The Conference of Christian brethren from all parts of 
the world which has just formed the Evangelical Alliance 
in this city was convened on the invitation of the committee 
of a smaller Conference which held its first meeting in 
Liverpool in October last. The document of invitation 
sent out by the Liverpool committee contained the doctri- 
nal basis which has since been adopted with some varia- 
tions as the foundation of the new Alliance, but there was 
no allusion in this document to the subject of slavery. On 
our arrival in London to aid in forming the Alliance, most 
of us signed the following paper : 

'"Heartily desirous of promoting the great object con- 
templated by the proposed Evangelical Alliance, and ap- 
proving of the doctrinal basis and principles contained in 
the accompanying document, I consent that my name be 
enrolled as a corresponding member.' " 

"The 'document' referred to in this paper was the 
document to which we have already alluded and which made 
no mention of slavery. At the same time the attention of 
most of us was directed to a separate paper of which the 
following is a copy : 



Extract of the Minutes of the London Division, July 
7th, and July 2ist, 1846 : 

'Resolved, That American brethren, on their election as 
Foreign Corresponding members, be enrolled as such, on 
their signature being attached to the form already adopted 
for English members, at the same time directing their special 


attention to the Resolution on Slavery, adopted at the 
aggregate meeting at Birmingham, with reference to their 
individual concern in the same.' 

' Resolved, That the Minute with respect to slave- 
holding adopted at the Birmingham aggregate meeting, be 
put before brethren who may come to the August Confer- 
ence from all countries whose governments tolerate the 
practice in question among their subjects.' 

Resolution adopted at the meeting of the Aggregate 
Committee at Birmingham, March 31st, 1846, and follow- 
ing days : 

' That while this committee deem it unnecessary and 
inexpedient to enter into any question at present on the 
subject of slave-holding, or on the difficult circumstances 
in which Christian brethren may be placed in countries 
where the law of slavery prevails ; they are of opinion that 
invitations ought not to be sent to individuals who, whether 
by their own fault or otherwise, may be in the unhappy 
position of holding their fellow-men as slaves.' 

r\ c- f Alex. Digbys Campbell. 

Official Secretaries. -, t- c 

\ Edward Steane. 

" We understand that some of our British brethren are 
under the impression that we have subscribed an approval 
of these resolutions. This is a mistake. * The document ' 
which we approved and subscribed was the document con- 
taining the doctrinal basis. These resolutions were on a 
separate paper, to which the attention of most of us was 
directed, but we were not required to subscribe them or 
approve them. We could not approve them. We made 
our verbal protest against them. We regarded them as 
highly objectionable, and particularly for the following 
reasons : 

I. They were irrelevant to the matter in hand. They 
had nothing to do with the proper object of the Alliance. 
The Alliance is a union, for purposes exclusively religious, 
of Evangelical Christians who agree in the great doctrines 


of the gospel. Slavery is a political evil and 
although it draws great moral evils in its train and we are 
all heartily opposed to it, and ready in every proper way to 
promote its removal, we do not think that the subject 
comes within the province of this Alliance. 

2. The resolutions came too late. The original card 
of invitation with no allusion in it to slavery, was widely 
circulated and extensively acted on by ecclesiastical bodies 
in America soon after it was issued, and many who 
accepted it had crossed the Atlantic before they met with 
the Birmingham resolution. As this resolution, if adopted 
by the Alliance, would change its whole character, and ex- 
clude not only Christian slave-holders, but the great body 
of Evangelical Christians who are in christian communion 
with them, non-slave-holding states of America, it should 
have been adopted, if adopted at all, before the invitation 
was sent. It was too late to do it afterwards. 

3. The first of the London resolutions is offensive to 
us as Americans. Why the wholly needless specification of 
* American brethren ' in connection with slavery ? Why 
was it not said at once ; * brethren from all the countries 
whose governments tolerate slavery ? ' Why the promi- 
nence given to America in this matter? If we did not know 
that our British brethren are incapable of intending to of- 
fend us ; if we had not received explanations, which con- 
vince us that the London committee, when they passed 
their second resolution intended to correct that which 
would be deemed objectionable by Americans in the first 
resolution, and that it was only through inadvertence that 
the first resolution was allowed to remain in its present 
shape, we should feel constrained to express our regret in 
strong language. As it is, we have only to rejoice that the 
matter admits of such explanation. 

4. The Birmingham resolution is calculated to 


wound the feelings of unoffending Christian brethren in the 
slave-holding states, and to retard the abolition of slavery. 

" If Christian brethren (in the terms of the resolution) 
' placed by no fault of their own in an unhappy position,' 
involving strong temptations and severe trials, nevertheless 
conduct themselves worthily, they merit on that account in 
our view, the sympathy of their fellow christians, and 
especially of those who are sincerely seeking the removal 
of the great evil from which their temptations and trials 
arise. This is not the time to inquire whether the Ameri- 
can churches have or have not all done their duty in regard 
to this subject ; but this seems to us to be singular, in 
singling out such brethren for the stigma of exclusion from 
Christian fellowship. In their ' difficult circumstances ' 
they need the encouragement and support of the counsels 
and prayers of their fellow-christians, and if slavery is ever 
to be abolished in the Southern States of America, we need 
such men to take the lead in the movement. There is in 
these circumstances, in our view, weighty reason not for 
non-intercourse but for closer Christian union. This is not 
the time to inquire whether or not the American churches 
have all done their duty in regard to the subject, but it is 
well known to us that many Christian slave-holders are in 
their principles and feelings entirely opposed to slavery, 
and are prepared to make all the efforts and sacrifices in 
their power for the removal of the evil as soon and as fast 
as practicable ; it ought to be known to our European 
brethren that slavery cannot at once be abolished in any 
State of the American Union, except by the legislature of 
that State ; that the citizens of non-slave-holding States can 
only act on the subject by moral influence, and that this 
influence is to be exerted chiefly on and through Christians 
in the slave-holding community. It is because we have 
great confidence in the piety and intelligence, and in the 


constantly increasing number of godly men in the slave- 
holding States that we look with increasing hope for the 
entire removal of American slavery. We deeply sympa- 
thize with these brethren under the heavy responsibilities 
they are called to bear. Our duty no less than our 
Christian affection impels us to maintain intimate relations 
with them, and we could not, without a grievous offence 
against the best hopes of religion and humanity in the 
South, as well as against our own conscience consent to any 
action which would imply a want of Christian confidence in 
them, or which might endanger our amicable and fraternal 
relations with this portion of the American church." 

David Buehler, Esq., at that time editor of the Gettys- 
burg Star and Sentinel, writes as follows in an obituary 

" In August, 1846, he attended the World's Convention 
of the Evangelical Alliance, held in London, as one of the 
delegates from the United States. 

" Within the last year he prepared and extensively cir- 
culated a Fraternal Appeal on the subject of Christian 
Union, looking towards bringing different Evangelical 
denominations into closer fraternal union, without in any 
wise affecting the peculiar ecclesiastical or denominational 
peculiarities of any of them. 

" This subject lay close to his heart, and, in a conver- 
sation with the writer of this tribute only a few day ago, he 
spoke hopefully of the indications of a better understanding 
between Christian denominations of this country, tending to 
a realization of his long cherished desires. He might not 
live to see it, but the day was coming full of glorious prom- 
ise. He telt a deep interest in the meeting of the Evangel- 
ical Alliance at New York this fall, which he had been 
invited to address, and looked forward to the meeting as 

3o8 PROFESSOR hay's testimony. 

likely to develop additional interest on the subject of Chris- 
tian Union." 

Prof. Chas. Hay, for many } < ars his colleague in the 
Seminary, has this to say in relation to Dr. Schmucker's 
work in promoting Christian Union : 

" Wherever we look, we see traces of his workman- 
ship ; and he must be a cynical critic, indeed, who, amid so 
much to admire and to be grateful for, will stop to censure 
what may seem to him to be an excess of liberality, or a too 
anxious eagerness to ignore denominational peculiarities in 
the effort to unite, already in this world, the divided flock 
of the Good Shepherd into one fold. Could he address us 
now, from the immediate presence of the Lord, as he there 
greets multitudes of fellow believers, who, having gone up 
to glory through tribulation, from the midst of the various 
denominations of Christians upon earth, with whom he had 
here sought and found congenial sympathy, and with whom 
he cordially labored in the cause of our common Master, he 
would doubtless assure us that he has now no regrets for 
any efforts he has ever made on earth to anticipate the 
communion of saints, upon which, we trust, he now has 
entered. Rather let us regret that we have so little of that 
spirit of true Christian charity which seeks to discover and 
practically recognize in others the love of Jesus as the true 
badge of discipleship — ' Simon, son of Jonas, lovest thou 
me ? ' — and the only indispensable test for Christian fellow- 
ship on earth, as it undoubtedly will be found to be the 
only real test of the communion of saints on high." 

The following obituary notice appeared in the New 
York Observer (Presbyterian) one week after Dr. Schmucker's 
death : 

" Dr. Schmucker, the Nestor of the Evangelical Luth- 
eran Church, is dead. At the time of his death he was an 
Emeritus Professor in the Theological Seminary at Gettys- 



burg, Pa., with which institution he had been many years 
connected. He \vas a man of catholic spirit and peaceful 
temper. He had long conceived the idea of an organic 
union of the Protestant churches of the United States, and 
was laboring to carry it into effect.* The meeting of his 
' Evangelical Alliance ' was appointed to take place in this 
city, in October next. Whether the scheme will be pushed, 
now that its master spirit is gone, we doubt. Indeed, in the 
opinion of many, it is premature. But whether practicable 
at present or not, the conception did honor to Dr. Schmuck- 
er's heart and mind, and will always be honorably asso- 
ciated with his name. He died at a ripe age, having, we 
lieve, passed seventy years." 

In the advocacy of Christian Union, Dr. Schmucker 
published an " Appeal to the Friends of the Redeemer on 
Primitive Christain Union," a volume of 262 pages, which 
obtained a large circulation and attained a second edition. 
In this book he stated the design of Christian Union as 
follows : 

" The design to be aimed at, by the measures to be 
recommended, is not to amalgamate the several denomina- 
tions into one church, nor to impair in any degree the inde- 
pendent control of each denomination over its own affairs 
and interests, but to present to the world a more formal 
profession and practical proof of our mutual recognition of 
each other as integral parts of the visible church of Christ 
on earth, as well as of our fundamental unity of faith, and 
readiness to co-operate harmoniously in the advance- 
ment of objects of common interest." 

* This is an error; he did not labor to eifect an organic, but only 
a fraternal or co-operative union, in which the denominatioEs should 
retain their respective organizations and peculiarities, but co-operate 
fraternally in opposition to fundamental errorists, infidels, and papal 
; Hierarchy. — Ed. 


We take the following commendatory notices of the 
book, which set forth the object and design of the Evan- 
gelical Alliance : 

From the Lutheran Observer, edited by the Rev. Dr. B. KurtZ; 

" The careful perusal of this work has afforded us a 
high degree of enjoyment, and it is calculated, if it receive 
that respectful and impartial examination from the churches 
of our country, which it eminently merits, to exert an in- 
fluence for good, which will be felt in heathen countries as 
well as throughout our whole land, in the present and 
future generations. 

" In the proposition and elucidation of the remedy for 
the evils of division in the church of God, and especially in 
the excogitation of a plan for the restoration of catholic 
union on apostolic principles, we think the learned author 
has mainly exhibited his strength. This part of the book, 
especially, bears the marks of profound thought, close in- 
vestigation, extensive observation, and of a catholicity of 
spirit and deep and all-pervading solicitude for the pros- 
perity of Zion, which reflects most creditably upon his 
heart. The ' Apostolic Protestant Confession,' embracing 
only the fundamentals of inspired truth, which are believed 
by all the orthodox churches of Protestant Christendom, is 
evidently the work of great care and of a clear and judi- 
cious mind. 

" If the sentiments advanced in this ' Appeal ' are 
fairly tested, not by ecclesiastical standards which are the 
work of uninspired, though good men, but by ' the law and 
the testimony ' that is, by the unerring rule of God's holy 
•word, they cannot fail to command respect and win advo- 
cates ; and if the Protestant Churches be organized, and 
carry on their operations on the principles developed in the 
' Appeal,' there can be no doubt that they would approxi- 


mate much nearer to the apostolic church than they now 
do ; that they could act much more efficiently and harmon- 
iously in advancing the triumphs of the Cross in the 
heathen and the papal world ; and that those blissful times 
would again arive, when surrounding observers would be 
compelled to exclaim, * See how these Christians love one 
another ? * 

" This Appeal was first published in the eleventh and 
twelfth volumes of the American Biblical Repository. We 
read the whole discussion at the time when it came out. 
We were then struck with its candor, honesty, thorough 
and learned research, and eminently catholic and disin- 
terested spirit. In further consideration of it, and also by 
conversation with the excellent author, we cannot but hope 
that it will receive the serious attention of all our evangeli- 
cal churches, and especially of all ministers of the gospel. 
The author has not so much to fear from disapproval of his 
plan, as from indifference or inattention to it. The principal 
features are the following : — the several Christian denomi- 
nations shall retain each its own present ecclesiastical 
organization, government, discipline, and mode of worship ; 
let each of the confederated denominations formally resolve 
for itself, not to discipline any member or minister, for 
holding a doctrine believed by any other denomination 
whose Christian character they acknowledge, provided his 
deportment be unexceptionable, and he conform to the 
rules of government, discipline, and worship adopted by 
said denomination ; let a creed be adopted including only 
the doctrines held in common by all the orthodox Christian 
denominations, to be termed the Apostolic Protestant Con- 
fession, and let this same creed be used by all denomina- 
tions as the terms of sacramental, ecclesiastical, and minis- 
terial communion ; there should be free sacramental, eccle- 
siastical, and ministerial communion among the confeder- 

312 DR. krauth's commendation. 

ated churches ; in all matters not relating to the govern- 
ment, discipline, and forms of worship of individual 
churches, but pertaining to the common cause of Christian- 
ity, let the principle of co-operation, regardless of sect, be 
adopted, so far as the nature of the case will admit, and as 
fast as the views of the parties will allow ; the Bible should, 
as much as possible, be made the text-book in all religious 
and theological instruction ; and missionaries going into 
foreign lands ought to use and profess no other than this 
common creed, the Apostolic Protestant Confession, and 
connect with it whatever form of church government and 
mode of worship they prefer." 

Dr. C. P. Krauth, Sr., writes as follows : 
" The plan of union proposed by the Rev. Dr. 
Schmucker, which was first communicated to the public 
through the pages of the Biblical Repository, has been at- 
tentively considered by me, and I do not hesitate to say, 
after a careful examination of its principles, that it accords 
in my judgment with the genius of onr holy religion, as 
taught in the pages of the New Testament. I agree with 
him in the opinion that union is practicable, that it ought 
to take place, and that the accomplishment of it should be 
the sincere aim of all who love the Savior, in our different 
religious denominations; because it will remove many 
heavy evils under which the church now labors, facilitate 
the diffusion of religion, and arm the church with power 
which will render it speedily triumphant to the ends of the 
earth. The union advocated is apostolical, such as existed 
in the days of the heralds of the Gospel, and which, as 
much as anything else, imparted power to the preached 
word. Union then was strength, and now, if restored, 
would render our faith irresistible. I can scarcely persuade 
myself, that he has imbibed the spirit of Jesus Christ, in 
any considerable extent, who does not consider it a con- 

DR. KRAUTH'S commendation. 3I3 

summation most devoutly to be desired, and sincerely 
prayed for. The final prayers of the Savior on earth had 
reference to this blessed union : ' Neither pray I for them 
alone; but for them also which shall believe on me through 
their word ; that they may all be one; as thou, Father, art 
in me, and I in thee, that they also may be one in us : that 
the world may believe that thou hast sent me.' 

" The plan of Dr. Schmucker meets my approbation 
more fully than any other that has come to my knowledge, 
because it does not restrict itself to arguments for union, 
and eloquent declamation on the beauties of a harmonizing 
church, whilst the way of bringing it about was left un- 
touched. He has answered the question in a manner 
highly creditable to him as a theologian and a Christian. 
How is this to be effected ? The mode of accomplishing it 
is intelligible, by no means complicated, it secures all vital 
truth, guards against extensive innovation in existing insti- 
tutions, does not run counter to that attachment to the 
formularies of government and discipline in any church to 
which we may belong, which is so natural, and places the 
united church on a better basis to maintain internal peace, 
and to avoid dangerous dissensions, than has ever yet 

" With these views, I anxiously wish that the church 
of Jesus Christ in this country would take into most serious 
consideration the appeal which has been addressed to them 
on this subject. May the day not be distant when our eyes 
shall behold a convention of Christian divines deliberating 
in the spirit of the Master, on this great subject, and bring- 
ing forth their solemn decision in favor of union between 
Christian denominations, and of concentrated action in the 
great objects of the Christian enterprise." 















The Doctor sometimes spoke to his students in class 
on the subject of religious controversy. He did not object 
to controversy when properly conducted. " Our aim," he 
instructed us, " should not be victory over our opponents, 
but the truth." " Religious controversy," he said, " though 
it often degenerates from that calm and dignified character, 
which it should ever sustain as a mutual search after truth. 


seems, sometimes, to be nece >sary and proper. Discussions 
on topics of practical utility a''e alike pleasing to God and 
beneficial to the church, if conducted in a Christian spirit, 
and the parties have truth, and not victory for their aim. 
Truth is the will of God, exhibited in the diversified crea- 
tions of his hand, either physical, intellectual, or moral, and 
the revelation of his word, correctly apprehended by the 
human mind. Since truth therefore is ot God, it need fear 
no investigation. The divinity that is in it will secure its 
ultimate triumph. Though it may for a season be obscured 
or crushed to earth by passion, prejudice, or irresponsible 
authority, it will sooner or later assert its rights, and secure 
the homage of all upright minds. No friend of truth 
should dread impartial investigation. If he has uncon- 
sciously imbibed erroneous opinions, he will thus be con- 
ducted to the truth ; and if his views are correct, they will 
be confirmed by investigation. ' Eternal vigilance has been 
styled the price of civil liberty ; ' and to ' search the Scrip- 
tures daily,' to ' prove all things and hold fast to that which 
is good,' is the grand safeguard of religious truth and 
ecclesiastical purity. The life of the greatest moral hero of 
the sixteenth century, — Martin Luther, — to whom Chris- 
tianity is so largely indebted, was almost entirely expended 
in controversial efforts ; and even the mild and peace-loving 
Melancthon felt it his duty to devote much of his time, his 
learning, and his talents to the vindication of the truth 
against its enemies." 

The most serious controversy in which Dr. Sch mucker 
was engaged took place in 1856. It was in relation to 
the " Definite Platform," or " American Recension of the 
Augsburg Confession." This document was prepared by 
Drs. Schmucker, Kurtz and Sprecher, but Dr. Schmucker 
declared himself its author. It was drawn up at the request 
of about twenty Lutheran ministers in the East and in the 


West, men " of the very first responsibility." We give an 
account of its inception and preparation in the Doctor's own 
words : 

" The Definite Platform could never, ivith truth, be 
regarded as the work of a few individuals. Its inception was 
the result of a consultation of a large number of influential 
brethren, especially of the West, who had been convinced 
by the aggressions of surrounding symbolists, that a 
decided, but also a more definite stand on the ground of the 
General Synod, was necessary in self defence. It was pre- 
pared and published at their request, not as an official doc- 
ument, but as a draft of such a basis as they had agreed 
on. It was presented to them, and taken up for considera- 
tion by their several Synods; and the unanimity with which 
they adopted it is conclusive proof that it was prepared ac- 
cording to the stipulated principles." 

It was printed in pamphlet form and sent to the dis- 
trict synods in connection with the General Synod for dis- 
cussion and adoption, if thought proper. It was adopted 
by three synods in the West, within a few weeks after its 
publication. So far as we know, it was not adopted by any 
of the Eastern synods, except perhaps the Melancthon, 
which had temporarily separated from the Maryland Synod, 
but after a few years re-united with it.* 

I distinctly remember the discussion when it was 
brought up in the West Pennsylvania Synod. It was bit- 
terly opposed by Dr. Baugher, Sr., and some others. 
Referring to the omissions in the Confession, he made use 

* The following Synods in the West adopted the Definite Platform: 
The Synod of Ohio, the Olive Branch Synod, of Ohio, and the Wit- 
tenberg Synod, of Ohio. Morris' Fifty Years in the Ministry, page 

Dr. Jacobs, in his History, says, " It was indorsed by one of the 
smallest synods of Ohio, " which is doubtless an unintentional error 
by the learned historian. See his History, p. 426. 

BRRORS ci.aime;d to be in the confession. 317 

of the following striking figure of speech, " Here is a beau- 
tiful tree standing in front of a man's house, and some one 
comes along and cuts off some of its branches." To which 
it was replied, " When a tree has stood over three hundred 
years, it will naturally need some little trimming." 

One reason assigned for the necessity of the American 
Recension was the fact, that the Western General Synod 
churches were mtermingled with the German churches of 
the Missouri and Old Ohio Synods, which insist upon the 
adoption of the whole mass of the Symbolical Books. It 
is stated, also, that " not a single sentence has been added 
to the Augsburg Confession, whilst those several aspects of 
doctrine only were omitted which have long since been 
regarded by the great mass of our churches as unscriptural 
and as remnants of Romish error." 

The only errors claimed to be contained in the Augs- 
burg Confession (and which are omitted in the Recension) 
are : 

1 . The Approval of the Ceremonies of the Mass ; 

2. Private Confession and Absolution ; 

3. Denial of the Divine Obligation of the Christian 
Sabbath ; 

4. Baptismal Regeneration ; 

5. The Real Presence of the Body and Blood of the 
Savior in the Eucharist. 

" With these few exceptions we retain the entire Augs- 
burg Confession with all the great doctrines of the Refor- 

A most exciting controversy followed in the church 
papers, particularly the Lutheran Observer, and afterwards 
in pamphlets and books. Dr. Morris in his Fifty Years in 
the Ministry has copied the gist of what was published 
against the Definite Platform, and Drs. Kurtz and 
Schmucker wrote in its defense in the Observer. Some one 


said, Dr. Schmucker made the greatest mistake of his life 
in preparing this document, and his son. Dr. B. M. 
Schmucker, says, " The Definite Platform was his most 
unsuccessful publication." Yet, " No one questioned the 
sincerity of his conviction, or the completeness of his con- 
secration to Christ and his church." * 

It must certainly be admitted, that the publication of 
this document was unsuccessful, in so far as it failed to be 
adopted by any considerable number of synods, and its 
authors also made a mistake by underestimating the 
strength of the confessional sentiment which had been 
infused into the church by the influence of the German 
Lutherans in this country. Had the Definite Platform 
been presented at the time of the organization of the Gen- 
eral Synod, or even twenty- five or thirty years later, it 
would undoubtedly have been adopted, without opposition. 
In confirmation of this opinion Dr. Schmucker makes the 
following statement in his book, American Luthcranism 
Vindicated, pp. 39-41 : " Dr. George Lochman, D. D., 
(father of Dr. A. H. Lochman, of York, one of the founders 
of the General Synod), one of the most active, pious, and 
respected divines of our church, in his Catechism, published 
in 1822, states it as one of ' the leading principles' of our 
church, ' that the Holy Scriptures and not human authority , 
are the only source whence we are to draw our religious 
sentiments, whether they relate to faith or practice.' * That 
christians are accountable to God alone for their religious 

" He also published an edition of the Augsburg Con- 
fession, in his work, entitled Doctrine and Discipline of the 
Evangelical Lutheran Church, in which he made more omis- 
sions than are found in the American Recension ; and yet no 

* Wolf s Lutherans in America, p. 346. 

DR. lochman's omissions. ' 319 

one found fault with him for doing so. That the reader 
may judge of the extent of these omissions, we specify 
them : In 

Art. I. he omitted the definition of person, in the 

Art. II. omits the condemnatory clause. 

Art. III. omits the epithet pure, in reference to the Vir- 
gin Mary, and the reference to the so-called ' Apostles' 

Art. IV. omits the closing sentence, that God will 
regard this faith as righteousness. 

Art. V. omits the condemnatory clause, and part of 
another sentence. 

Art. VI. omits the word ' true', in reference to the 
unity of the church. 

Art. VIII. omits the condemnatory clause concerning 
the Donatisis. 

Art. IX. omits the name Anabaptists. 

Art. X. omits the condemnatory clause. . 

Art. XII. omits 'absolution ' and part of the condem- 
natory clause. 

Art. XVII. omits the condemnatory clause. 

Art. XVIII. omits the name of Augustine's work, 
Hypognosticon, and about ten lines at the close. 

Art. XIX. omits the last sentence. 

Art. XX. oi$iits different portions of this long article, 
amounting to one-half of the whole. 

Art. XXI. omits all that is said on war, and the Turks, 
etc., and the entire concluding paragraph, amounting to half 
a page 12 mo. 

"Yet this work (of Dr. Lochman) was circulated 
thoughout the church, and we never heard a single word of 
objection, although the notes appended to it are far from 
being symbolic." 


Among the first to take up the pen against the Definite 
Platform was Rev. John N. Hoffman, then pastor of Trinity 
Lutheran Church in Reading, Pa. He came out in a 
printed pamphlet, entitled " The Broken Platform." This 
does not appear to have been a learned effort. 

I find it criticised in Dr. Fry's " History of Trinity 
Luth. Church," and in Dr. Morris' " Fifty years in the min- 
istry," The former says apologetically, that " he suffered 
from bodily weakness," and the latter says, " The book 
was crudely put together, hastily prepared, and carelessly 
composed. It was not equal to the acknowledged talents of 
the author. He was a man of mental vigor, but of imper- 
fect education, and most billions temperament." Dr. 
Schmucker did not deem it worth while to take any notice, 
publicly, so far as I have seen, of Hoffman's ' broken plat- 

An abler and more moderate attack on the Definite 
Platform appeared in a book written by W. J. Mann, Pas- 
tor of a German Lutheran church in Philadelphia and Pro- 
fessor of Theology in Mount Airy Seminary. Dr. 
Schmucker replied in a book of nearly 200 pages under the 
title, " American Lutheranisni Vindicatedy 

The discussion between these two reverend gentlemen 
may be set down as a model of Christian controversy. Dr. 
Schmucker opens the discussion as follows : 

*' Within the last few months, a discussion on creeds has 
occupied the religious papers of our church in this country, 
the specific subjects of which were the merits of the ' Defi- 
nite Synodical Platform^ recently adopted by several of our 
Western Synods, and the import and scriptural truth of 
some portions of that venerable document, the Augsbitrg 
. Confession. In these discussions we took part, in a series 
of articles over the initials of our name, in the Lutheran 
Observer, in vindication of the Definite Platform, which we 


hold to be a faithful and definite exhibition of the import of 
the generic doctrinal pledge of the General Synod. That 
pledge includes, in connection with absolute assent to the 
Word of God, as the only infallible rule of faith and prac- 
tice, the belief ' that the fundamental doctrines of Scripture 
are taught in a manner substantially correct in the doc- 
trinal articles of the Augsburg Confession ; ' and the Plat- 
form is an unaltered copy of these articles of that confession, 
only omitting those parts, which we know by long ac- 
quaintance with American Lutherans, to be generally re- 
garded by them not only as nonfundamental, but erroneous. 
The Definite Platform, therefore retains even more o( the 
Augsburg Confession than the General Synod's pledge 
requires ; for it contains some specifications of the Augs- 
burg Confession, which though true, are not fundamental. 
The Platform is, therefore, more symbolic than the General 
Synod's doctrinal basis, though the contrary opinion has 
repeatedly been expressed, by those who have not carefully 
examined. Had both parties in this discussion exhibited 
more christian comity, and abstained from personalities, 
levelling their logical artiliery against opinions instead of 
the persons entertaining them, the effect upon the church 
would, we think, have been favorable, and unity of senti- 
ment might have been promoted. That a different im- 
pression has been made on many minds is, doubtless, owing 
to the human infirmity and passion that mingled in the 
contest. Which party exhibited the largest amount of this 
weakness, we will not undertake to decide, although we 
doubt not, that here as in most other cases, the judgement 
of the Leyden cobbler would be found correct, who was in 
the habit of attending the public Latin disputations of the 
university, and when asked whether he understood Latin, 
replied, 'No, but I know who is wrong in the argument, by 
seeing who gets angry first.' Nevertheless, christian truth 


has often been defended in a very unchristian way, and 
doubtless more depends on the natural temper and the 
manners of the disputants, as well as the extent to which 
divine grace enables them to subdue their passions. The 
disposition occasionally evinced, to frown down discussion - 
by invective and denunciation, is not only illogical, as it 
proves neither the affirmative nor negative of the disputed 
question ; but in this free country, where we acknowledge 
no popes, and in the judgment of free Americans, who think 
for themselves, it must always reflect unfavorably on its 

" The same topic, so closely connected with the prosper- 
ity of our beloved church, is to engage our attention on the 
present occasion, in reply to an interesting, christian, and 
gentlemanly pamphlet, from the pen of the Rev. Mr. Mann, 
of Philadelphia, who controverts some of the positions of 
the Definite Synodical Platform. It shall be my earnest 
effort to write in the same christian manner, and my prayer 
is that the Spirit of our Divine Master may direct my pen, 
that it may record. 

' No line, wticli dying, I could wish to blot.' 

The reply of his antagonist is worthy of the " Mann." 
It reads as follows: " We shall endeavor to maintain in this 
controversy a dignified and christian spirit, as becomes this 
holy subject, and though differing in some points, know one 
Master and one service. People on earth will always differ 
in their opinions. The truth will gain by giving free scope 
to ivestigation, and by the illustrations of the different 
sides of the same question." On this Dr. Schmucker re- 
marks, " This position is true, and creditable alike to the 
head and the heart of the author." 

We have not the space to give the arguments on both 
sides of this interesting discussion, and will therefore con- 


tent ourselves by rendering a mere outline. We give the 
topics in the order in which they are enumerated. 

I. The approval of the ceremonies of the mass. The 
words, in Art. xxiv. read as follo\vs : " It is unjustly 
charged against our churches, that they have abolished the 
mass. For it is notorious, that the mass is celebrated 
among us with greater devotion and seriousness, than by 
our opponents, (the Papists) .... In the public ceremo- 
nies of the mass, also, no other perceptible change has been 
made, than that in several places German hymns are sung 
along with the Latin." 

The discussion on the mass extends over thirty-three 
pages of the " American Lutherism Vindicated." The 
whole point of dispute is on the question, whether the mass 
and the Lord's Supper mean the same thing. Dr. Mann 
affirms, that " the word mass was at the time when the Con- 
fession was written, (1530) in general use for the Eucharist; 
and that in later years the term mass, in this sense, was en- 
tirely given up." Dr. Schmucker on the other hand main- 
tains, that the mass and the Lord's Supper, have entirely 
distinct meanings ; first, because there are two different 
articles in the Confession; the one with mass (Messe) for its 
caption, and the other headed: of the holy supper. Now, 
if mass here signified Holy Supper, the probability is, that 
one or the other term would have been used in both places; 
Secondly, that Luther and the other reformers designated 
them as diffc;rent things. We give only two citations from 
Luther : ' Above all other abominations, the mass, that 
has hitherto been regarded as a sacrifice or good work, by 
which one designed to procure grace for the other, is to be 
rejected,' * 

" 'Let this much suffice to be said of the Mass, and 

* leather's Works Vol. XX. p. 3. 


service of the minister; we will now proceed to treat of the 
manner in which the holy sacrament shall be administered 
to the people, for whose benefit es[)ecially the Supper of our 
Lord was instituted.'" * 

The remainder of the other thirty-three pages of the 
Vindication are filled up with citations from other Luth- 
eran authors, which the readers can consult, if they have 
the desire to do so. 

II. Of Private Confession and Absolution. Three kinds 
of confession and absolution are referred to in the discussion 
between Drs. Schmucker and Mann; i. Auricular con- 
fession and absolution as practiced in the Romish Church, 
2. Private Confession and Absolution, as taught in the 
Augsburg Confession, and 3. Public or General Confession 
and Absolution as practiced in the American Lutheran 
churches. The main difference between the Romish 
Auricular Confession, and private or individual Confession, 
consists in this, that the former requires all sins to be con- 
fessed to the priest, and that there can be no absolution for 
sins not thus confessed, and the latter does not require a 
detailed enumeration of all sins committed, but only of the 
most important ones {tiur die Groebstcn). 

The following is the manner in which Private Confes- 
sion and Absolution was practiced : " Absolution was re- 
cieved privately by each one individually, kneeling before 
the confessional, the confessor imposing liis hands ^\.\kiQ.\Xm.%. 
Private confession was given only in the church, in which 
the confessional was so located near the pulpit, that no other 
person could be near, or hear what was said by the 
penitent."t The following directory for Absolution will 
convey to the reader a correct idea of its form : 

* Luther's letter to Nicolas Hausman in 1523. 
fSee Koecher p. 515. 


'It is well known that/nW/^ confession was rejected in 
the Lutheran Church in Denmark and Sweden in the be- 
ginning, as well as by different portions of Germany at an 
early day, and a public or general confession adopted in its 
stead. In Luther's Short Directory for Confession, &c., we 
have his formula iox private or individual absolution, which 
will convey to the reader a more correct idea of its form : 
After the directions for confession of sins; the 

Confessor says : * God be merciftd to thee and strengthen 
thy faith. Amen! 

' Dost thou believe that my remission of thy sins is God's 
remission f 

Answer of the penitent : ' Yes, dear sir, I do! 

Then the confessor says : ^According to thy faith, so be 
it imto thee. And /, by command of our Lord Jesus Christ, 
forgive thee thy sins, in the name of the Father, the Son, and 
the Holy Ghost. Amen. Depart in peace! " 

The discussion of this subject covers 9 printed pages. 
We give a brief outline. 

Mann. " Private confession may be useful as a means 
of bringing the members of the church into personal inter- 
view with the pastor." 

Schmucker. "The advantage of such interviews we 
freely admit ; but they can be, and are secured in our 
churches without this rite; and as it is confessedly destitute 
of Scripture authority, we have no right to invent a new 
ordinance in Christ's church for any purpose." 

M. ''The impression n>ight be made by the Platform, 
that the Lutheran doctrine has some affinity to the Romish 
doctrine of Auricular Confession." 

5. " But the Platform expressly states the rejection 
of Auricular Confession by the Reformers and their reten- 
tion of what they called Private Confession in its stead." 


M. " 'The power of the Keys' authorizes a minister to 
pronounce absolution of sins, Matt, xviii. i8. 'Whatsoever 
ye shall bind on earth shall be bound in heaven.' " 

6". "But the previous context, ' Tell it to the church* 
etc., clearly shows, that it refers to church discipline, and 
signifies, * Whatever acts oi discipline ye enact in regard to 
such an individual, I will ratify in heaven.* But this has 
no bearing on private confession and private absolution. 

"The other passage from John xx. 23. * Whose soever 
sins ye remit, they are remitted unto them ; and whose soever 
sins ye retain, they are retained,' was uttered on a different 
occasion, after the Savior's resurrection ; and either refers 
to a miraculous power bestowed on the apostles, to discern 
the condition of the heart, and to announce pardon to those 
whom they knew to be truly penitent and believing ; or to 
confer on the ministry, in all ages, the power to announce 
in general, the condition on which God will pardon sinners. 
But it contains no authority to uninspired ministers to apply 
these promises to individuals, the condition of whose hearts 
they cannot know, as is done in private absolution." Dr. 
Schmucker makes the following additional statements : 

" In Art. XXVI. of the Augsburg Confession, being 
Topic V. of the Abuses Corrected, the Confession says : 
* Confession is not commanded in Scripture, but has been 
instituted by the church' Even the inspired apostles never 
in a single instance, either undertook to forgive sins them- 
selves, or to announce the pardon of sin to any individual 
personally. It is therefore a solemn thing for ministers, un- 
guided by inspiration, to assume greater power, 

" The Scriptures throughout present God, and the 
Lamb of God, as the only beings that can ' forgive ' and 
' take away ' sin. Ex. xxiv. 6, 7, ' The Lord passed by 
before him and proclaimed, ' The Lord God, vazxQXiwX— for- 
giving iniquity, transgression and sin! ' 


" The very fact, that sin is committed essentially 
against God, in violation of His law, implies that no other 
being, not even an angel or archangel, much less a man 
(who is himself a sinner — Ed.) can forgive it. ' Against 
thee, thee only, have I sinned]' said the P.salmist, ' and 
done this evil in thy sight.' 

" The Lutheran Church in Sweden and Denmark have 
always rejected Private Confession and Absolution in practice. 
And the entire church in Germany and the United States, 
which now use public confession, have also discontinued it. 
With the exception, perhaps, of the Missouri Synod and its 
allies in Germany, we are not aware that Private Confession 
and Absolution are practiced by any Lutheran churches 
in the world." 

III. Denial of the Divine Institution and Obligation of 
the Christian Sabbath. The discussion on this topic covers 
fourteen pages in the Vindication. Art. XXVIII, of the 
Augsburg Confession contains the teachings which are 
objected to. We quote the following : " Those who sup- 
pose that the ordinance concerning Sunday instead of Sab- 
bath is enacted as necessary, are greatly mistaken." '" It 
was necessary to appoint a certain day, in order that the 
people might know when they should assemble ; the Chris- 
tian Church has appointed Sunday (the Lord's Day) for this 
purpose ; and to this change she was the more inclined 
and willing, that the people might have an example of 
Christian liberty, and might know that the observance of 
neither Sabbath, nor any other day is necessary!] 

" The consciences of men must not be oppressed by 
representing these things as necessary to salvation, or teach- 
ing that they are guilty of sin, if they break these regulations 
without offense to others ; for no one affirms that a woman 
commits sin who goes out with her head uncovered, with- 
out giving offense to the people. Such also is the ordi- 


NANCE CONCERNING SuNDAY, Eastcr, Whit Sunday and simi- 
lar festivals and customs." 

The Augsburg Confession distinctly teaches, 

1. " That the Jewish Sabbath was entirely abolished ; 

2. " That no particular day was divinely appointed in 
its stead ; 

3. " That those who suppose the ordinance concern- 
ing Sunday instead of Sabbath is enacted as necessary, 'are 
greatly mistaken ; ' 

4. " But that as it was necessary to appoint a certain 
day for the convocation of the people, ' the Christian Church 
(not the apostles,) appointed Sunday.' " 

Dr. Mann in his " Plea for the Augsburg Confession," 
affirms that the Confession does not object to the divine 
institution and obligation of the Lord's Day, but to the 
corruptions which the Romish Church had connected with 
it, and especially the idea that the observance of the Lord's 
Day was a meritorious work, and would secure our justifi- 
cation before God. 

On page 28 of his Plea he writes, " Luther and 
Melancthon had received from the older church the doc- 
trine and practice of the Christian Sabbath, as a holy day, 
as a divine institution and obligation, and they had not a 
word to say against this view of the Sabbath." So also 
Dr. Krauth, Jr., who is regarded as very high authority by 
many, affirms that the Confession teaches the divine obli- 
gation of the Lord's Day. So also the General Synod at 
York declared its belief in the divine obligation of the 
Lord's Day. Indeed, our English American Lutheran 
churches all, so far as we know, believe in the divine insti- 
tution of the Christian Sabbath or Lord's Day. Yet at the 
time of the Reformation the views and practice of all the 
churches were very lax on this subject, and those who now 
profess to understand the Confession better than we do, 


declare, that it teaches, the Sabbath was instituted for the 
Jews only, and is not obligatory on the Gentiles, but was 
abrogated at the advent of Christ. In corroboration of this, 
Dr. Schmucker quotes from some of the most distinguished 
German theologians, such as Drs. Ruecker, Hengstenberg, 
and Walter, We give herewith the quotation from Prof. 
Walter : 

" We cannot agree with him (the author, whom he is 
reviewing) in the views he expresses concerning the Sab- 
bath. He asserts that the Sabbath or Christian Sunday is 
a divine institution, and that this is the doctrine of the Luth- 
eran Symbols ; That the Lutheran Church differs from the 
Calvinistic only in the mode ot observing the Sabbath, the 
former advocating an evangelical, the latter, a legal method. 
The contrary of this is clearly evident from Article XXVIII 
of the Augsbiag Confession, and it would be almost incompre- 
hensible how the author could fail to perceive this, were it not 
for his manifest desire to make the sanctification of the 
Sabbath as binding a duty as any other precept in the 
decalogue, and his apprehension that this could not be 
accomplished in any other way, than by maintaining the 
divine appointment of the Sunday." 

" The Augsburg Confession treats the Sabbath as a 
mere Jewish institution, and supposes it to be totally revoked, 
whilst the propriety of our retaining the Lord's Day or 
Christian Sabbath as a day of religious worship, is supposed 
to rest only on the agreement of the churches for the con- 
venience of general convocation." 

To this may be added the action of the Missouri 
Synod during the World's Fair in Chicago. The Protest- 
ant churches sent petitions to Congress, very numerously 
signed, asking that the gates of the fair grounds should be 
closed on Sunday. The Missourians declared in their 
theological monthly, " Lehre und ll'ehre,'' that if the gates 


were to be closed on Sunday to give the employees rest, it 
was all right ; but if it was for Scriptural reasons, it was 
wrong ; and they would not sign the petitions. If we mis- 
take not, the Roman Catholics also declined to sign the 

IV, V. The Sacraments of Baptism and the Lord's 
Supper. We will present a few extracts from the discussion 
on these ordinances : 

Mann : " The Lutheran doctrine maintains that the 
Sacraments have an intrinsic value ; but the Definite Plat- 
form seems to regard them as mere signs, which may have 
a tendency to promote piety. 

Schmucker: "We not only admit, but strenuously 
affirrti, that the Sacraments have an important, intrinsic 
influence. The Platform thus describes it, ' Baptism in 
adults is a means of making a profession of previous faith, 
or of being received into the visible church, as well as a 
pledge and condition of obtaining those blessings purchased by 
Christ, and offered to all who repent, believe in him, and 
profess his name by Baptism.' " 

Mann: "The Primitive Church regarded the Sacra- 
ments as mysteries'' 

Schmucker: " But Mr. Mann presents no evidence of 
this fact from God's word, or the apostolic church ; and the 
church of subsequent ages is no conclusive doctrinal author- 
ity for us Protestants." 

M. " God is able to accomplish by the Holy Bap- 
tism, performed in the mysterious name of the ever adored 
_ Trinity, a work of regeneration in the heart of the little 
child. The expression used in the Augsburg Confession, 
Article II., is ' Regenerated by Baptism and the Holy 
Ghost.' (John iii. 5.) This doctrine, however, is not to be 
understood, as if the new creation was fully completed by 
new generation. It is complete, so far as a live seed is com- 


plete in itself. Thisdoesby no means exclude subsequent de- 
velopment brought about by favorable internal and external 
influence. And Christ, the God-man, is able to make us 
poor creatures partakers of his celestial nature (2 Pet. i. 4,) 
in the most solemn rite of his church, (the Eucharist) which 
is therefore communion between Christ and man in the 
fullest manner possible on earth." 

.S. "Here the respected author, (Dr. Mann,) by adopt- 
ing the theory that a living seed is implanted by Baptism 
(whether into the soul or body he does not specify,) and 
then that the Godman, Christ Jesus, makes these baptized 
individuals partakers of his Celestial Nature hy the sacra- 
mental supper, seems to favor something like the theory of 
concorporation, or a physical union between Christ and 
the believer, which is known in variojis places as Puseyism 
in England, and Nevinism in the German Reformed 
Church in this country, and which has spread a withering 
influence over the interests of practical piety wherever em 
braced. Yet we would by no means affirm that Rev. Mr. 
Mann has embraced all the cardinal features of this sys- 
tem." * 

* For the information of such of our readers as prefer a skeleton 
of the Puseyite system of the sacraments, rather than wade through 
volumes of Semi-romish discussion, we annex its features: — 

I. That man is ' ' made a member of Christ, the child of God, an 1 
an inheritor of the kingdom of heaven," in and by holy Baptism. 

II. That man " made a member of Christ, the child of God, and 
an inheritor of the kingdom of heaven," in and by holy Baptism, is 
renewed from time to time in holy Communion. 

III. That a "death unto sin, and a new birth unto righteous- 
ness " is given to every adult, and every infant, in and by the outward 
visible sign or form in Baptism, "water, in the name of the Father, 
and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost." 

IV. That the gift may be received, in the case of adults, worthily 
or unworthily, but that it is always received. 

V. That the body and blood of Christ are given to everyone who 
receives the Sacramental Bread and Wine, 

VI That the gift may be received worthily or unworthily, but 
that it is always received. 

There is no mistaking the meaning of this. It is clear and ex- 
plicit; but wherein it diflfers from Romanism it would be difficult to 
tell. — American Lutheranism Vindicated i> 124. 


The Definite Platform rejects also the rite of Exor- 
cism, which was practiced in connection with Baptism, and 
is prescribed in the Book of Concord. We give the fol- 
lowing extract from the Directory for Baptism : " The min- 
ister shall say, ' Come out, thou unclean spirit, and give 
place to the Holy Ghost.' Then he shall make the sign 
of the cross on forehead and breast, and say, ' Receive the 
sign of the holy cross, both on forehead and breast.' After 
a short prayer he continues, ' I adjure thee, thou unclean 
spirit, in the name of the Father, f and the Son, f and the 
Holy Ghost, f that thou come out and depart from this 
the servant of Jesus Christ. Amen.' " * 

This rite is now regarded as a remnant of Romish su- 
perstition. It was translated from the Latin into the German 
language and incorporated into the Symbolical Books. " It 
presupposes, that the child before Baptism is possessed by 
an evil spirit, and that this rite or formula has a magic in- 
fluence over the kingdom of evil spirits." f 

According to Siegel and others. Exorcism was re- 
ceived and practiced in Sweden, the entire kingdom of 
Wurtemberg, Hanover, Saxony, etc. But we have no 
knowledge of a single English Lutheran congregation in 
America, that has received and practiced Exorcism. 

Therefore as regards, 

1. The approval of the ceremonies of the mass, 

2. Private confession and absolution; 

3. Denial of the Divine Obligation of the Christian 
Sabbath or Lord's Day ; 

4. Baptismal Regeneration and Exorcism, there seems 
to be a glaring inconsistency in making profession of and 
subscribing to doctrines which we do not believe and rites 
which we do not practice. 

* Book ( f Concord, Wegandt und Grieben, Berlin 1862, page 305. 
t Bautrigarten , History of Christian Doctrines. Vol. ii. page 322. 

Evidences oe pardon and jxjstification. 333 

The following extract from " American Lutheranism 
Vindicated " will be interesting and edifying to our readers: 

" The evidence of this pardon or justification, to the be- 
liever himself, is within his own heart: — 

{a) It is that peace of God, or sense of pardoned sin, 
wrought in the soul by the Holy Spirit. ' Being justified 
by faith, we have peace with God, through our Lord Jesus 
Christ.' Rom. v. i. 

if) ' The love of God shed abroad in our hearts by the 
Holy Ghost which is given unto us.' 

if) It is the testimony of ' the Spirit bearing witness 
with our spirits that we are children of God.' ' He that 
believeth hath the witness in himself.' 

id) It is the fridt of the Spirit, exhibited in the believ- 
er's life, * which is love, joy, peace, long suffering, gentle- 
ness, goodness, faith, meekness, temperance.' 

{e) It is ' being led by the Spirit of God,' for then, 
says the apostle, they are the sons of God, 

" All these evidences presuppose or involve that great 
change of heart and life, termed by the Savior new birth, 
by which the sinner becomes morally qualified for that 
pardon, purchased by the blood of Christ, and appropriated 
to the believer by his faith. But no outward rites necessar- 
ily imply such moral preparation, and hence they could not 
be the conditions of justification, according to the analogy 
of God's Word. 

" Hence the sacraments. Baptism and the Lord's Supper, 
are not the immediate conditions or means of pardon or jus- 
tification; but they are means of grace, like the Word of God 
and seals of grace to all worthy recipients. They have an 
intrinsic efficacy by virtue of the truths symbolically repre- 
sented by them, and an additional specific efficacy in virtue 
of their peculiar nature, in connexion with the influence of 
the Holy Spirit, to awaken, convert and sanctify the soul," 

334 VIEWS OF i^ord's supper by mosheim. 

The remainder ofthe discussion on the Definite Platform 
is taken up with a controversy on the presence of the real 
body and blood of Christ in the Sacrament, which perhaps 
would not interest or edify our readers very much, and we 
will therefore conclude this chapter by a quotation from his 
edition of Luther's Smaller Catechism as a brief statement 
of his view on the Savior's presence in the Lord's Supper : 

" The Lutheran church," says the celebrated Dr. Mos- 
heim, " does not believe in impanation, nor in subpanation, 
nor in consubstantiation ; nor in a physical or material pres- 
ence of the body and blood of the Savior." Elementa 
Theol. Dog. in loc. 

" The Lutheran church maintains that the Savior ful- 
fills his promise and is actually present, especially present, 
at the Holy Supper, in a manner incomprehensible to us, 
and not defined in Scripture. And why should it be 
thought impossible, that he, who fills immensity with his 
presence should be there, where his disciples meet to cele- 
brate his dying love." 

Here is an extract from Dr. J. G. Morris' edition of 
Luther's Smaller Catechism : 

" What the nature of this presence is, we know not. The 
thing itself we know ; but the mode of its truth is a mys- 
tery which we cannot comprehend. We deny that Christ 
is present and received in a physical or material manner. 
But should any one ask. How is he present ? Our answer 
is. We know not. We commonly call his presence in this 
holy ordinance, a * sacramental presence.' This might 
seem to be an attempt to define the mode of his presence ; 
but by this word we mean nothing more than that we are 
ignorant of the mode. — They therefore err who say that 
we believe in impanation, or that Christ is /« the bread and 
wine. Nor are those correct who charge us with believing 
subpanation, that is, that Christ is under the form of bread 


baugher's doctrine and usages. 335 

and wine. And equally groundless is the charge of co?i- 
substantiation, or the belief that the body and blood of 
Christ are changed into one substance with the bread and 
wine." — Dr. Mosheim. 

The Rev. Henry Baugher, D. D., President of Penn'a 
College and father of Prof H. L. Baugher, Jr., D. D., in 1840 
prepared an excellent report on the Doctrines and Usages 
of the Synod of Maryland, of which he was an honored and 
inflaential member. It will be seen from the following ex- 
tract, that he held substantially the same views on Regen- 
eration, Sacraments and the Symbolical Books, as those set 
forth by Dr. Schmucker in his defense of the Definite Plat- 
form : 

" On Regeneration. — We believe that the Scriptures 
teach that regeneration is the act of God, the Holy Ghost, 
by which, through the truth, the sinner is persuaded to 
abandon his sins and submit to God, on the terms made 
known in the gospel. This change, we are taught, is radi- 
cal, and is essential to present peace and eternal happiness. 
Consequently, it is possible, and is the privilege ot the re- 
generated person to know and rejoice in the change pro- 
duced in him. 

" Of the Sacraments. — We believe that the Scriptures 
teach, that there are but two sacraments, viz. : Baptism and 
the Lord's Supper, in each of which, truths essential to sal- 
vation are symbolically represented. We do not believe 
that they exert any influence ' ex opere operator but only 
through the faith of the believer. Neither do the scriptures 
warrant the belief, that Christ is present in the Lord's Sup- 
per in any other than a spiritual manner. 

" Of the Symbolical Books. — Luther's Larger and 
Smaller Catechisms, the Formula Concordiae, Augsburg 
Confession, Apology, and Smalkald Articles are called in 
Germany the Symbolical Books of the church. We regard 
them as good and useful exhibitions of truth, but do not 
receive them as binding on the conscience, except so far as 
they agree with the word of God." 

336 schmucker's resignation. 


Schmucker's resignation — his letter to the board — 
NO change in his doctrinal views — reasons for 
resignation — increasing age — desire for literary 
work — brown, his successor — sketch of his life — 

brown's charges — schmucker's reply — NATURAL DE- 




DR. schmucker's RESIGNATION. 

Early in 1864, Dr. Schmucker announced his intention 
to resign his professorship in the Seminary. We give the 
following extracts from the minutes of the Board : 

"■Meeting of Aug. gth., 1864. " Early in February, 1864, 
Rev. S. S. Schmucker, D. D., informed me (the President 
of the Board,) that he intended resigning the chair of 
Didactic Theology at the next meeting of the Board. The 
fact was made known to the directors and the church in 
general, by the following announcement, together with the 
letter of notification, in the Lutheran and Missioniry and 
Lutheran Observer. 


Announcement of the Intended Resignation of Dr. S. 
S. Schmucker. 

It becomes the duty of the undersigned to announce 
to the members of the Board of Directors of the Theological 
Seminary at Gettysburg, that the Rev. S. S. Schmucker, D. 
D., has formally notified him, that he purposes resigning 
the Professorship of Didactic Theology at their next meet- 
ing. F. W. Conrad, 

President of the Board of Directors, 

Gettysburg, February. 

Letter of Resignation. 

Gettysburg, February, 1864.. 

Rev. F. W. Conrad, 

President Board of Directors of Theol. Seminary, 

Dear Brother in Christ. — After nearly forty-four 
years spent in the active duties of the ministerial office, 
thirty-eight of which were in connection with the Theolog- 
ical Seminary, I have resolved, after long and prayerful 
deliberation to resign my professorship at the next meeting 
of the Board in August. For this purpose I now give you 
the constitutional notice of six months in advance. Whilst 
I reserve to a future communication to the Board such 
remarks as I may feel desirous of making, I will state in 
general, that my chief reasons for this step, are the increas- 
ing infirmities of age, and a desire to devote the remaining 
years of my life more particularly to literary labors for the 
cause of God and of religion. 

With sentiments of the warmest fraternal regard, I 
remain Yours in Christ, 

S. S. Schmucker. 

" During the second session of this meeting, Aug. 9th, 
1864, Dr. Schmucker himself read the following paper : 


"'Christian Brethren : Having six months ago for 
warded to the President of your body, the constitutional 
notice of my intention to resign my office in this Institu- 
tion, I hereby surrender into your hands this important 
trust, to take effect at the close of the present Seminary 
year, September 21st., 1864. Nearly forty years have 
elapsed, since I was elected by the General Synod in 1825, 
as first Professor of the Seminary, yet to be established. 
The greater part of the first year I spent, by request of the 
Board, in collecting funds for the endowment ot the Insti- 
tution, and on the fifth of September, 1825, the 'operation of 
the Seminary commenced. Duringalltheinterveningyears, a 
kind Providence has preserved my health, so that with the 
exception of two or three cases, the instructions have never 
been interrupted more than a few days by sickness. Dur- 
ing all this time also, my conscience bears me witness, that 
I have endeavored to discharge my duties with fidelity, to 
watch over the piety, improvement and general welfare of 
the students, and to promote the best interests of our 
beloved church. 

"' The Constitution of the Seminary, which was 
adopted at the commencement of the Institution, has con- 
tinued to direct all its operations till this day. All its pro- 
visions have been carefully attended to. Its doctrinal tests 
have been statedly repeated before the Board by all the 
Professors, and I am happy here to record the declaration, 
that I approve of them all at present, as when I framed and 
first took them. The text book, viz., my Popular Theology, 
which grew out of my lectures on Dogmatics, during the 
first few years, has been retained till this day as the basis of 
my instructions, without the change of a single doctrine ; 
and I record the additional declaration, that I this day 
cordially believe every doctrine taught in the entire 
volume. These facts I state in justice to the Institution 


and myself, and in view of the future history of the Institu- 
tion and the church. 

" ' In withdrawing from my official connection with the 
Seminary, as its Theological Professor, I feel constrained to 
give expression to my grateful recollection of the cordial 
and active co-operation of the Board throughout the history 
of the In^^titution in the various measures, which as Chair- 
man of the Faculty, I from time to time proposed. Many 
of these dear brethren have entered the eternal world before 
me, and it cannot be very long before some of us will be 
called to join them. 

" ' The reasons which influenced me in tendering my 
resignation at this time, when there has been no serious 
change in my health, are first : The gradual and natural 
increase of the infirmities of age. I formerly thought no 
man ought to hold such a responsible and laborious post, 
as that assigned me, after he had passed the meridian 
vigour of life, say fifty, or at most sixty years of age, but 
should assume some easier post and there labor some years 
longer. But as I successively passed those periods, I was 
not conscious myself of any marked decline of vigor, and 
therefore have retained the post, which, I however now feel 
it a duty to resign to younger and more active hands, 
whilst I propose to labor for the kingdom of my God and 
Savior in various ways, especially by literary efforts. 

" ' With reference to this fact, I would request the 
Board to grant me the use of the Seminary Library, subject 
to the regulations thereof, as has been done to the college 
professors and our pastors in town. This design forms my 
second reason (2,) for resignation, a desire to have more 
time at command for the execution of some literary enter- 
prises, which I hope may redound to the glory of God and 
the benefit of his church, third : I have also, after having 
looked at the state of the church for several years, thought 


the present as favorable a time as wou'd soon be offered, to 
elect a successor, who would carry on the work to which 
my life has been devoted, in the same liberal spirit, in 
which this Institution was founded, and has been thus far 
conducted; granting liberty of opinion in regard to those 
non-fundamental points on which the churches of the Gen- 
eral Synod claim and exercise this right. 

" * Fourth : Finally, no one can be more sensible than I 
am, of the imperfection of my best meant services in behalf 
of the church, and of the beloved young men, numbering 
about four hundred, for whose education I have labored. I 
pray God, that he may continue to bless their labors for 
the advancement of the best interests of his church. 

" ' With sincere regard for every member of this Board, 
and my best wishes for their welfare and that of my 
respective colleagues, I close this my final communication, 


Gettysburg, August gth., 1864.. 

"This important document was handed to a committee 
consisting of Drs. Lochman, Hay, and Rev. Baum, who 
subsequently reported the following, which was unani- 
mously adopted : 

'"The undersigned appointed to draft a minute, 
expressing the views of the Board with reference to the 
resignation of Rev. Dr. Schmucker, respectfully present the 
following statement : 

"'This subject, introduced six months ago to the 
notice of the Board, and now formally pressed upon their 
attention, they recognize as one of extreme importance, in 
view of the fact that Dr. Schmucker has been so com- 
pletely identified with the institution from its incipiency, 
and has to so great an extent been entrusted with the 
execution of its affairs. The sundering of relations of such 
long standing, and which involve to so great an extent 


the welfare of our beloved church, is an act that should not 
be performed without solemn consideration and devout 
aspiration for the divine guidance. 

" ' Approaching the subject in this spirit, your commit- 
tee has been led to the deliberate conclusion, that in view 
of the considerations adduced by Dr. Schmucker, in his 
communication to the Board, and of his unqualified 
declaration to the committee as to his settled purpose of 
withdrawing at this time, the Board have no alternative, 
but to accept of his resignation. 

" ' The committee further propose, that the request of 
Dr. Schmucker with reference to the use of the Seminary 
Library be cordially complied with, and the Board at the 
same time return to him their heartfelt thanks for his zeal 
and success, and for his untiring efforts in various ways to 
increase and improve the same. 

" ' Nor can your committee close this report without 
giving some expression of the universal sentiment of 
gratitude, which is felt to be due to one, who has devoted 
the labors of an ordinary life time to our beloved Institu- 
tion, and who amid the increasing infirmities of age, still 
proposes to consecrate the remnant of an active and useful 
life, to the service of the church in a less conspicuous posi- 
tion. May the Lord our Saviour abundantly reward him 
for his years of patient toil, and grant him grace and 
strength, still further to co-operate with his brethren in the 
glorious work of extending the borders and promoting the 
efficiency of our beloved Zion.' 

"Adjourned with prayer by Dr. Hauer. 

" At a subsequent Session, it was 

" Resolved, that the name of the Rev. S. S. Schmucker, 
D. D., be retained on the Catalogue of this Institution dur- 
ing his lifetime, as ' Professor Emeritus.' 

The Gettysburg Star of that date made the following 
editorial remark : 


" If any man has ever earned a good claim to retire 
in his sixty-seventh year from wearisome and routine in- 
struction, upon the honor and dignity of a Professor 
Emeritus, Dr. Schmucker had won that right, when he 
tendered his resignation to the Board of Directors, as the 
active incumbent of the chair of Dogmatic Theology in the 
Seminary of the General Synod." 

" Called to preside over this Institution at its founda- 
tion, he was for some time its sole professor, and he may 
justly be called its father. He held this position until 1864, 
a period of nearly forty years, and during this time, by his 
ascendency over the minds of his students, his numerous 
publications, his debates at synod, and his manifest devo- 
tion to every cause of public interest, he was beyond 
question the most conspicuous and influential man in the 
Lutheran Church in America, and the best known to the 
Christian community outside of it." — U^o//. 

" For eight years more he resided in Gettysburg, lead- 
ing a life of comparative leisure, and yet never idle. A 
certain number of hours every day were spent in his study, 
in general reading, and arranging some literary scheme, 
which, however, was never consummated." — Diehl. 


Rev. James Allen Brown became Dr. Schmucker's 
successor. It will be interesting to the readers to learn 
under what circumstances he was elected to that prominent 
position, and what were the causes that brought about this 
result. Rev. Brown came into prominence in the church 
by his opposition to Dr. Schmucker. He was a colleague 
with Rev. J N. Hoffman in Reading, and near about the 
same time that Hoffman published his " Broken Platform," 
Brown introduced some strong worded resolutions in the 
Synod of East Pennsylvania, against the " Definite Plat- 
form." Afterwards he charged Dr. Schmucker with 


fundamental errors on the doctrines of Regeneration, 
Natural Depravity and Sanctification. By this means he 
got himself into prominence and the way of promotion. 
Had he attacked any other man in the church it would not 
have aroused much attention, nor have had any influence 
in promoting him to higher stations. But the opponents of 
Dr. Schmucker urged him on ; the attention of the church 
was directed to him ; he was called to a professorship of 
Theology and ancient languages in Newberry College, 
South Carolina, and finally elected Professor of Didactic 
Theology and chairman of the faculty in the Seminary at 

As this is a very important event in Dr. Schmucker's 
Hfe, and Rev. Brown's charges affected him more painfully 
than any other occurrence in his life, we will give a brief 
extract" from his biographical sketch in Jenson's American 
Lutheran Biographies, and then copy a part of Dr. 
Schmucker's reply to Rev. Brown's charges against his 
orthodoxy : 


" Was born in Lancaster County, Pa., February 19th., 
1821. Both of his parents were Quakers. His early years 
were passed on the farm, but as he evinced an unusual 
desire for study, he derived every possible advantage from 
the public schools, and a few books which he found in his 
father's library. Then he taught school and pursued his 
studies privately at Mt. Joy, and Emmaus Institute, Mid- 
dletown, Pa., of which his uncle was at that time President. 
He also was a Quaker, but as the charter of that institution 
required that all its officers, directors and teachers must be 
Lutherans, he joined the Lutheran Church. 

" In 1 84 1 Mr. Brown entered the senior class in Penn- 
sylvania College at Gettysburg, and graduated in the class 
of 1 842. During his year at college he connected himself 


with the Presbyterian Church at Gettysburg, being bap- 
tized, February 19th., 1841. From October 22nd., 1842, to 
April 6th., 1843, he had charge of a select school at 
Leitersburg, Md. In the spring of 1844 he was elected 
principal of the academy at Darlington, Md., which office he 
held until the 12th of September, 1845. ^^ the meantime 
he had also been studying theology with Rev. Mr. Carter,^ 
a Presbyterian Minister, at New Windsor, Md. 

"On the i8th of October, 1845, Mr. Brown was 
licensed by the Maryland Synod of the Lutheran Church, 
and received a call to what was then called Luther Chapel, 
now the Third Lutheran Church on Monument St^reet, 
Baltimore. He served this congregation till February 4th., 
1848, when he accepted a call from Zion Lutheran Church 
at York, Pa. This church he served something over a 
year, when he received a call to St. Matthew's Lutheran 
Church in Reading, Pa. His ministry in Reading con- 
tinued nearly ten years. In February, 1859, ^^ accepted a 
professorship of theology and ancient languages in New- 
berry College, South Carolina. But the civil war breaking 
out, he had to flee for safety to the North, where he 
accepted a chaplaincy in the Union Army. After a period 
of fifteen months he resigned and accepted a chaplaincy of 
the United States Army hospital at York, Pa. 

" After two years of faithful service in this capacity, he 
was, in August, 1864, elected Professor of Didactic Theol- 
ogy and Chairman of the Faculty in the Theological Semi- 
nary of the General Synod at Gettysburg, as the successor 
of Dr. Schmucker. 

" On December 9th., 1879, he was suddenly stricken 
with paralysis, which deprived him of the power of speech 
and the use of his right arm. His resignation was tendered 
in June, 1880, but was not accepted by the Board of 
Directors until the summer of 1881. 


" In the month of September, 1881, he removed with 
his family to Lancaster, Pa., and in the spring of 1883, after 
one or two slight relapses, he passed away, on the morning 
of the 19th of June, surrounded by his entire family." 


In justice to Dr. Schmucker, we copy the greater part 
of his reply to Rev. Brown's charges. The importance o( 
the subject is a sufficient apology for the length of the 
quotation. It will also be interesting and instructive to 
students of theology and ministers of the gospel to read 
Dr. Schmucker's views on the subjects of Natural De- 
pravity, Regeneration and Sanctification : 

" The article in the last number of the Review, 
charged us with grave doctrinal errors, and we confess, its 
character and design excited alike our surprise and regret. 
After examining it, however, the title, ' New Theology. By 
Rev. J. A. Brown,' appeared to admit of a meaning more 
appropriate than we had at first supposed ; for the theology 
discussed, though attributed to us, is really, in the main, the 
aggregate of Rev. B's. misapprehensions, and may prop- 
erly be termed his theology. From the beginning, we 
doubted the propriety of a formal reply to this anomalous 
production. Had the writer fairly interpreted our views on 
the topics concerned, as they have for a quarter of a century 
been understood from our Popular Theology (which he re- 
peatedly quotes) and other works, by the divines and 
intelligent laity of our church, and as they have been ap- 
prehended by able reviewers, and by distinguished theo- 
logians of other churches ; we would with pleasure have 
entered on the inquiry with him, whether they accord with 
the ' Word of God, our only infallible rule, and the funda- 
mentals of that Word, as substantially set forth in the 
Augsburg Confession,' which is the doctrinal test of the 
General Synod. But his charge of fundamental heresy, 


when, in the same book, we reiterate and avow the entire 
articles of the Augsburg Confession on the disputed doc- 
trines, savors too much of contracted bigotry, to require a 
serious refutation. The points left undetermined by the 
Augsburg Confession are, at least among American Luther- 
ans, regarded as free subjects of private opinion. And the 
more we examined the article of Rev. B., the more we were 
inclined to accord with the judgement of our friends gener- 
ally, both far and near, who dissuaded us from a reply. 

" Therefore, without any unfriendly feelings towards 
Rev. B., we decline the formal discussion of his article, for 
the following reasons : 

"I. Because his article is not a reviczu of the sentiments 
of our book, but of his otvn glaring misapprehensions and con- 
sequent misrepresentations of them. Either from want of 
ability or disposition, he has misapprehended the fair, 
legitimate import of our Popular Theology^ and of our 
Vindication of American Lutheranism, on each of the sub- 
jects which he discusses ! 

I. "Thus, in our definition of natural depravity, as a 
hereditary ' disorder of our bodily and mental constitution' 
(a mode of definition adopted even by the Form of Con- 
cord), he makes 'mental' signify only a part of the mind, 
and, in truth, makes it exclude the most important part of 
it, namely, the moral or active powers ; and then, on the 
ground of his own erroneous apprehension or definition of 
the term, positively charges us with denying that the moral 
powers are affected by natural depravity ! We would ask, 
are the will and affections no part of the mind ? Does 
mental philosophy denote the science which discusses a 
/(2r^ of our mental faculties, and omits the will and affec- 
tions^ For the same reason, the phrase "mental constitu- 
tion," necessarily signifies the constitution of the mind, and 
not of a part of it. Glaring as this misapprehension is, it is 


rendered the more inexcusable by the fact, that in the same 
chapter of the Popular Theology, which furnishes the Rev. 
B. with our definition of natural depravity (on p. 144), we 
read the following words : ' That it (the natural depravity) 
is total , that is, extends to all our powers, is certain." Such 
glaring misapprehension ol plain English, in a self-consti- 
tuted critic, bears its own refutation on the face of it. 

2. " He misapprehends our definition of regeneration. 
We say regeneration in the Scriptures, designates the whole 
change (by which the sinner becomes a new creature in 
Christ Jesus), therefore including illumination, conviction, 
and penitence, as well as the change occurring in the mind 
in the moment of transition from a state of condemnation 
to that of justification ; but he strangely supposes us also to 
include sanctification in this definition of its Scriptural mean- 
ing. We however generally employ the word in the other, 
or theological sense there defined, as signifying the change 
occurring in the particular moment of transition from the 
state of condemnation to that of justification; but he, in de- 
fiance of the context, represents us as using it in the former 
sense, and then charges on us the inconsistencies which 
flow from his own mistake ! We represent regeneration 
as a 'radical and entire change,' in opposition to a super- 
ficial and partial one, and as including 'a new heart;' he 
charges us with representing it as partial and superficial, 
and as leaving the heart unchanged ! ! In the passage 
which immediately precedes the one objected to by our 
reviewer, we find a definition of regeneration, which cer- 
tainly covers the whole ground : '' Regeneration, in the 
proper sense of the term, consists in a radical change in our 
religious views of the divine character, law, &c ; a change in 
religious feelings, ^nd in our religious purposes and habits of 
action!' Here the change is described (a) as radical, not 
superficial, not a mere outward change of moral character 


or conduct ; but a 'radical' one, a change which, as the 
etymology of the word implies, affects the root or source: 
of human thought and action, (b) It is such a radical 
change, not only of some one department of the human 
mind, or of human thought and action; but such radical 
change of the entire mind, of all the powers of the human 
soul ; for they are usually reduced to three departments, 
designated by some metaphysicians as views (cognitions), 
feelings and actions, or, by others, referring to the faculties,! 
as intellect, sensibilities and will. Now this makes- 
regeneration include a change, 

a) " In our religious views , i. e. views of the character! 
of God, his relation to us, and ours to him; of his law, as; 
to its spirituality, extent and comprehensiveness; of ouri 
character as related to that law, as sinners, and in short, in: 
our views of any and every subject that has any religiousi 
bearing at all. As this change is a radical one, it affects? 
these views even in the root or fountains, or powers of 
mind whence they spring. 

b) " Regeneration includes a change in our religious, 
feelings, from indifference to religion, to an acute sensibility 
on the subject ; from selfishness to a feeling of universal 
benevolence ; from antipathy to religion, to a sympathy 

with every thing holy and good. 

c) " Regeneration, according to the definition, includes 
a change in our religious purposes, viz., from purposes of 
self-indulgence, and of a life of sin, to purposes of refor- 
mation and sincere, entire obedience to God ; and from 
actual habits of sin, to those of holiness, from the service of 
the world to the service of God. 

" This, it will be admitted, is the natural import of the 
above definition ; and we may well ask every impartial 
reader, what passage of. Scripture, descriptive of regener- 
ation, will not be comprehended in one or other of the: 
above features of this change? 


3. "Again, we affirm, that in the sense of the word 
regeneration, in which it signifies a radical change in our 
rehgious views of the divine character, law, &c., of our re- 
ligious feelings, and of our religious purposes of action, 
infants (not children of some age, but infants) are incapable 
of it : because they neither have, nor can have, any re- 
ligious views or feelings or actions at all ; and if they are 
naturally incapable of the mental exercises of which re- 
generation consists, they cannot be the subjects of regener- 
ation in that sense of the term ; and what sensible man will 
deny this? We do affirm some influences of the Spirit on 
infants, (for example, the same which attend the baptism of 
adult believers, as far as they are capable of them) the 
nature of which is mysterious ; we do distinctly imply that 
they are capable of regeneration or spiritual change, in 
so7ne sense, but not in that applicable to adults ; but he 
makes us deny all gracious influence on them ! ! He first 
appears to be horrified at our leaving infants without the 
hope of heaven, and then admits that we maintain their 
salvation for Christ's sake ! ! It should, moreover be re- 
membered, that the change of infants is merely incidentally 
mentioned in a few sentences, and the negative side pre- 
sented, the positive not being required by the subject under 
discussion. We have stated what change does not take 
place in infants, the nature of that which does, we have 
not defined, and no one has authority to speak for us. 

4. " Finally, in regard to justification, we say in the 
Popular Theology, 'justification is that judicial act of God, 
by which a believing sinner, in consideration of the merits 
of Christ, is released from the penalty of the law, and is 
declared to be entitled to heaven.' ' This justification 
takes place at the moment, when the sinner first attains a 
living faith in the Redeemer,' And in the Vindication of 
American Lutheranism, we teach, ' Whenever the return- 


ing sinner exercises the first act o{ living faith, he is justi- 
fied ; that is, then God performs that judicial or forensic act, 
by which a believing sinner, in consideration of the mcnts 
of Christ, is relea-^ed from the penalty of the divine law, 
and is declared to be entitled to heaven.' But notwith- 
standing these, and other most explicit declarations, that 
we are justified for Christ's sake, and not for our works, and 
that this justification takes place at the moment of the very 
first act of living faith in the Redeemer, will it be believed 
that our cloudy reviewer insists on it, that we teach justifi- 
cation in part by works, and that mainly on the ground of 
his own erroneous supposition, that we use the word 
regeneration as including sanctification ! ! Other examples 
of our reviewer's obtuseness could be added, but certainly 
these will abundantly suffice to show, that he has mistaken 
his calling when he assumes to act the theological 
reviewer ! 

II. " Another reason for our declining to enter into a 
formal refutation of Rev. B's. article, is his manifest zvant of 
acquaintance ivith Lutheran Theology. Were not the sub- 
ject too grave a one, it would be purely amusing to behold 
a man step forward as volunteer champion of orthodoxy in 
the Lutheran church, adducing as authority to sustain his 
positions, riot Lutheran^ but Calvinistic divines ; to find him 
cite, not the illustrious Lutheran Theologians of the six- 
teenth, seventeenth, eighteenth or nineteenth century ; but 
the hightoned Calvinist, Edwards, the Congregationalist, 
D wight, and Dick and Chalmers, and even the erratic 
opium-eater, Coleridge ! And it would be a useless con- 
sumption of time, formally to refute the unfounded 
assertions, which he would not have made, if better 
informed on the subject. 

" I. Thus, in our definition of innate depravity, as 'a 
disorder of our mental and bodily constitution,' &c., he 


seizes on the word 'disorder,* which literally implies an 
abnormal or a confused state, gives it one of its possible 
meanings, to which we do not object, namely, that of 
disease; and then makes himself merry, by affirming this 
view of natural depravity to be exemplified in the case of 
'a dyspeptic,' or of 'an insane person,' &c.; evidently un- 
acquainted with the fact, that the representation of natural 
depravity under the figure of a disease, is authorized by the 
best Lutheran authorities, and is also often met with 
among writers of other denominations, such as Drs. 
Hopkins, Dick, &c. We would refer our reviewer for 
better information, among others, to Dr. RcinJiard's Dog- 
matik, who terms it 'moralische Krankheit,' moral disease; 
and Dr. Baumgartens Glaubenslehre, 'Krankheit,' disease : 
and Dr. Jidius Mueller, ueber die Suende, 'Krankheit,' 
disease. The form of Concord terms it 'lepra quadam 
spirituali,' 'mit einem geistlichen Aussatz,' spiritual lepro- 
sy ; and also 'morbus,' 'Krankheit,' sickness. The 
Augsburg Confession itself represents natural depravity 
as a disease, in Article II., 'morbus,' 'Seuche.' Yea, 
even the good word of God seemc to have given rise to 
this view, ' The whole head is sick, the whole heart is faint,' 
&c — Is. i: 5, 6. 'Is there no balm in Gilead,' &c. — Jerenii- 
ah 8: 22. 

" 2. He objects to our statement, that regeneration 
does not destroy, but merely restrains the natural depravity 
of the christian ; although we elsewhere described regenera- 
tion as ' a radical,' and not superficial, as an ' entire,' and 
not partial change, and as including ' a new heart,' thus 
showing that the restraint imposed on natural depravity by 
regeneration, is an extensive and decided one. But he goes 
further, and says : ' We boldly affirm that regeneration has 
to do, and that chiefly, with natural depravity — and that 
its very object is its removal.' Thus, he seems not to • 


know, that he is himself unsound, and in conflict tvith our 
best authorities, zx^A we may add, with \.\\t ivord of God it- 
self Thus Luther says : ' Baptism removes the guilt of 
natural depravity, but not the material or subtance of it ; * 
' The Holy Ghost, which is given by baptism, begins (inci- 
pit) to mortify the sinful desires, and creates new impulses 
or incUnations (motus) in that individual.' (Mueler Symb. 
p. 83). Quenstedt thus expresses himself: 'The guilt (of 
natural depravity) is removed in regeneration and justifica- 
tion ; the dominion of it, gradually in renovation (sanctifica- 
tion) ; but the root (of this depravity) is not removed, until 
the separation of the sold from the body! Dr. Baunigartcn 
says : ' We deny that natural depravity can be entirely 
eradicated by the use of the means of grace ' in this life. 
* The fountain and root of natural depravity continues in 
the regenerate ; ' 'It continually seeks to obtain the con- 
trol (of them).' ' The entire removal and eradication of 
natural depravity does not take place till after the death of 
the believer.' Dr. Knapp thus expresses himself: ' The 
root and germ of natural depravity will remain, and cease 
only with death.' And, finally, the Symbolical books, in 
numerous passages, teach that the deliverance from the in- 
fluence of natural depravity through the Holy Spirit, in re- 
generation and renovation, ' is only begun in this life, and 
ivill not be perfect until the life to come' 'welches doch in 
diesem Leben nur angefangen, aber allererst in jenem Le- 
ben, vollkommen seyn wird.' 

" 3. On the glaring mistake of Rev. B., in represent- 
ing our statement, that the corruptible and mortal nature 
of children is changed at death, as a quotation from i Cor. 
15 ; whereas the apostle is there speaking of the body alone, 
and our sentence is neither marked as a quotation, nor in- 
tended as one, and his then charging our sentence as being 
a novel explanation of that text, we will not dwell. But he 


maintains that infants, and by inference probably (as he 
states nothing to the contrary) adults also, must be zvholly 
sanctified in this life ; since, he affirms, that death can effect 
no change in them, and the body will not be changed un- 
til the resurrection ; evidently not acquainted with the fact 
that the prevailing opinion of Lutheran, and also of other 
divines, is that which we maintain, and he so positively and 
dogmatically condemns, that not ' by ' death, but at the 
moment of the separation of soul and body, the depraved 
nature of believing adults, as well as of infants, that is, all 
that remains living and conscious of them, their soul, is 
wholly delivered from every taint of sin by the Holy Spirit 
of God. Thus is the law in his members, which warred 
against the law of his mind as long as he lived, eradicated 
from the believer, as is also from infants, that native de- 
pravity with which they were born. For the better infor- 
mation of our reviewer, we would refer him to the follow- 
ing, amongst a multitude of Lutheran authors, who all 
agree with us, in what is also the doctrine of the Symboli- 
cal books, that at death, the remaining depravity of our cor- 
rupt nature is eradicated ; that is, the souls of those who 
are admitted to heaven, are perfectly liberated from all re- 
maining depravity, whilst their bodies return to the dust 
and are destitute of consciousness and moral character un- 
til the resurrection. Thus, Quenstedt fixes the time for the 
final eradication of natural depravity, ' ipsa animae a cor- 
pore solutione,' at the time of the release of the soul from 
the body. Dr. Baumgarten, ' in and after death,^ ' in und 
nach dem Tode : ' Dr. Reinhard 'indeath,^ ' im Tode,' 
and the learned and pious Dr. Knapp, gives the following 
testimony in perfect unison with the view maintained in our 
Vindication, &c. : * This corruption can never be entirely 
eradicated, even by the most sincere endeavors of the pious; 
although through divine assistance, an end may be put 

354 brown's artici,e confused. ■ 

to the dominion of sin, and its outbreakings be prevented; 
yet, the root and germ of evil will remain, and cease only 
with death, ox' \\\Q laying aside of the body.' Finally, the 
Form of Concord, the most minute of the ancient Lutheran 
symbols, also agrees with us : ' This work of the Holy 
Spirit (the deliverance from natural depravity) is merely 
commenced in us in this life, and will be accomplished 
and completed only in the other world' ' in altera tantum 
vita absolvetur et perficietur.' 

III. " Because the entire article of Rev. B. is confused 
and unsystematic, showing that he has studied Belles Lettres 
more successfully than Logic or Hermeneutics. Thus, he 
has but two captions in his article, ' regeneration ' and 
'justification;' but, in reality, he discusses three topics, 
regeneration, natural depravity and justification. But in- 
stead of considering them in the order of nature and 
system, in which one would illustrate the other, he dis- 
cusses regeneration before natural depravity ! His article, 
moreover, exhibits no discrimination between the facts of a 
doctrine, and different philosophical explanations of it; no 
clear perception of the difference between its fundamental 
features, fi.xed in our doctrinal basis, and its collateral as- 
pects, which are free to diversity. And as to the mode of 
interpretation, by wresting passages from the context, and 
considering them apart from other portions of the work, 
by which their import would be limited and determined; it 
does violence to the fundamental laws of language, and is 
sustained by no authority. By it, it were easy to convict 
the inspired servant of God, Moses, of pelagianism, when 
he seems to teach the ability of man to turn to God with- 
out the aid of divine grace, in the words, ' I have placed 
life and death before you, <://(? life.' — Deut. 30: 19. Or 
Paul of teaching Antinomianism, when he tells the 
Romans, ' Therefore, we conclude, that a man is justi- 


fied by faith, without the deeds of the law.' — 
Rom. 3 : 28. Or James, of teaching Justification by works, 
when he says. ' Ye see then that by work§ a man is justi- 
fied, and not by faith.' — 2 : 24. Paul could also be con- 
victed of Universalism from i Tim. 2:4. ' Who (God) will 
have all men to be saved and come to a knowledge of the 
truth : ' and even the blessed Savior himself could be con- 
victed of more than one heresy from the Sermon on the 

IV. ''Finally, because the spirit of the Rev. B's. article 
is generally thought not to be such as became him, under 
the circumstances of the case. Instead of exhibiting some 
solicitude to ascertain the real sentiments of the volume he 
undertook to criticise, and an honorable caution, not un- 
necessarily either to injure the usefulness, or wound the 
feelings of its author, he manifests an unamiable recklesness 
and dogmatism. For, he himself admits, * that other por- 
tions of the volume might be adduced, to show that views 
contrary to those (which he ascribes to us) are also inculcated;' 
or rather to show that he had misapprehended our senti- 
ments, and attributed to us doctrines, which other passages 
prove we do not hold. But he was not willing to take the 
trouble rightly to understand us. If he found difficulty in ap- 
prehending the import of our works; this fact, together with 
the circumstance, that others generally have not thought 
them obscure, should have convinced him that to review 
them was not his vocation. Whether his confusion arose 
from obscurity in our representations of truth, or want of 
system in his own mind, the readers of this article are more 
competent impartially to judge, than our reviewer himself. 
It is with sincere regret that we have found ourselves 
called on to make these exposures. We will admit, that 
for his want of acquaintance with Lutheran theology, 
some apology may be found in the training of Rev. B. in 


another denomination, and perhaps in the scanty leisure 
allowed by his pastoral duties, for general theological 
study; but ought not the same facts to have taught him, 
what his numerous misapprehensions have demonstrated to 
others, that he is not the most proper individual to defend 
our Zion against real or imaginary foes. 

Non tali auxilio^ nee defensoribus istis 
Tempus eget. — 

"When God called Luther to assail the errors of 
Popery, the world beheld the wisdom of the choice in his 
special qualifications, exhibited in the progress of the work, 
in his just interpretations of his opponents' views, and his 
intelligent discrimination between truth and error. But 
certainly we look in vain for such qualifications in the re- 
view of Rev. B.; whilst it abounds in melancholy evidence 
of a mind which, if upright, as we trust, is the unconscious 
victim of delusive prejudice and self-confidence. Let him 
rather leave to older and better qualified men, the charge 
of impugning the orthodoxy of those who were preaching 
the Gospel before he was born, and have devoted their en- 
tire life to the best interests of our beloved Zion. There is 
no want of such men in our church. In their hands, her 
interests are secure; and when the emergency calls for them, 
they will doubtless be found at their post; whilst our 
reviewer may be a faithful preacher of the Gospel of Christ, 
and a successful and peaceful co-worker with those whom 
he has unaccountably, and without provocation, attempted 
to denounce. 


Theological Seminary, ) 

Gettysburg, Aug. i. 1857. j 

We have not learned, that Rev. Brown made any 
rejoinder to the above reply of Dr. Schmucker ; but it is 

brown's attack on dr. sprecher. 357 

certain, that the Seminary Board did not entertain the 
charges, nor were they sustained by any one of the district 
synods connected with the General Synod. Dr. B, Kurtz 
is reported to have made a powerful and scathing de- 
nouncement of the charges before the Synod of East Penn- 
sylvania at its session in Hughesville, Pa. Says Dr. Jacobs 
in his Histor)/, page 427, " Dr. Krauth, Jr., arrested these 
proceedings, who did not deem his former instructor's 
course such as to warrant action," 

Some years after Dr. Brown had become Professor of 
Theology at Gettysburg, he made another attack on the 
orthodoxy of the next most prominent man in the General 
Synod, which was equally unavailing. This was against 
Prof. Dr. Samuel Sprecher of Springfield, Ohio, brother-in- 
law of Dr. Schmucker. He had written a book entitled 
" Ground Work of Luthei^an Theology." Dr. Brown im- 
pugned the orthodoxy of this book. The matter was 
brought for decision before the General Synod at its ses- 
sion in Baltimore. An earnest discussion ensued. Dr. 
Brown brought in a large number of books, from which he 
undertook to sustain his charges by reading extracts. But 
Dr. Sprecher did not need to read extracts from books ; 
he could repeat his authorities from memory, and he was 
overwhelmingly sustained by the General Synod. Dr. 
Brown attempted to open the discussion again at the next 
meeting of the General Synod, at Carthage, Ills., but the 
Synod declined to reconsider the subject. Dr. Brown then 
began to write a book to sustain his charges against the 
" Ground Work." He devoted a great deal of time and 
labor upon this work ; his health became enfeebled ; he 
went to Bedford Springs to recuperate ; but he took his 
manuscript with him ; consequently his health was not 
visibly improved ; but on his return he continued to study 
and work on his efforts to demolish the " Ground Work," 


and in the midst of these labors he was stricken with paral- 
ysis, which so sadly ended his literary and professional 


There were several candidates proposed as the succes- 
sors of Dr. Schmucker. Dr. W. M. Baum, who was a 
member of the Board at that time, has kindly sent us the 
following statement : 

" When the Board of Directors of the Seminary 
addressed itself to the duty of electing a successor to Dr. 
Schmucker, the following names were suggested : Dr. J. A. 
Brown, Dr. C. A. Hay, and Dr. C. F. Schaeffer. I am not 
positive with reference to the nomination of Dr. C. P. 
Krauth, Jr. 

" When I nominated Dr. Brown, it was with the state- 
ment, that in my judgment he was well qualified for the 
position, by reason of his natural abilities, scholarship, 
fidelity to the doctrinal attitude of the General Synod. 
Divergent tendencies and aflfiliations, similar to those of the 
present day, existed in the church, and were reflected in 
the minds of the Board of Directors. 

" Dr. Brown was chosen by a good majority, and so 
far as external manifestations appeared, was cordially 
accepted by all. He was frank, fearless and decided, and 
commanded the respect and confidence, even of those who 
were not in sympathy with his views." The eminent quali- 
fications here ascribed to Dr. Brown will readily be admit- 
ted by all ; his " affiliations," and some of the " divergent 
tendencies " were doubtless the potent factors that pro- 
cured his election. Dr. Baum does not seem to have been 
aware, or has forgotten the fact, that there was a strong 
desire in one part of the church, that Dr. C. P. Krauth, Jr., 
should fill that vacated chair. I give the following state- 


ment as a fragment of the unwritten history of the Semi- 
nary, which I have never seen in print, but have received 
from the Hps of men who professed to be acquainted with 
the facts : " An agreement had been entered into between 
Drs. Hay and Krauth, Jr., and their friends, to use their 
influence to have the former become the successor of Prof. 
C. P. Krauth, Sr., and the latter to become the successor of 
Prof S. S. Schmucker." The first part of this programme 
was hterally carried out; Dr. Charles Hay, became the suc- 
cessor of Prof Krauth, Sr., but Dr. C. P. Krauth, Jr., did 
not become the successor of Prof S. S. Schmucker. 

This unwritten history is corroborated by Dr. Jacobs. 
I quote here verbatim from his History of the Lutheran 
Church in the United States, page 462 : " One name, viz., 
that of Charles Porterfield Krauth, was upon many lips, as 
that of the most thoroughly trained Lutheran Theologian 
in America, and there was a general desire that he should 
be placed as the exponent of the theology of the Lutheran 
confessions. His exhaustive articles in the Lutheran and 
Missionary of which he was editor in chief, 1861-67, 
ranked with the most scholarly defenses of the faith of the 
Augsburg Confession, which had ever been made. If the 
chair at Gettysburg, vacated by the resignation of Dr. S. S. 
Schmucker, had been filled by his election, the Minister- 
ium (of Pennsylvania) would in all probability have felt that 
his presence was a guarantee, that the future ministers 
would be furnished with the necessary defenses ^against all 
radical tendencies. When the election resulted differently 
it was no antipathy to the professor elect, who had done 
good service in the battle against the ' Definite Platform,' 
that turned the sentiment of a large portion of those, who 
had hitherto been averse to another seminary," 

This is certainly very high praise bestowed upon Dr. 
Charles Porterfield Krauth, but some might dispute the 


claim, that his " exhaustive articles ranked with the most 
scholarly defenses of the Augsburg Confession, that had 
ever been madeP There was also a most palpable " anti- 
pathy " between Krauth and Brown, as can be seen by the 
very bitter controversy that was waged between the two 
men in the Reviews and separate pamphlets. 

What would have been the effect on the church, if 
Krauth had been elected instead of Brown, God only 
knows. Dr. C. P. Krauth a short time before had been 
the most ardent friend and able defender of the General 
Synod and her institutions, and the presumption is, that if 
he had been elected successor to Dr. Schmucker, the Gen- 
eral Council would not have been organized, and Mt. Airy 
Seminary would not have been established. Here the 
proverb was verified, " Man proposes, but God disposes." 


schmuckeh's interest in the orphan house. 361 







Dr. B. M. Schmucker speaks thus of his father's ac- 
tivity in improving the condition of the Emmaus Orphan 
House : " He gave much time to the claims of the orphan 
in connection with Frey's legacy. He was generously 
charitable to the needy with hearty sympathy as well as 
material help." 

Dr. Morris writes in his Fifty Years in the Ministry, 
" He was also instrumental in arranging the complicated 
affairs of the Emmaus Orphan House, and in a lengthy report 
displayed his acute business adaptation to a remarkable 

The Doctor referred to this subject several times, as I 
recollect, in the class-room, but his exact words I do not 
remember after so long a time. 


The Orphan House at Middletown, Pa., has a remark- 
able history. On the 12th of May, 1806, George Frey, 
merchant of Middletown, Pa., left by will a large estate for 
the purpose of establishing an orphan house at that place. 
The estate consisted of over nine hundred acres of land, a 
water grist and saw mill on the Swatara creek, four dwell- 
ing houses and a number of unimproved ground lots in 
Middletown. All this valuable property was bequeathed 
for the support and education of orphans and poor children 
whose parents were unable to provide for them. 

The property was entrusted to the management of a 
self perpetuating board, selected by Mr. Frey himself, and 
very specific regulations were laid down in the will for the 
management of the institution. The Principal occupies 
one of the houses free of rent, his table is furnished for him- 
self and family from the income of the estate ; he also 
receives two hundred and sixty-six dollars and sixty-seven 
cents annually in money, and if his children are capable of 
laboring they shall have reasonable wages. If by reason 
of age he shall be unable to fulfill the duties of his ofifice, 
he shall be supported during his life out of the funds of the 
institution ; and if he has a son who is honest, well disposed 
and faithful, he shall have the preference to be appointed 
principal instead of his superannuated or deceased father. 

The tutor must be a married man and reside in the 
Orphan House; his table shall be furnished out of the 
proceeds of the estate, and two hundred dollars yearly shall 
be given him in money ; when he becomes superannuated 
he shall be supported during life out of the funds, and an 
annual allowance made him at the discretion of the trustees. 

Very minute directions were laid down in the will in 
reference to the management of the institution. Here is 
one of them : " The children shall be admitted upon this 
express condition, that, both male and female shall be edu- 

re;ugious SERVICES. 363 

cated in the evangelical Lutheran religion, and in the Ger- 
man language ; nor shall any other language than the 
German be taught in this orphan house." 

The Principal and the Tutor must be members of the 
Evangelical Lutheran Church. 

The following directions show the pious disposition of 
the testator : 

" It shall be the duty of the tutor at the ringing of the 
bell at six o'clock in the morning (in a room or hall in the 
Orphan House) to sing a morning or other pious hymn 
with the children, and then to pray a morning blessing 
{Morgen Segeti) kneeling, together with the Lord's Prayer. 
They shall then repeat the christian belief (the Creed) and 
the principal parts of Luther's Catechism. Breakfast shall 
then follow. After breakfast the school shall be kept for 
two hours, in which the pupils shall be taught reading, 
writing and arithmetic, and particularly shall they be in- 
structed in the aforesaid catechism, until about nine o'clock; 
then they shall work in the garden, or be employed in 
some other useful manner. . . About eleven of the clock 
the bell shall ring again ; a thanksgiving accompanied by 
the ceremonial of knee prayers and Creed, as in the morn- 
ing, shall be repeated. The children shall then dine. After 
dinner there shall be school for two hours, and then they 
shall again work in the garden. In the evening about six 
o'clock, a bell shall again be rung, an evening or other 
religious hymn shall be sung with the children, and the 
ceremonial prayers of the morning be again repeated. In 
winter, after supper, the girls about six years old, shall be 
taught to spin. When the children have been taught to 
read, one of the boys shall repeat a chapter out of the 

Similar minute details, regulating the economical de- 
partment are laid down in the will, which very much com- 


plicated the management and hindered the success of the 
institution. For a long time scarcely any orphans were 
sustained ; the income from the farms, mills and houses 
seems to have been expended in the management of the 
estate, and some changes were absolutely necessary in order 
that the design of the benevolent testator might be carried I 

Accordingly I find in a printed copy of the will pub- 
lished in 1878, that certain changes were made by acts of 
the legislature during 1 838-1 842. 

One of these changes was, that the English language 
may be used in the institution as well as the German. 

Another change was the permission to dispense with 
such of the ceremonies and observances as are considerec 
non-essential to the interests of the children and the granc 
design of the will, and not calculated to advance the use- 
fulness of the institution, and conducting the religious ser- 
vices in the manner approved by the synods of the Lutheran ! 
Church in Pennsylvania. 

In 1840 the legislature enacted, that Emmaus Orphan 
House may afford instruction in the various branches of a 
liberal education to other children than those who are to 
be maintained at the expense of the institution, provided. 
that their parents, or guardians, or friends, or themselves 
will pay for their tuition. 

In 1842 an act was passed empowering the Principal 
and Tutors to sell any and all ground and rents on property 
in the town of Middletown or adjacent thereto, and apply 
the proceeds of such sales to the payment of the debts of 
the said Emmaus Orphan House. 

These acts were passed by the legislature of Pennsyl- 
vania and signed by William Hopkins, Speaker of the House 
of Representatives, Charles B. Penrose, Speaker of the 


■Senate, and David R. Porter, Governor of the State of 

Accordingly some of the property was sold, a fir.e 
building was erected and a number of orphans— some 
twenty or thirty— are now supported and educated m the 
: Emmaus Orphan House. 

I Dr Schmucker spent much time and labor in gettmg 
the above acts passed by the legislature during the sessions 
from 1838 to 1842, and the institution is, no doubt, largely 
indebted to him for the improvements that have been made, 
and the more satisfactory working of the school smce then. 
The Lutheran synods in Pennsylvania used to send 
visitors to the Emmaus Orphan House. The writer was 
once sent as a visitor by the West Pennsylvania Synod. I 
was very kindly received and hospitably entertamed. I 
found the institution in a flourishing condition, and was 
favorably impressed with its present management. But I 
believe the synods have ceased sending visitors, because 
the church, as such, has no authority over its affairs or m- 
fluence in its management. 

Besides the Emmaus Orphan House the Lutheran 
Church has two Orphan Homes in Pennsylvania. The one 
at Loysville, supported by the General Synod, and the 
other at Germantown, supported by the General Council. 
These must be constantly sustained by collections in the 
churches, and cannot receive all the orphans that make 
application for admittance. 

But in all human probability, what a grand institution 
the Emmaus Orphan House might have become, if it had 
from the beginning been placed under the management and 
control of the Lutheran Church. With its rich endow- 
ment, and the united interest and sympathy of the whole 
Lutheran Church in America it might have rivaled the re- 
nowned Frankean Orphan Home at Halle. No doubt the 


benevolent testator had something of this kind in view, 
when he wrote his will. 

But Franke, by the help of God and the co-opperation 
of christian philanthropists established that grand institu- 
tion during his life-time, and not by his "last Will and 


During the first fifty years of its history, Schmucker, 
Kurtz and Morris were the most prominent men in the 
General Synod. They stood forth like mighty mountain 
peaks, towering heavenwards amid the surrounding hills. 

Kurtz was born in 1795, and died in 1866; Schmucker 
was born in 1799, and died in 1873 ; Morris was born in 
1803, and died in 1895. 

All three were evangelically orthodox in doctrine, but 
differed widely in personal appearance, temperament and 
manners, as they did also in a few minor points of doctrine 
and cultus. Each labored in his own peculiar sphere for 
the extension of Christ's kingdom — Kurtz as an editor of 
the Lutheran Observer, through which he exerted a power- 
ful influence in shaping the religious sentiments and prac- 
tice of the people ; Schmucker as the organizer of the 
General Synod, the founder of the Theological Seminary 
and College at Gettysburg, and trainer of the ministry of 
our church during forty years. It is reported that Kurtz 
wrote to Schmucker, " Do you train the preachers right, 
and I will take care of the people;" Morris as a devotee to 
science, natural history, and also as an author of books, 
and writer of articles in magazines and newspapers, by 
means of which he gained a world-wide reputation. 

But Morris stood in a peculiarly interesting personal 
relation to Schmucker during nearly the whole of the lat- 
ter's life. Schmucker and Morris lived contemporaneously 
as boys in York, Pa., and, no doubt, attended the same 


Sunday-school and worshipped under the ministry of the 
elder Schmucker in Christ Lutheran Church. Schmucker 
became principal of the classical department of York 
County Academy, and Morris' name stands enrolled as one 
of his first pupils, who was prepared by him for the Sopho- 
more class in college ; Schmucker organized a class of 
theological students in New Market, Va., and Morris fol- 
lowed him to that place and became one of his pupils there, 
was also confirmed there by Schmucker, and received into 
the Lutheran Church as a communicant member ; 
Schmucker had gone to Princeton to complete his course 
of theological study, and Morris also went to Princeton to 
study theology ; Schmucker founded the Theological Sem- 
inary at Gettysburg, and Morris came to Gettysburg, and 
was enrolled as one of his first students in that now venera- 
ble school of the prophets. Both were ordained as minis- 
ters of the gospel by the same synod, then called the Synod 
of Maryland and Virginia; Schmucker received an earnest 
invitation to become the pastor of the First English Luth- 
eran congregation of Baltimore, but declined to accept the 
call ; Morris then received a call to that church, which he 
accepted and ably served the congregation as pastor for 
many years. Schmucker and Kurtz took a tour to England 
and the continent of Europe, and Morris accompanied them 
by sea and land until their return to America ; Schmucker 
published an explanation of Luther's Smaller Catechism, 
and Morris also published a similar catechism, both of 
which were extensively used, and passed through a number 
of editions ; Schmucker was the author of many theological 
and religious books, and Morris also published a number 
of books, chiefly historical and biographical of Luther, and 
also translations from the German ; Schmucker was the 
chief professor of theology in the seminary at Gettysburg, 
and Morris was a director in the Seminary, and delivered 


lectures to the students on pulpit oratory. Schmucker 
died in Gettysburg in 1873, and Morris delivered a char- 
acteristic address at his funeral, and afterwards wrote a 
biographical sketch of his old preceptor and pastor, in one 
part of which he extolled him very highly. 

These three great men have now passed over the Jor- 
dan of death, while their bodies sleep in their graves until 
they shall be awakened by the trumpet of the archangel on 
the resurrection day. The writer enjoyed the privilege of 
their personal acquaintance for nearly half a century. 
Peace to their ashes ! 

In a private communication dated July 21, 1895, Dr. 
Morris thus states his relations to Dr. Schmucker : 

" I differed from Dr. S. S. S. on some theological 
points, and he knew it well, but that did not diminish my 
respect for him, nor his for me. 

" He and I were not playmates, nor school-mates. I 
never knew him as a boy ; he was at least six or seven 
years older than I.* He became my school-master in York 
County Academy, and prepared me for the Sophomore 
Class in Princeton College. After my college course I fol- 
lowed him to New Market, Va., where he had a sort of 
Vor- Seminar, consisting of five or six raw, country, Virginia 
boys. I remained there twenty months — thence to Naza- 
reth, Pa., where I spent a winter — then to Princeton Semin- 
ary, where I was admitted to the Senior Class. During 
that time the Seminary at Gettysburg was opened (1826). 
Having no license and no call, I concluded to enter at 
Gettysburg, that I might be regarded as an alumnus, and to 
wait for license in the fall, and both came in a month or 

* The Doctor is slightly in error here. Schmucker was born Feb- 
ruary 28, 1799, and Morris was born November 14, 1803, which, as 
near as I can calculate, makes Schmucker 4 years, 8 months, and 16 
days older than Morris. — P, A. 


The following letter from Rev. C. Lepley of Spring- 
field, Ohio, will be read with interest : 

" Many a time in the midst of my work, as a pastor, I 
thought of the lecture room in the Seminary, the sincere 
prayers the Doctor offered to God in our behalf, and the 
clear presentation of truth, which to me often appeared 
dark. I had all the time I was at Gettysburg the utmost 
confidence in Dr. Schmucker. I believed him to be a sin- 
cere, honest man, incapable of duplicity, or any kind of 
double dealing, or littleness, for private ends or public 
applause. I never changed my opinions as to his char- 
acter as a Christian, clear headed man, well adapted to 
occupy the position he held as a theological teacher. 

" I very well remember a conversation we had at one 
time after a sacramental service. I think it was in Sinking 
Valley, Pa., Rev. M. Eyster, Pastor, usually known as the 
Fleck Congregation, he requested me to take a walk out to 
the woods close by; we secured seats and sat down. The 
conversation was mainly upon the subject of a successful 
ministry. The main point suggested was, to bring souls 
to Jesus Christ. At that time our ministers were few. The 
rising generation of our German people were becoming 
English, as vast multitudes are becoming so now. This 
became an open field for the-earnest young ministers of the 
M. E. Church, to reap a grand harvest from our German 
congregations, as the services in the German churches 
were conducted in the German language. Now the point 
was : How to be true to God and to save our people to our 
own church. Dr. Schmucker realized the perplexed state 
of things in the Lutheran Church, as he was in the work of 
preparing young men for her ministry. A stolid indiffer- 
ence in the German mind, as to the modes of the M. E. 
Church in building up their churches at the downfall of the 
German, finally created much jealousy among the churches 

370 schmucker's good advice. 

which has remained even to the present day. The young 
men had this difficulty to encounter in preaching in the 
English language. We had to meet the objections to the 
use of the English language, and also meet the demands of 
the English public, at least that part of the public that had 
been indoctrinated in what was then called New Measures. 

" We were in a fight, between the Old Modes and the 
New Measures. Among the old we were called Schwaermer 
and not Lutherans ; among the New we were called 
Methodishts, Enthusiasts, etc. 

" Prof. Schmucker gave me much good advice at that 
retired place. He laid much stress upon prayer, advised 
me to be moderate in my modes, but firm in my opinions, 
and said he, pay but little attention to what may be said 
about you. You will often find remarks made about you 
by men, who ought to know better. But never mind, that 
was the lot of the Master. As he did, so do you, just go 
on and defend the truth. 

" This thought also was discussed by us. I was favor- 
able then to the practice of New Measures, as it seemed 
the best mode then, to bring sinners to Jesus Christ. He 
admitted it, but emphasized the practice of catechising all 
the converts very carefully. ' Educate the mind and the 
heart of your young people, and the old as well, when they 
need it. The gospel truth must be the basis upon which 
the soul must lodge, as the guide to lead the sinner to 
Jesus Christ.' 

" I often think of that time we spent together. It was 
not a formal lecture, as in a room, to discuss theological 
subjects, but practically to me in the work of the ministry 
it was one of the best instructive talks I ever heard. 

" I have often wondered, why it was, that the life of 
Dr. Schmucker was never published. His life ought not 
to have been passed over into oblivion. I think he was a 


man of no ordinary ability, and came, no doubt, into public 
life, when God saw he was most needed. 

" He was mainly instrumental in infusing the spiritual 
life into the various congregations, and synods, which 
became a prominent feature of the General Synod up to 
the present time. So far as I am informed, I believe that 
the same spiritual life and instructions are continued in the 
Institution, which was the main support of the church, at 
the time about which I write, and I trust it may contine so, 
until time is no more. I love the Lutheran Church, her 
doctrines were the pure gold, melted out of the fiery fur- 
nace through which the fathers of the Reformation passed, 
when the church under God was born anew. Luther must 
have lived very fast, thought much, and worked much, for 
he died comparatively young. Had he lived a little longer, 
he, no doubt, would have left to the church many 
scriptural truths, that would be of value to us at this day. 
But the Good Lord knew best. It was best for the inter- 
ests of the church in this new country, that men raised in 
the land, where there were no religious organizations to 
take up the grand truths that were developed in the Refor- 
mation, should organize both church and state, and now 
we have in both Freedom." 

Rev. C. Lepley. 

The foJlowing truly beautiful characteristic is from 
his youngest son, Samuel D. Schmucker, Esq., of Balti- 

"Although he was not a pastor, he made it his habit, 
whenever it could be done with any hope of advantage, to 
say a few friendly words, to those with whom he conversed, 
about bestowing some thought upon their spiritual condi- 
tion. He did this in many cases with consummate tact and 
skill, and so far as my observation went, never did it so as 
to annoy or offend his auditor. When a little boy I often 


drove over the country with him and, young as I was, 
could not fail to admire the delicate and graceful way in 
which he would, in his conversation with the farmers, and 
even laborers, whom we met, introduce the subjects of 
morality and religion into the conversation. Everybody 
respected, and almost everybody admired him. The lead- 
ing families in the county esteemed it a great favor to have 
him stop and dine with them, or, as he sometimes did, 
spend a night with them. He had a kind and friendly 
manner and was full of information, and a visit from him 
was quite an event to his entertainers. When his clerical 
friends visited him at commencement and similar occasions, 
the burden of his conversation was the advancement of the 
interests of the church and its institutions. Sleeping and 
waking he seemed to think of little else, or more truly 
speaking, he thought chiefly of these subjects. He had a 
cultivated literary taste, and refined and pure thoughts, and 
a poetic sense and feeling, and in his domestic life, 
although generaly sedate, was a charming companion. His 
purse was always open to whatever seemed to him to be a 
deserving call for aid. No beggar went unfed from his 
door and his private charities were numerous." 
Yours truly, 

Samuel D. Schmucker. 
" In the Lutheran Church he is extensively and favor- 
ably known ; and no man in this country has done more 
than he to elevate her character and to advance her welfare. 
As a writer he is able and clear. His style is chaste and 
easy, his arguments strong and convincing. His ' Frater- 
nal Appeal ' to the American Churches on Christian Union, 
is a master piece, which with his other theological and 
philosophical works, has made him extensively known, 
beyond the bounds of his own church, both in America 
and England." — D. Harbaugh, Springfield, i8ji. 



The following is an extract from a letter of his third 

wife, the surviving widow : , . ^ u- 

" He gave his last days to the church, and it cost him 

many a sleepless night. 

" In his sickness he was the most patient sufferer. 
He never complained to me, for fear it would distress me. 
He was walking about, and EUie and Mr. Geisenheiner 
were with us to tea. At 8 o'clock they left. The Doctor 
went to the door with them, bade them good night, and at 

eleven o'clock he was dead." 

Mrs. Ester M. Schmucker. 



Death of dr. schmucker — account by the Star and 
Sentinel — it occured on Saturday night at eleven 

DELPHIA — TRIBUTE BY THE Lutheran Visitor — inscrip- 



We copy the following account of his death from the 
Gettysburg Star and Sentinel of ]u\y 26, 1873, from which 
it will be seen in what high estimation Dr. Schmucker was 
held by the people of that town : 

" The citizens of Gettysburg were startled on Sunday 
morning last by the announcement of the sudden death of 
Rev. Dr. Schmucker during the night. For some years 
Dr. S's health had been impaired, requiring cessation of 
mental labor. More recently he suffered from organic dis- 
ease of the heart, creating more or less apprehension among 
his friends ; but he continued to move about cheerfully, ex- 
changing social visits, and attending to ordinary business. 
He frequently called at the Star and Sentinel office to read 
the papers and exchange opinions upon current events, and 
spent an hour or more with us on Friday, conversing cheer- 
fully on general topics, and particulary in regard to the ap- 
proaching special meetings of the boards of the college and 
seminary. On Saturday evening he entertained some 


friends at his residence, and accompanied them to the door 
on their leaving. At a later hour, while sitting in his study 
he complained of pain in his chest. About eleven o'clock, 
as he was preparing to retire for the night, he was seized 
with a severe spasm of pain in the region of the heart, 
sharper than usual. The family physician. Dr. C. Horner, 
was at once sent for, but when he reached the house, Djr. S. 
was already in the article of death. The spasm of pain was 
of short duration, and was followed by a peaceful calm, in 
which his spirit went home to God. Conscious of his con- 
dition, among his last audible utterances were the assuring 
words, ' I have lived, and am dying, in the faith of Jesus.' 

" We forbear further expression to the thoughts and 
feelings that involuntarily suggest themselves on this occa- 
sion. Dr. Schmucker had reached a ripe age, and was 
ready to be gathered to him whom he had so long and 
faithfully served. In view of his age and known physical 
infirmities, his removal hence at any time was to have been 
expected. Yet death came after all, with unexpected sud- 

" His familiar form and friendly counsel will be missed 
in this community, where he had gone in and out for 
nearly half a century. He will be missed in the church, in 
the development of which he so largely participated. Many 
ot his co-laborers have preceded him to rest. Many who 
received the benefit of his counsel in preparing for the Mas- 
ter's service, will lovingly recall the memories of his pleas- 
ant Christian intercourse and friendly counsel. 

"The funeral services were attended in Christ church, 
on Tuesday evening, July 29th, at 5 o'clock. The church 
was appropriately draped in mourning, and a large number 
of personal friends and acquaintances of the deceased, and 
also a goodly number ot the neighboring ministers, nearly 
all formerly his students, had assembled to do reverence to 


the memory of a distinguished and truly good man before 
his mortal body would be committed to the grave. 

" After an appropriate funeral chant by the choir, Rev. 
D. P. Rosenmiller, of Lancaster, read the Scripture, selected 
from I Cor. xv. and i Thes. iv. Rev. Dr. Valentine offered 
prayer, and the choir sang * Rest Spirit, Rest.' 

" Rev. Dr. Hay, pastor of the church, made the open- 
ing remarks as follows : 

" ' A father in Israel has fallen ! 

'"The sad news has been flashed across the land, carry- 
ing deep sorrow to many homes whose connecting link has 
thus been suddenly broken. 

" * The church, too, of which the deceased was so distin- 
guished a member, has felt the sudden shock, and from far 
and near have come his ministerial brethren, most of them 
his former pupils and ever attached friends, to pay the tri- 
bute of mournful respect to his memory by sharing in the 
solemnities of his burial. 

" ' It falls to my lot, as at present pastor of the church 
with which the deceased stood in immediate connection, to 
speak the first word in this necessarily brief commemorative 
service, opening the way for others, whose official relations 
render it fitting that their voice should be heard in this 
hour of public as well as of private bereavement. 

" * In the death of Dr .Schmucker this church has lost 
not only one of its founders but the one who probably first 
conceived the idea of its organization, and who never 
ceased to take a lively interest in all its affairs ; rejoicing 
most of all when from time to time the Holy Spirit was 
poured out upon it in regenerating and sanctifying power, 
converting multitudes of the precious youth here pursuing 
their studies and leading them to consecrate themselves to 
the work of the holy ministry. 

" 'Of that noble band of devoted and self-sacrficing men 


who SO many years toiled together in laying the foundation 
and in rearing the superstructure of the literary and theo- 
logical institutions of this place, Dr. Schmucker was the 
first to appear upon the ground and the last to leave it. 
He outlived them all. And now that they are all gone, 
and their places are supplied by others, let our prayers as- 
cend to our heavenly Father in their behalf, that they may 
be enabled to emulate the zeal and fidelity of those who 
have preceded them, and have grace and strength to carry 
on successfully the noble work entrusted to their hands. 

' The death of Dr. Schmucker, though sudden, was not 
unexpected. He was not left without repeated and unmis- 
takable warnings of its approach. Not merely did the or- 
dinary infirmities of age give token to him of coming 
change, but increasingly frequent and severe attacks of the 
incurable disease with which he was afflicted were distinctly 
recognized by him as divinely directed premonitions of its 
approach. Nor did this at all alarm or distress him. He 
calmly set his house in order and made ready for his de- 
parture. He died just as he would have chosen to die. 
He died at home, in the bosom of his family. Beloved 
friends cannot, indeed, go with us through the dark valley, 
but it must be a great comfort to have them accompany us 
to the margin of the river and bid us God-speed as we enter 
its dreaded waters. The nature of the disease, with which 
our departed father was afflicted, rendered it probable that 
he would be called away suddenly, and it was feared by 
those dearest to him that he wouldbe fatally attacked whilst 
upon a journey or when amid strangers. But it pleased the 
Lord long to withhold the summons to spare him to breathe 
out his soul peacefully in the arms of loved ones, and amid 
the comforts of his quiet home. 

* He died, too, in a good old age. He was gathered, as 
a shock of corn fully ripe, into the garner of the Lord. He 


passed the limit of threescore years and ten, nor was his eye 
dim or his natural force much abated until within a very 
short time prior to his decease. 

' He died, too, in the full consciousness of the change 
through which he was passing, and in a state of cheerful 
readiness to meet his Lord and Master whom he had so 
long served, his loving Redeemer in whom he had so long 
confidently trusted. 

* We are not disposed to attach undue importance to the 
last words of the dying; still, it is a source of great satis- 
faction to us, and a ground of devout gratitude to our 
Heavenly Father, when we are permitted to hear from their 
lips such testimony, in that most solemn hour, as fell from 
the deceased on the eve of his departure : ^ I have lived, 
and am dying, in the faith of Jesus! Precious testimony ! 
Name above every name ! O that this dear name may 
ever be to our hearts the choicest treasure, and may it be 
the last upon our dying lips as it was upon his ! 

' This is not a fitting time to dwell at length upon the 
multiplied and manifold ■ services which our venerated 
Father has rendered to the church of his love. Indeed, he 
needs no eulogy at our hands, ' The work praises the 
master.' On every hand we see the traces of his workman- 
ship ; — in our literary and theological institutions, in the 
establishment of which he, more than any other individual, 
took a controlling part ; — in the zealous spirit and earnest 
evangelical orthodoxy of the hundreds of ministers whom 
he trained for their work ; in the formula of government 
and discipline of our church, that is from his pen ; in the 
framing of our synodical and congregational constitutions; 
in our books of devotion ; in our text-books of theology 
and catechisms for the young ; in our church periodicals 
and church literature generally ; in the benevolent operations 


of our Zion, and in all the general, philanthropic movements 
of the age, and of the country at large. 

' When these days of mourning, of personal grief and 
sorrow, shall have passed away, and we come to consider 
calmly the true character of the departed, and the influence of 
his life's labors upon the development of our church in this 
country, we are much mistaken if he does not then rank 
second only to Muhlenberg, the Patriarch of American 
Lutheranism, as instrumental in giving tone and character 
to our church life and in winning for our beloved Lutheran 
Zion a place of honorable distinction in the advancing hosts 
of Israel in this western world.' 

" Rev. Dr. Lochman, of York, for many years a friend, 
and in church work a noble associate of Dr. Schmucker, 
said : ' The announcement of his death came like a flash of 
lightning in a clear summer sky. As once was said on 
earth in sweetest tones, so now we may hear the consoling 
utterance, ' our friend sleepeth.' We may reply as was done 
then, ' Lord if he sleepeth he shall do well.' Cherished 
friends, cherished landmarks may pass away, but never 
can the heart's cherished memory forget the revered names 
of Krauth, Baugher, Stoever, Jacobs, Schmucker. 

' He did much to raise the standard of education,giving 
to the church men qualified for her ministry and equal to 
those in any church in the land. 

' Though dead, he is still laboring. To have left such 
a record as he has done is worth living for ; to set up land- 
marks for all time, to utter sentiments that will thrill the 
hearts of thousands in the Master's work. Death is a si- 
lent and powerful preacher, which here eloquently speaks to 
us through the departed friend.' 

" Rev. Dr. Morris, of Baltimore, related several interest- 
ing reminiscences of his early and since then constant and 
intimate intercourse with Dr. Schmucker, first as his instruc- 


tor in the York Academy, where Dr. S. taught, then of the 
first year of Dr. S. as Professor in the Seminary at Gettys- 
burg ; the class numbered fourteen, of whom five are now 
alive. All who had known him could say with a former 
fellow-citizen of Gettysburg, ' The more I know of Dr. S. 
the more pleased I am with him.' Though men might not 
agree with him in all things, yet they were compelled to 
respect and revere him. He filled a larger space in this 
country than any other Lutheran clergyman, and was 
everywhere the representative of our church, and a worthy 
one he was. Many years ago the speaker had heard Dr. 
King, an eminent dissenting clergyman of England, in a 
public address in London, ascribe the fraternity of the 
evangelical alliance to Dr. Schmucker. The objects of this 
alliance Dr. S. ever held dear, and only a few weeks ago — 
speaking of the approaching meeting in New York — had 
said to the speaker ; ' I will go there to carry out, if I can, 
by God's help, my own sentiments.' Who will be his bio- 
grapher ? To recount his life will be to give the history of 
the Lutheran Church in America.' 

"The successor of Dr. S. as chairman of the Theo- 
logical Faculty, Rev. Dr. Brown, in a few remarks, bore 
witness to the kindly sympathy and hearty support which 
Dr. S. had ever given him in his official position, every- 
where with cordial kindness, speaking even flatteringly of 
him, thus affording him much comfort and support in his 
laborious position. * 

" Rev. Dr. Baum, of York, chairman of the seminary 
board, in behalf of the board said : ' We thank God for the 
life and ministry of Dr. Schmucker. During all the nearly 
forty years of the active connection of Dr. S. with the Sem- 

* Dr. Brown broke down in the midst of his address; he was very 
much aflFected; his feelings overcame him, and he ceased speaking. 


inary, fullest harmony had existed between him and the 
board. Hardly a measure he had proposed but had met 
with their approval. Few had filled such a place as he had 

" The choir then sang ' Asleep in Jesus,' after which 
the body was borne to its last resting place, followed by a 
number of relatives and many friends. At the grave the 
solemn funeral service was read and the last service of love 
for the body of Dr. Schmucker was performed, but his 
memory will ever be held dear to loving hearts. The pall- 
bearers were Revs. L. A. Gotwald and A. H. Sherts, of 
Chamberburg, P. Anstadt, of York, S. Yingling and G. 
Parsons, of Hanover, and C. L. Keedy, of Waynesboro." 

The following Tribute was passed by the Board of Di- 
rectors of the Theological Seminary: 

" This board leels called upon bythe promptings of the 
feelings of the heart, and by a sense of duty to pay their 
tribute of respect to one of their number, so long associated 
with them in the management of the affairs of their institu- 
tion, and so much endeared to them by his christian cour- 
tesy, and by his lifelong devotedness to the interests of this 
cherished institution of the church. 

" We shall ever fondly cherish his memory as the foun- 
der of our seminary, for so many years its able head, de- 
voting the eminent talents of his mind, and all his physical 
energies to its welfare. 

"Though for some years relieved from active duties as 
professor, the board felt constrained from a high apprecia- 
tion of his eminent services, to retain his name as Professor 
Emeritus, and until his death, his interest in the institution 
has never abated, laboring and praying with us for its suc- 
cess. With the whole church we mourn his (for us) too 
^arly and sudden departure. 

" We would feel recreant to duty and untrue to our- 


selves, did we not bear testimony to our high appreciation 
of his moral worth, his attainments as a scholar, his chris- 
tian character and eminent usefulness. 

" Whilst we mourn his departure, we nevertheless bow 
with submission to the will of our heavenly Father, grateful 
that He spared him to us so long. 

" We rejoice that his sun has set so radiant and bright, 
illuminated with the christian's hope ; that the excellency 
and power of our holy religion was so clearly displayed in 
his dying hour, giving to us and the church the glorious 
testimony, as a rich legacy ' I have lived and am dying in 
the faith of Jesus,' 

" To his bereft and mourning family, we tender our 
heartfelt sympathy and condolence. 

Aug. H. Lochman, 
Geo. Parsons, 
Daniel Eppley. 


" Minutes adopted by the Board of Trustees of Penn- 
sylvania College, at their meeting, August 6, 1873: 

' Resolved, That this Board has heard with emotions of 
profound sorrow, the announcement of the sudden death of 
Rev. Samuel S. Schmucker, D. D., the senior member of 
this Board, and an active and influential member from its 
organization to the day of his death; and that, in justice to 
the dead, as well as ourselves, we record our high sense of 
the fidelity and value of his great services, which extended 
over a period of forty years, 

' Resolved, That to his .^sagacious, efficient and arduous 
labors in establishing the college, we bear willing and 
grateful testimony, as well as to the careful anxiety, ending 
only with life, with which he watched over all its manifold 

' Resolved. That a copy of these resolutions be trans- 


mitted by the secretary to the family of the deceased, and 
be published in the church and Gettysburg papers. 

F. W. Conrad, 
Charles A. Hay, 
E. W. McPherson.' " 

We transfer the following tribute to the memory of 
Dr. S. S. Schmucker, from the L?itheran of August 7, a 
General Council paper : 

" Wc regret to be called upon to announce the death of 
this venerable and widely-known minister and teacher of 
our church. He died in Gettysburg, on the 26th inst., in 
the 75th year of his age. He may, with some propriety, 
be called the father of the Theological Seminary of the 
General Synod at that place, of which institution he was, at 
the time of his death, an Emeritus Professor. 

" A ready writer, an able teacher, with a naturally vigor- 
ous mind, the Dr. early in life, took rank among the lead- 
ing theologians of the country. Than he, few men in the 
church were more widely known, or more highly esteemed, 
even by those who felt compelled to dissent from some of 
his opinions. 

" When our church in this land first after the waves of a 
fanatical rationalism had passed over her, began to strive 
after the attainments of a clearer consciousness of her true 
faith and life, the doctor occupied the commanding position 
of a theological professor, in the only Lutheran theological 
seminary in the country, and with the native strength and 
activity of his mind, soon, as might be expected, became 
involved in the controversies, which have ever 
since more or less agitated- the church. He was by all 
odds the ablest of the co-workers of the late Dr. B. Kurtz, 
then editor of the Lutheran Observer, and did, perhaps, 
the most solid and thorough work of any man who took 
the new, or so called American Lutheran, side of the con- 


troversy. But with all the polemical battles in which the 
doctor was engaged, and some of them were quite bitter, 
we believe he never could be charged with any want of 
courtesy towards his opponents. 

" He was an earnest, faithful man, ever true to his con- 
victions, and in his death, we may say, that a great man 
has fallen in Israel. Among the children left to mourn his 
death, are Revs. B. M. Schmucker, D. D., of Reading, 
G. W. Schmucker, late pastor in Pottstown, Pa., and the 
wives of Rev. A. T. Geissenhainer, Treasurer of the Penn- 
sylvania Synod, and of Rev. B. C. Suesserott, of Lancaster. 
We sincerely sympathize with the bereaved family and 
unite with his numerous friends and former students in 
cherishing his memory." 

Under the heading, "A Good and A Great Man De- 
parted," the Lutheran Visitor, in a draped column, notices 
the death of Dr. Schmucker in the following tender and 
befitting terms : 

" The memory of no man deserves to be held in greater 
reverence by English speaking Lutherans than Dr. 
Schmucker's. He entered the ministry of our beloved 
church at a time when the faithful laborers were few. 
Neology, rationalism, indifference to distinctive Evangeli- 
cal Lutheran doctrine and order prevailed, while godliness 
and spirituality were almost extinct. With the loss of the 
form the substance had also disappeared. Dr. Schmucker 
devoted the freshness of his youth, the vigor of his man- 
hood, and the ripeness of his old age to the restoration of a 
living faith, and the promotion of the higher and spiritual 
life within the church, and as professor and president of the 
Theological Seminary of the General Synod, he trained 
and sent out hundreds of devout, earnest and self denying 

" The doctor was eminently qualified for the work the 


Great Head of the Church called him to perform. . He was 
endowed with talents of high order, which education de- 
veloped, study enriched, intercourse with society refined, 
and grace sanctified. But his life's work is done. He has 
gone to his rest. He departed in a good old age, and is 
with the Lord he served so long and so diligently. 

" We do not mourn him. We do not have tears to 
shed over him to whom the Lord says, ' Well done, thou 
good and faithful servant,' but we hope that our Synods 
will render him the tribute of respect due his memory and 
his distinguished services, for he was a great and good man, 
and he is more than any other man entitled to be called the 
father of the English speaking Lutheran Church. But for 
him the church would not this day occupy the prominent 
position, nor wield the influence it does. 

" We knew him well in former years, and esteemed him 
highly ; the war parted us, and the later church develop- 
ments, the return of the church to the ancient Lutheran 
landmarks, made us strangers, but death unites. Now we 
but remember the faithful servant of Christ, whose faith 
was evangelical, whose church love was fervent, and whose 
praise is in all the church." 

Over his grave near the centre of the Citizens' Ceme- 
tery at Gettysburg, is a plain shaft of white marble, about 
seven or eight feet in height, and bearing the simple in- 
scription : 

February 28, 1799, 
July 26, 1873. 
Next to this monument, in the same lot, a white mar- 
ble slab, placed horizontally on the ground, marks the 
restingplaceofthebody of his second wife. It bears the 


following beautiful Christian sentiments, prepared prob- 
ably by Dr. Schmucker himself: 

Sacred to the Memory 



daughter of 

Wm. and Elizabeth Steenbergen, 

and wife of 

S. S. Schmucker, 

Born Feb. 7, 1808; Died Feb. 11, 1848. 

She was an affectionate wife, a devoted mother, 

an eminent christian. 

"She is not dead, but sleepeth — we know that she will 

rise again in the resurrection at 

the last day." 

She came to the cross ivhen her young cheek zvas bloofning^ 

A7id raised to the Lord the bright beam of her eye ; 
Atidwhe7i o'er its beauty death's darkness zvas glooming , 
' Tzvas the cross that upheld her, the Saviour was nigh. 


A memorial tablet has been placed on the rear wall of 
the chapel in the new Seminary building, with this in- 
scription : 

To the Memory of 


Founder through the General Synod 

of this Theological Seminary. 

Professor 1826-1864. 

Held in Honor by the Luthera7i Church for his Eminent 

Scholarship, Enlightened Zeal and Orga^iizing Talent, By 

His Sttidefits. 

One should think a grateful church would have 
reared an imposing monument over his grave. But in re- 
ality he needs no monument of stone to perpetuate his 
memory and extol his name. The General Synod is his 
enduring monument ; the Seminary and College at Gettys- 
burg are his monument. He rests from his labors, and 
"his works do follow him." 

INDEX. 387 


Absolution, .,.---, 324 ff 

Adventure, A Singular, ,.--.. loi 

Alexander, Dr. A., - ■■ - - - - 138 

Alliance, Evangelical, Origin of, - - - - • 298 ff 

Anti-Slavery in, - - - - - ' 302 ff 

American Tract Society, Appointment as Agent for, - - 107 

Ancestors, - - - - - - 'lo, 11 

Andover, Tour to, - - - - - •■ - 108 ff 

Anecdotes of Childhood, - - - - - 28, 29 

Augsburg Confession, - - - - - -71 

Errors Claimed, - - - - - - 317 

Dr. Geo. Ivochman's Omissions, - - - - 319 ff 

Author, Schmucker as an, ... - - 258 ff 

Baltimore, Preaching at, - - - - - - 87 

Call to, ....-.► 108 

Meeting of General Synod at, - - - - 129 

Baptism of First Child, ----- 105 

Baugher, Dr. H , Sr,, ...... 316 

Berlin, Churches in, - - ♦ - - - 246 

Brown, Dr. J A., - - - - - - - 17 

Biographical Sketch of, - - - - - 343 

His Charges Against Schmucker, .... 345 

Schmucker's Reply, . . - . , 345 ff 

His Charges Against Dr. Sprecher, ... - 357 

His Election, - - - - - - 358 ff 

Calls to Philadelphia and Baltimore, .... 108 

Specimen of a call, ..... 142 

Carlisle, Pa, .._..-. 198 

Child, Baptism of First, ..... 105 

Childhood, - - - . - - - - 27 ff 

Anecdotes of, - - . - - - 28, 29 

Church, Deplorable State of, - - - - - 63 

Circular Letter to Germany, . - - - - 25 1 fl 

College Book, - . - - - - - 178 

Confirmation, Morris' . - - - - -115 

Constitation of General Synod, ..... 128 

Controversialist, Schmucker as a, - - . - 3i4ff 

Death and Burial of J. G. Schmucker, - - - - 14 

Of S. S. schmucker, - - - - . 374 ff 

Of First Wife, - 103 

Definite Platform, ...... 316 

Reasons Assigned, •• - ^ - - * 317 

Descent, ........ lo 

388 INDEX. 

De Wette, Dr., - - - - - - - i75 

Diary, ...... 32ff, 65ff, Saff, 176 fiF 

Dickinson College, - . - - - - 199 

Diehl, Dr., - - - . . . - 122, 189 

Donation to Theological Seminary, .... 186 

Dunbar, W. H., . - - . - - 51 

Dutch Reformed, - - - - - . 6?, 72 

Emmaus Orphan House, ..... 361 flF 

Fry's Legacy, ....... 362 

Changes Made by the Ivegislature, ... 364 

Encouragements, ..-.--. 84 
Engligh Ivanguage, Antipathy to, . - - - 143 

Episcopalians, . - - - - . 85, 13c) 

Epitaph, - 385 

Eulogy of General Synod, C. P. Krauth's, - - .240 

Europe, Kurtz's Tour to, . . - . igiff, 203 

Evangelical Alliance, Origin of, - - - - - 298 ff 

Anti-Slavery in, - - - . . - 302 flF 

Exorcism, Rejected, ...... 332 

Family Record, - - . . . . 2X S 

Formulas of Synods, - - • - - - 128 

Franklin College, - - - . - .170 

Frederick, Md., Meeting of General Synod at, - - - 131 

Funeral Sermon by S. S. Schmucker, - - - 82 

General Council, Organization of, . - - - 238 ff 

General Synod, Organization of, . - . - Ii6ff 

Synods Uniting With, • . - - - 117 

His Early Connection With, - - - - 121 

Dr. Diehl 's Account, ..... 122,124 

Withdrawal of Pennsylvania Synod, - - - 124 

Saved from Dissolution, .... i27ff, 133 

Constitution of, . - . . - - 128 

Meeting at Baltimore, - - - - - 1 29 

Meeting at Frederick, Md., ... - 131 

Opposition to, - . . - . - 132, 137 ff 

Original Design of, - . - - . . 149 

Resolution on the Sabbath, ..... 286 

German literati. Correspondence With, ... 68 

German Reformed, - - . - - - 73 

Germany, Tour to, ..... . 241 ff 

His Own Account of, - - • - - - 244 ff 

Circular Letter, . . - . - . 251 ff 

Gettysburg, Installation at, . . - - . 181 

Reasons for Locating Seminary at, • - . - 199 ff 

Gock, Carl, ........ 155 

Gossner, ....... 250 

Hagerstown, • . . . . . - . 198 

J. G. Schmucker's Call to, . - - - 13 

Harbaugh, Rev. D., . . - - • . 372 

Harlem, Ride to, ..... . 75 

INDEX. 389 

Harms, Claus, - - - - - - - no 

Hartwick Seminary, - - - - - - 172 £F 

Helmuth, Dr., J. G. Schmucker's Studies Under, - - 12 

Henkel, Paul, J. G. Schmucker's Studies Under, - - 12 

David, . 155 

His Ordination, ...... 159 

Philip, 171 

Immorality, ....... 138 

Inauguration, Oath of ,----- - 182 

Address at, . - - . - - - 183 

Infidelity, English, ...... 137 

Installation at Gettysburg, ..... 181 

Jacobs', Prof. H., Remarks About Seminary, - . - 205 

Klein's Dogmatic, - - - - - - no 

Koethe, Dr , - . . - - - - 112 

Krauth's, C. P., Eulogy of General Synod, - - - 240 

C. P., Sr., 312 

Kunze, Dr., ....... 170 

Kurtz, B., - . - . . . - - 189 

Tour to Europe, - - - - - 191 ff, 203 

His Testimonials, - - - - - - 197 

Letter from London , . . . . . 208 ff 

Letter from Paris, - - ' - - - - 256 

A Prominent Man, - - - - - 366 S 

Laymen Read Sermons, - . . - - . 74 

Lepley's, Rev. C, Letter, - - . - - 369 fF 

Letter to His Father, - . . - - - 61 ff 

Licensure, - - - - - - - 81 

Literary Labors, ..-...-78 
Lochman, Dr. Geo., - - - - - - 29 

His Omissions from Augsburg Confession, - - - 319 ff 

Lutheranism, Retrospect of, - - - - - 144 ff 

Man, Dr. W. J., Controversy \^ith, .... 320 ff 

Marrlpge, ....... loi 

Second, - - - . - - - 115 

Mason, Dr., ....... 76 

Celebration of Lord's Supper, - - - - 77 

Memorial Tablet, ...... 386 

Methodists, -.-..-..67 
Miller, Dr. Jacob, ...... 152 

Ministry, Preparation for, - - . - - .40 

Entrance Into, ...... 60 

Moral Character, . .*. - - - -43ff 

Morris' Tribute, ...... 42 

Confirmation, - - - - - - -115 

History of Theological Seminary, ' - . - 193 

Letter from Paris, - - - - - - 256 

A Prominent Man, ..... 366 ff 

Mt. Jackson, Episcopal Church at, - - - - 115 

390 INDEX. 

Muhlenberg, J. P. G,, - - - . - - 140 

Henry A., --,,-. 142,273 

Neander, ---.-.. 247 

New Market, Va.. Settlement at, . * - - - 81 

Unfavorable i,ocation, - . , - . 89 

New York, Visit to, - . . - - - 65 flf 

Ministers in, ♦. - - - - 66 

Museum at, - . - « - - 69, 7° 

City Hall, .--...- 76 
Almshouse, - - - « - - -77 

Nicholas, Uncle, --.*,. 85 

North Carolina Synod, Rupture of, - ... 156 

Relation to Episcopalians, - - - - 160 

Obituaries, By Star and Setitifiel, .... 374 flf 

By Dr. Hay, ...,,. 376 ff 

By Dr. Lochman, - ^ - - . . 379 
By Dr. Morris, .-,... 379, 380 

By Dr. Brown, --..-.. 380 

By Dr. Baum, - - - - - - 380 f 

Tribute by Seminary Board, - - - - - 381 f 

Resolutions of College Board, - . . . 382 

Tribute by Philadelphia Lutherafi, - . - - 383 

By Lutheran Visitor, - • - - - 384 

Ohio, Objections of Synod of, - - - - - i53 

Opposition to General Synod, .... 132, 137 ff 

Ordination, - -- - . . . . 107 

Organization of General Synod, - - - - 116 flf 

Orphan House, Emmaus, --..-- 361 

Fry's Legacy, ...... 362 

Changes Made by the Legislature, .... 364 

Orthodoxy, ....... 72 

Forerunner of Rationalism, - - - - - 276 

Ott, Mr., ....... 84 

Pascal's View of Human Nature, ..... 9 

Pastor, Schmucker as a, - - - - - 88, 91 

Pennsylvania College, - - - . - -2i4ff 

His Early History of, - - . - - 217 

Under Lutheran Control, ..... 220 

Franklin Professorship, ..... 222 

Articles of Agreement, ..... 226 ff 

Pennsylvania Synod, ...... 124 

Withdrawal of, ...... 150 

Reunion With General Synod, .... 230 ff 

Conditional Entrance, ..... 232 

Continued Opposition, ..... 233 

Withdrawal of Delegates at York, .... 234 

Reasons Assigned, ..... 235 ff 

Final Withdrawal at Fort Wayne, .... 235 ff 

Philadelphia, J. G. Schmucker'a Studies at, - - 12 

S. S. Schmucker's Studies at, - - - - 30 

Preaching at, - - - . - . 86 

Call to, 108 



Pietism, Charge of, - 

Against Muhlenberg, - 

Forerunner of Rationalism, 
Pietists, - - . - . 

Planck, Dr., Letter from, . . - 

Plan Entwurf, . . - - 

Platform, Definite, . - - . 

Reasons Assigned, - . . 

Praypr, Remarkable Answers to. 
Preacher, Schmucker as a, 
Presbyterians, - . - - - 

Princeton, Studies at, - 

Prominent Men, Three, ... 

Pro-Seminary, . . . . 

Morris' Af^count of, - - - 

Publications, List of, - - - 

Puritans, ..... 

Principles of, - 

Persecutions of, • 

Quitman, ..... 

Ranke, Dr. ,....- 
Rationalism, German, ... 

Result of Pietism, - - - 

Reform, Plans cf, - 

Relic of Oak Tree, .... 
Religious Experience, J. G. Schmucker's, 
Resignation, - . . - . 

Letter to the Board, ... 

Reasons Assigned, 

Resolutions of the Board, 
>^ Revivals, His Vievps of, - - - 

Sabbath, His Vievrs on, 

General Synod's Resolution on, - 

Views of Morris, Conrad, and Krauth, 
Schaeffer, F. C, 

David, F,, - 
Schafif, Dr. P., Letter from, - 
Schmucker, J. G., - 

Letter from, . , . . 

B. M., 

S. D., Esq., .... 

Seminaries, Theological, Eiforts to Establish, 

General Synod's Resolution, 

S. S. Schmucker Elected Professor, - 

Board of Trustees, .... 

Constitution of, - - - 

Endowment of, - 

Opponents to, - 
Separation, Evils of, - 
Sermons, Skeletons of, - 


47 ff 


273 ff 




49 ff 









- 28, 29 



- 73. 



5, 60 


366 flf 






262 ff 

- 52 

i, 53 


54 ff 

- 58, 59 












336 ff 






279 flf 


281 ff 



287 ff 

- 63, 





[, 13 ff 






169 ff 
















93 ff 

392 INDEX. 

Shober, Rev , - . - . . 

Unites With Lutheran Church, 
Letter to New York Ministerium, 

Slavery, His Position on, - - - . 

Social Disposition, .... 

Socinr'anism, - - - ■ - 

Storck, Rev. C. A. G. , 

Storr and Flatt, Translation of, - 

Strouch, L. C. G., 

Stuart, Prof. Moses, . . . . 

Students, His Firi,t, - - - . 

Studious habits, - - . - . 

Successor, Schmuckers's, 

Synods, Formulas of, - 

Teacher, Schmucker as a, 

Tennessee Synod, Objections of, - - - 

Testimonial to J. G. vSchmucker, by Dr. Brown, 

By His Own Son, . . . . 

Theremin, Franz, .... 

Tholuck, Dr., - 

Tour to Andover, . . . . 

Translation of Storr and Flatt, 
Turner, Prof., ----- 
Twesten, .-.-.- 

Dinner With, .... 

Union, Efforts for Church, - . . 

Virginia, Tour to, - 

Vision of Glory, J. G. Schmucker 's 

Weiser'p, R., Criticism, 

Wife, First, ...... 

Second, - . . . . 

Winchester, Va., - - - - - 

York Academy, .... 

His Diary of, - 

- 122, 





164 ff 


292 ff 

- 41 















266 ff 






269 ff 


154 ff 










108 ff 





174, 189. 



















31 ff 


32 ff 


Date Due 




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